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Sexual Transmitted Disease

Sexually Transmitted Disease Sexual Transmitted Disease Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) refers to illnesses or infections that are spread through human sexual behaviors and are also known as venereal disease or sexually transmitted infections. These diseases usually occur through a variety of ways including anal sex, vaginal intercourse and oral sex with the most common means being through sexual intercourse with…

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Diseases Vectored by Insects Malaria

Diseases Vectored by Insects Malaria and yellow fever are two main diseases, which are transmitted by insects. Malaria remains an infectious disease, which is caused by Plasmodium, a parasite and infects the red blood cells. The disease is mostly characterized by sweating, fever, chills and pain, muscle aches as well as headaches. Other patients feel nauseated, vomit, cough, and experience…

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Benefits of Allopathic Medicine Outweigh the Risks

¶ … allopathic medicine outweigh the risks? The risks and benefits of allopathic medicine Introduction definition of allopathic medicine is: "The system of medical practice which treats disease by the use of remedies which produce effects different from those produced by the disease under treatment." (Definition of Allopathic medicine) Allopathic medicine is also known as formal or conventional medicine and…

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West Nile Virus Was First

In 2002 a Michigan woman contracted the virus through a blood transfusion she received shortly after giving birth, and some weeks later, an analysis of the baby's blood showed presence of the West Nile virus (West1). Moreover, there are at least two other reported cases of the virus transmission through breast-feeding (West1). And again in 2002, two microbiologists who were involved in West Nile virus surveillance and research, contracted the virus through skin wounds acquired while working with infected animals (West1). The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, APHIS, is part of the United States Department of Agriculture and is responsible for protecting and promoting agricultural health, administering the Animal Welfare Act, and carrying out wildlife damage management activities (Guidelines). The APHIS Veterinary Services, VS, is concerned about horses and other equine (Guidelines). Since the first detection of the West Nile virus in the United States in 1999, there have been 85 cases of illness in horses that have attributed to the West Nile virus infection, and 32, or 38%, of those horses died or were euthanatized (Guidelines). Many additional horses that did not develop clinical illness have been found to be infected with the virus based on detection of antibodies to the virus, however no transmission of the virus has been documented from horses, either directly or through mosquitoes (Guidelines). To prevent exposure of equine to the virus it is essential to prevent their exposure to mosquitoes, by taking measures such as eliminating stagnant water sources where mosquitoes may breed, and by insect proofing stables and other measure that reduce exposure of equine to mosquitoes (Guidelines). There is no vaccine currently available, however vaccine development is moving forward and a product may soon be approved for use in horses (Guidelines). Work Cited Guidelines for Investigating Suspect West Nile Virus Cases in Equine. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/issues/issues_archive/wnv/wnvguide.html NIAID Research on West Nile Virus. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/westnile.htm West1 Nile Virus: Signs and Symptoms; Causes. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438/DSECTION=2& http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438/DSECTION=3& West Nile Virus. The National Biological Information Infrastructure. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from: http://westnilevirus.nbii.gov/ West2 Nile Virus Poliomyelitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/qa/Poliomyelitis.htm…

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Parkinson's Disease Is a Neurological

References: EuroStemCell. (2012). Parkinson's Disease: How could stem cells help? Eurostemcell.org. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://www.eurostemcell.org/factsheet/parkinson%E2%80%99s-disease-how-could-stem-cells-help National Institute Of Health. (2013). Parkinson disease. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/parkinson-disease NHGRI. (2011). Learning About Parkinson's Disease. National Human Genome Research Institute. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://www.genome.gov/10001217 Talan, J. (2012). Parkinson's Disease. The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/parkinsons-disease/overview.html#Exams-and-Tests KEY: BOLD -- Parent 1 NOT BOLD -- Parent 2 A_ - affected if dominant autosomal unaffected, but carrier if recessive AA -- affected if dominant autosomal unaffected if recessive aa -- unaffected if dominant autosomal affected if recessive Dominant autosomal: 100% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease Recessive autosomal: 100% chance of offspring being a carrier of the mutation; 0% chance of being affected by Parkinson's disease Dominant autosomal: 75% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease; 25% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease Recessive autosomal: 50% chance of offspring being carrier of the mutation; 25% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease; 25% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease Dominant autosomal: 100% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease Recessive autosomal: 50% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease; 50% chance of offspring being a carrier for the mutation Dominant autosomal: 50% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease; 50% chance of offspring being affected……

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Addison's Disease Etiology Addison's Disease

The clinical manifestations are subtle (weakness, fatigue, anorexia, orthostasis, nausea, myalgias, and salt craving), and a high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose adrenal insufficiency before an adrenal crisis. Screening patients with type 1A diabetes, hypoparathyroidism, and polyendocrine autoimmunity for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies is recommended. If present, yearly monitoring with an ACTH stimulation test is performed to allow early diagnosis and prevent an adrenal crisis. Forty percent to 50% of patients with Addison disease will have another autoimmune disease, necessitating lifelong monitoring for associated autoimmune conditions. Treatment/Medications Patients with Addison's disease require mineralocorticoid replacement, i.e., fludrocortisone 0.05-0.20 mg once daily. Starting doses of glucocorticoids should be 15-20 mg for hydrocortisone or 20-30 mg for cortisone acetate, divided into two or three doses, and preferentially weight-adjusted. There are indications that the synthetic glucocorticoids have undesirable metabolic long-term effects, which make them less suitable as first-line treatment. Timed-release hydrocortisone tablets and continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion are promising new treatment modalities. Studies of replacement with the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in adrenal failure have shown inconsistent benefit on HRQoL. DHEA, or possibly testosterone replacement is likely to be beneficial for selected groups of patients with Addison's disease but this remains to be shown. Works Cited Lovas K, Husebye E.S. (2008) Replacement therapy for Addison's disease: recent developments. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 17(4): 497-509. Martorell, P.M., Roep, B.O., Smit, J.W.A. (2002) Autoimmunity in Addison's Disease. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine. 60: 269. Michels, A. & Eisenbarth G. (2010)……

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Celiac Disease

Nutrition Celiac Disease What can you find out about the digestive system and nutrition? The precise cause of celiac disease has still yet to be determined. The intestines contain projections which are known as villi. The function of villi is to take up nutrients. When celiac disease is not diagnosed or left untouched, these villi become compressed. This has an effect on the capability to absorb nutrients correctly. Taking away all harmful grains from one's diet is the greatest significant measure that one can do in order to get healthy and stay that way (Celiac disease -- sprue, 2010). What can you learn about Celiac Disease? Celiac disease is an ailment of the digestive system that harms the small intestine and hinders the uptake of nutrients that come from food. Patients who suffer from celiac disease are not able to endure gluten, which is a protein that is found in rye, wheat, and barley. Gluten is contained primarily in foods but can also be found in daily products such as drugs, vitamins, and lip balms. When patients who suffer from celiac disease eat foods or utilize things that include gluten, their immune system responds by damaging or harming villi. The function of villi is to permit nutrients from food to be captivated by way of the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream. A patient who does not have strong villi can become malnourished, despite the amount of food that is consumed on a daily basis (Celiac Disease, 2008). What can you see from tracking the effects of this condition? Celiac disease if left untreated can become life threatening. Celiacs are further prone to be bothered with troubles connecting to malabsorption, comprising of osteoporosis, tooth enamel defects, central and peripheral nervous system disease, pancreatic disease, internal hemorrhaging, organ disorders such as liver, gall bladder, spleen and gynecological disorders. Untouched celiac disease has also been associated with an augmented danger of definite kinds of cancer, particularly that of intestinal lymphoma (FAQ, n.d.). What are some possible diseases……

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Speech and Language Disorders in Adults

Speech Pathology in Degenerative Central Nervous System Diseases Speech and Language in Adults with Diseases of the Central Nervous System Speech and language difficulties accompany a number of diseases of the central nervous system in adults. Sometimes the speech difficulty might be the reason for seeking medical help, or it might be one of many factors that cause a person…

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Neuropathological Disorders

Psychology Neuropathological Disorders Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease is a neurological disorder that causes steady deterioration of the body's nerves and muscles. The cause of the disease is not known, and it affects men and women on an equivalent basis. At first, a person with Lou Gehrig's disease will experience a lack of coordination and not being able to hold on to objects and trouble performing everyday tasks. They could also feel tiredness, along with muscle twitches and trouble speaking. Because the disease usually occurs in middle to older age, it is often confused with the normal aging process (Carlson, 2011). As the disease advances, the person will have trouble walking. They may also lose the capability to control their hands, to the point where they can't dress or bath themselves. Eventually, they will need a motorized wheel chair for transportation because they will not be able to use a manual one. In the later stages of the disease as the muscles continue to atrophy, the person's nerve and muscle function will worsen to the point where they will need a ventilator to help them breathe. Paralysis will continue to spread throughout the body, and limb function will cease. A person may also be unable to chew or swallow (Carlson, 2011). Approximately ninety percent of people with ALS do not have a family history of ALS in any closely related family members. In these people, the cause of ALS is complex, resulting from a mixture of both genetic and environmental variables. Genes involved in the non-familial form of ALS are occasionally called susceptibility genes because they augment the risk to get the disease. Susceptibility genes are believed to act together with other genes as well as the environment to cause ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), 2005). The remaining ten percent of people with ALS have the familial form of the disease, in which numerous family members are affected by ALS. The familial form of ALS includes both small families where as few as two family members have ALS to families with a lot of……

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Minamata Disease

Environmental Science Minamata Disease This is a paper on Minamata Disease. There are six references used for this paper. There are a number of diseases which have had profound affects on people throughout the world. It is important to examine Minameta Disease and determine how it was discovered, its causes, how it was settled, the roles played by the government…

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Pathophysiology Lesion Characteristics Assessed to Aid Determination

Pathophysiology Lesion characteristics assessed to aid determination of the lesion's cause Lesion is caused by disease or trauma. In order to determine the cause of lesion you have to examine the patient and determine different aspects. First the practitioners can assess Cysts. Infection causes cysts and a doctor has to assess the cyst's size, pain caused by cyst and the role it plays when the doctor makes a decision to remove a splenic cyst. In case of motile cysts or many cancer cells the patient may require a surgery called splenectomy, to remove the spleen from the body. A patient with cysts acquires lesion from a disease. Secondly, practitioner can assess traumatic injuries. Injuries as a result of accident or fighting in the lower abdomen can cause injury to the spleen. Doctors should take this spleen trauma with seriousness because it can cause spleen rupture leading to internal bleeding then death. Doctors can determine whether to remove ruptured spleen immediately or let it heal while providing proper care. How systemic disorder affects nail and hair growth Systemic disorder affects different organs and tissues or the whole body. The disorder causes dysfunction in many organs including the growth of hair and nails. Some systemic disorders cause disruption in the growth of figure and toenails. Nail plate or the hard keratin cover is generated by nail matrix which is located under the cuticle. During the growth process the area close to penetrate outside forms a deeper layer of nail plate and the part which remain deeper in the figure forms the superficial layer. The some process occurs in the growth of hair. Systemic disorders affect the growth process of hair by forming extra cells or reduce the numbers of cells required. Systemic disorders affect the connecting tissues which helps the growth of nails and hair (McCance & Huether, 2010). Skin disorders which occur in different age groups i) Acne; this is a skin disorder symbolized by pimples and sometimes pain. There two types which include blackheads and whiteheads. This skin disorder mostly affects teenagers. ii) Eczema; this type of skin disorder has three forms. The first one, called Atopic dermatitis mostly affects children. It causes itchy rashes in the knees, elbows and crux. The second form is nummular dermatitis symbolized by red coin shapes on the skin. The third form is Allergic dermatitis commonly in adults. It is caused by environmental factors…

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Grave's Disease Is an Autoimmune

Only a very small percentage of people will have to deal with the direst aspects of Grave's disease. Those who have Grave's disease are often prescribed antithyroid medications which slow down the function of the thyroid. Methimazole is the most common of these medications, but propylthiouracil is also prescribed (Homsanit 2001,-page 385). Antithyroid medicines prevent iodine from bonding and prevent…

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Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

He ignored the lesion believing it was only a minor injury. No consultation or treatment was carried out. Within three weeks, the leg swelling and a high grade fever raised concerns and prompted him to seek medical attention. A physical examination confirmed bone tenderness and tissue inflammation. A battery of tests including blood cultures revealed elevated white blood cell counts…

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Parkinson's Disease Is a Neurological

There is a positive relation between depression and Parkinsonism and in at least 30% to 50% of patients depression is found to be a co-existing condition. Dysphagia is again a severe complication and the patient may even require a feeding tube. [Jeff Blackmer] Medical treatment Medical treatment of Parkinson's disease is broadly divided under two main categories namely surgical and…

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Ebola Outbreak

Ebola Virus and Its Effect on Humans The Ebola Virus How ebola Virus Affects Host The ebola Symptoms Transmission of the Disease The Spread of the Disease Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Investigation of Ebola Management of Ebola Fluid and electrolyte replacement Treatment of Ebola Symptoms The Emerging Treatments Summery Ebola is one of the latest killer diseases that have affected…

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Management Analysis of the Center for Disease and Control

Management Analysis of the Center for Desease and Control Management ANALYSIS of the CENTERS for DISEASE CONTROL and PREVENTION Analysis of the CDC Management of CDC Leadership Human Resource Management System Design Strategies of CDC Partnerships Discussion of CDC The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a governmental institution of the United States of America, belonging to the United…

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Toxoplasmosis Is an Infection Involving

To diagnose toxoplasmosis in the AIDS patient, the most common diagnostic tool is CT scanning (Snider, et al., 411). Most patients have ring or nodular lesions that can be seen on this type of scan, and they often have edema as well. Another useful tool for diagnosis is toxoplasma serology (Snider, et al., 412). Most of the patients that have the disease are seropositive for the IgG antibody (Snider, et al., 412). A CSF analysis, electroencephalography, and a biopsy of the brain can also be used as ways to diagnosis toxoplasmosis. However, taking a brain biopsy can be dangerous, and morbidity rates for AIDS patients hover around 10% (Snider, et al., 414). For this reason, a biopsy of the brain should only be done as a last resort for diagnosis. For treatment of the problem, many patients are given medications such as pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, usually in combination (Leport, et al., 95). Also suggested is AZT, which has been a common drug to reduce infection risk in AIDS patients, Clindamycin, and corticosteriods (Leport, et al., 98). The use of these, however, remains controversial because of the side effects they have. Pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine usually allows for improvement within days and a complete recovery within a month (Leport, et al., 98). As long as these medications are taken properly and not discontinued once the patient begins to feel better, side effects are generally mild and the risk of a relapse in usually very low. To help prevent the disease, those that have AIDS should not change feline litter, use extra care if they have cats in their home, and should not eat meat that has not been properly and thoroughly cooked, in order to help reduce their chances of getting this particular infection (Leport, et al., 99). Works Cited Caffazana, EJ, Rossitch, E, Jr., & Samuels, MA. (1989). "Cerebral toxoplasmosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome." Clinical Neurology & Neurosurgery, 91: 291-301. Leport, C, Raffi, F, Matheron, S. (1988). "Treatment of central nervous system toxoplasmosis with pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine combination in 35 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Efficacy of long-term continuous therapy." American Journal of Medicine, 84: 94-100. Snider, VM, Simpson, DM, Neilsen, S, Gold,……

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Eating Disorders, and How Doctors and Psychologists

¶ … eating disorders, and how doctors and psychologists treat them. There are three well-known eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. All of these disorders are now recognized as diseases, and they have spread from America around the world as women and girls obsess about their weight and body image. Eating disorders are dangerous and can be fatal if left untreated. Perhaps the most well-known eating disorder is anorexia nervosa, usually referred to as anorexia. It has also been known as the "starving disease." Women (and some men) literally eat next to nothing, as they are obsessed with gaining weight and appearing fat or overweight. Many people do not know anorexia has been written about for centuries, but it is more common today because of societal demands on women to be thin. A typical anorexic will eat almost nothing and/or exercise compulsively to sustain a body weight that is at least 85% under what doctors consider to be normal body weight. In addition, anorexics usually do not see themselves as too thin, and they worry about gaining any amount of weight, even a pound. They do not see reality, and obsess about being fat, even when they are almost skeletons. In older girls and women, anorexia can also affect monthly menstrual cycles, causing them to disappear (Smolak, Levine, and Striegel-Moore xvi). For a diagnosis, all of these items must be present, and the menstrual cycles must have ceased for at least three months. Bulimia nervosa shares some of the same characteristics with anorexia, but with this disease, women tend to eat normally, or at least appear to eat normally, then they vomit what they have eaten in an effort to lose or maintain their weight. In addition, bulimics may use laxatives or diuretics (water pills) to help them control their weight. Binge eating syndrome and bulimia are often characterized as the same disorder, but they do have some differences. Bulimics may often eat large amounts of food (binge), and then feel guilty or out of control about their actions, and attempt to purge themselves of the food. It is harder to pick out bulimics, because they often have a relatively normal body weight, and so their appearance is not always a sign of the disease (Editors, 2002). This disorder can lead to heart disease, electrolyte imbalance, and even death. The case of Terri Schiavo, who suffered…

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Fibromyalgia the Objective of This

(Summary of Cochrane Review, 2012, p. 1) Another therapy for treatment of fibromyalgia is cognitive behavioral therapy which assists the individual in coping with negative thoughts, in keeping a diary of pain and other symptoms of Fibromyalgia, recognition of what makes the symptoms of Fibromyalgia worse, seeking out activities that the individual enjoys and setting limitations for themselves. Support groups have been found to be of great assistance. Additional recommendations include consuming a well-balanced diet, avoidance of caffeine, practicing good sleeping routines, and acupressure and acupuncture. In the case of severe fibromyalgia, a referral to a pain clinic may be required. Prognosis of Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a disorder that is long-term and that is characterized many times by improvement of symptoms. The pain may worsen at other times and be ongoing for months and even years. Research Studies on Fibromyalgia The work of Demirbad and Erci (2012) examined the effects of sleep and touch therapy on symptoms of fibromyalgia and depression. It is reported that there are various interventions practiced in the attempt to bring about a reduction in fibromyalgia symptoms. The study reported by Demirbad and Erci (2012) was conducted in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Polyclinic in Trabzon Turkey between September 2009 and March 2011. The sample was comprised by 162 female patients with a previous diagnosis of fibromyalgia at least six months prior to the study. The sample contained two intervention groups and one control group containing 54 patients. A personal information form was used for collection of data as well as a Fibromyalgia Symptom Form and the Beck Depression Index. The study employed a pre-test/post-test control group design. A paired sample t-test was utilized to make comparison of the in-group scale points, the chi-square in the intergroup comparisons and the McNamer test in the in-group comparisons. Following the intervention it is reported that the depression levels in the touch-music-aroma therapy group "however a larger decrease (before: 22.01±5.3; after: 14.52±3.7) than in the sleep-music-aroma therapy group (before: 24.81±5.1; after: 20.16±4.9) and control groups (before: 23.73±4.4; after: 21.05±2.6). Symptoms such as restless sleep, headache, morning fatigue, exhaustion, feeling like crying and bowel complaints were also significantly reduced (P<…

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Nursing Instructions: Please Use Peer

The first barrier is the body itself; the skin and hair act as walls to invaders keeping them at bay. Once the first barrier has been breached, the immune system is alerted to the presence of an invader (such as a cold or flu virus) and immediately alerts fighters whose job it is to eliminate the invader. The lymph system is a key component in this fight against the invader. It contains a clear liquid that engulfs and smothers the foreign bacteria. The spleen, thymus, bone marrow cells, and antibodies are also part of the overall system and are in charge of destroying the invading bacteria or virus. The inflammatory process can best be described as another manner in which the body provides signs that something is wrong; it is the body answer to a cellular injury. What inflammation is a sign of is injury. If the body is injured, the cells surrounding the injury site will respond in a rapid manner to attack the initial cause of the injury, and to rid the body of the results of that injury. There are four main areas of hypersensitivity, but in general hypersensitivity can best be described as an "excessive, undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system" (Ghaffar, 2010). In other words, the immune system is provoked into a more than adequate response -- responding in a manner that is more than enough. There are normally for types of hypersensitivity, they are based on the 'mechanisms involved and the time taken for the reaction' (Ghaffar). Infections can attack the entire or specific parts of the body, and they are often classified depending on whether they attack the entire body or a certain area. They are classified as either viral or bacterial; viral usually means the infection attacks the entire body (ie fatigue, cough, congestion) while bacterial can be an infection from a cut, scrape or injury. Stress lowers the effectiveness of the body's immune system allowing bacteria and other foreign invaders of the body to establish and maintain a stronghold that might not otherwise by available. The level body does not react in the same quick and effective manner when under a lot of stress. References Ghaffar, A.; (2010) Immunology -- chapter seventeen: Hypersensitivity reactions, accessed on March 12, 2012 at http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/ghaffar/hyper00.htm Selby, M.; (2011) Neurological diseases, Practice Nurse, Vol. 41, Issue 3, pp. 35-41…

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Prions: Proteinaceous Infectious Particles Recent

This test of brain activity has shown a specific pattern in 65% of patients with prion disease. (http://www.st-marys.nhs.uk/specialist/prion/factsheets/diagnosingpd). An increased level of certain proteins in the CSF can also point to prion disease. The progressive neurodegeneration of prion diseases currently has no treatment. Victims of CJD and other prion-caused diseases may treat the symptoms of their disease with painkillers or drugs to treat muscle spasms. Much of the research into prion diseases is focused on preventing the abnormal protein from self-propagating throughout the brain tissue. A prion clinic in Britain (http://www.st-marys.nhs.uk/specialist/prion/factsheets/immuno-therapeutics.htm) is investigating the use of antibodies to destroy the prion protein in vivo. Since the prion protein is normally produced by the body, there is no immune response against it, as there would be with a foreign antigen. By engineering an antibody against PrP, the body may be manipulated into destroying the destructive protein. Similar research is being conducted for gene therapies that may have the same result. The ongoing research into antibody or gene therapies for prion diseases may have commercial applications in the future. Currently, however, any direct treatment of CJD is a long way off. More promising areas of immediate attention involve prion disease detection and prevention. Promoting awareness of familial prion diseases can lead to earlier diagnosis. Additionally, sporadic CJD diagnosis can be made more effective by physician education that emphasizes the similarity in symptom presentation to other diseases. The short-term alleviation of these symptoms is a current treatment option. Long-term, a better understanding of the prion protein is necessary to developing effective commercial therapies for the prion diseases themselves. Bibliography Inherited prion disease. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2004, at http://www.st- marys.nhs.uk/specialist/prion/factsheets/inheritedpd.htm Kightly, R. (n.d.). Prion replication and spread at the cellular level. Retrieved April 21, 2004, from Mad Cow Disease Images & BSE Pictures Web site: http://www.rkm.com.au/BSE/index.html Novak, G. (n.d.). Prions and junk science. Retrieved April 22, 2004, from Science Criticism Web site: http://www.nov55.com/prin.html Prusiner, S. (2003). The prion diseases. Retrieved April 22, 2004, from Prions Web site: http://www.albany.net/~tjc/prion.html Roos, R.P. (2001). Controlling New Prion Diseases. New England Journal of Medicine, 344, 1548-1551. Sander, D. (2004). Prions. Retrieved April 21, 2004, from All the Virology on the WWW.Website: http://www.tulane.edu/~dmsander/ Secko, D. (2003). Preventing Prion Disease Progression. Retrieved April 21, 2004, from The Scientist Web site: http://www.biomedcentral.com/news/20031103/02/ Somerville, R. And Bolton, D. (2000). Do Prions Exist? Retrieved April 21, 2004, from Nova Online Web site:…

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Hepatitis D, Hdv Is a

The genome that the HDV contains is an RNA virus, negative, single stranded, circular, rod structure. Besides the RNA genome, the protein coat of HDV contains a single protein, in two forms: small (195 aminoacids) and large (214 aminoacids) forms of the antigen encoded by HDV. The approximate length of the genome is 1,7 kb (Handa, Yamaguchi, 2006). So far, it is the only human disease associated virus that is similar to viruses associated with plant diseases (idem, 2006). The genome is replicated by cellular polymerases. "Replication of HDV. Viral particles consist of HDV RNA (black lines) and HDV antigen (blue) encapsidated by HBsAg (red). Picture From: Heller T, Hoofnagle JH. (2003). Denying the wolf access to sheep's clothing. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 112: 319-21" (http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/delta/2005/newresearcha.html) The infections with the HDV can occur in two ways are dependent on the HBV. It can wither be simultaneous or occur in a patient who was previously infected with HBV. The se forms of infection are called: co-infection, respectively super-infection (Stanford University website, 2005; Hepatitis D Foundation, 2009). HDV presents three genotypes, with many variants and further researches have shown that there might be additional genotypes. These genotypes have a geographical distribution. While genotype I is present all over the world, genotype II is found exclusively in the regions form East Asia and genotype III in South America, in the Northern countries. The first genotype is the most common form in the viral infection with the HDV and has the largest area of occurrence (Handa, Yamaguchi, 2006). The replication of the genome depends on the small form of delta antigen protein, while the large form of the latter was found to determine the assembly of the virus particles. The replication process is following a phase of self-cleavage and ligation through ribozymes that are supplied by the genome (idem, 2006, Stanford University Website, 2005; WHO, 2009). The virions present an approximate spherical shape (Viral Zone, ). The nuclear replication cycle takes five steps. The virus attaches to the co-infected host cell, through the surface antigen provided by the HBV. The viral entry typically occurs by fusion with the plasma membrane of the host cell. After fusion, the ribonucleocapsid is released. The last step of the replication is the release through budding (Viral Zone). The envelope proteins that were supplied by the HBV assemble lipoprotein vesicles, leading to the budding into the lumen, the internal…

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Management of Left Ventricular Heart Failure

Management of Left Ventricular Heart Failure Heart failure (HF) is described as a syndrome "representing the final common pathophysiological pathway of a wide spectrum of myocardial injuries. Those varied insults all produce ventricular systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction with resulting systemic circulatory impairment." (Young and Mills, 2004) Heart failure (HF) is stated in the work of Young and Mills entitled: "Clinical…

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Stem Cell Research and Testing Stem Cell

Stem Cell Research and Testing Stem Cell Research The field of Stem cell research has come out of its first phase of research to the current phase where researchers are trying to harness its efficacy in the areas of regenerative medicine that could alter our entire approach to the management of degenerative diseases. Stem cells from umbilical cord blood are…

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Ebola Outbreak in US

Biology The Ebola Virus The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the book "The Hot Zone" by Richard Preston. Specifically it will discuss the realities of an Ebola virus outbreak in the United States. "The Hot Zone" discusses the Ebola virus, a deadly virus that has spread to many areas in the world through monkeys imported from Africa. When it first became know, it was difficult to recognize and almost impossible to treat because doctors did not recognize it or know how to treat it. Compounding the difficulties are the several different types of Ebola viruses and their differing treatments and diagnosis makes these viruses extremely difficult to treat and control. Ebola is deadly, there is no real treatment for it, and if it was unleashed as a bioterrorism agent, it could wipe out entire populations quite easily. The Hot Zone" covers the first known case of the Ebola Virus, then known as the Marburg Virus, and follows it from its origins in Africa to an outbreak in the United States in 1989 through 1990. Author Preston notes, "The first know emergence of Ebola Zaire - the hottest type of Ebola virus - occurred in September 1976, when it erupted simultaneously in fifty-five villages near the headwaters of the Ebola River" (Preston 62). The virus is very unusual because it is made up of strings rather than the clumps that make up more traditional viruses, and it is very difficult to prevent and treat. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control note, "There is no standard treatment for Ebola HF. Patients receive supportive therapy. This consists of balancing the patient's fluids and electrolytes, maintaining their oxygen status and blood pressure, and treating them for any complicating infections" (Editors). It is related to several other viruses, but has mutated to be far worse than measles, mumps, or rabies, which it is related to. Author Preston writes, "Like measles, it triggers a rash all over the body. Some of its effects resemble rabies - psychosis, madness. Other of its effects look eerily like a bad cold" (Preston 65), which is another reason it is difficult to diagnose, especially at first, and that is why many people die from it, they often do not seek any real treatment until it is far too late. While there is no known cure for the disease, sometimes early treatment does seem to help…

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Occupational Health and Safety Workplace and Employee

Occupational Health and Safety Workplace and Employee Health: There is a widespread relationship between work and our health which is seemingly not perceptible to many. The duties we perform the settings in which we work and the different aspects of the labor market experience, and health services delivery, have major impact on the work and health relationship of individuals. This…

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China Healthcare System

China's Healthcare System China is the world's fourth largest country, ranking after Russia, Canada and the United States, with a land area making up 6.5% of the earth's land mass and 23% of the world's population. Lack of equity in access to health care, along with the changing epidemiology of disease patterns related to economic development and the aging population…

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Public Health and Community Nursing

It will continue to address health disparities among the targets (Clark et al.). Meanwhile, the Safety Literacy for Migrant Farm Worker Families program offers both education and preventive action by distributing child-proof locks in migrant housing (Thigpen, 2004). Summarize, Conclude and Call to Action Current efforts, such as the Health Promoter paradigm and the Safety Literacy Families program, are no match to the ogre and specter of increasing injury, physical and psychiatric illness and death brought about by poor working conditions of migrant farm workers. Add to these, the impediments to the UFW bills, which could make more difference in the plight of the workers. This amplifies the call made by Peter Dreier to all people of conscience to urge state legislators to support the UFW bills to make a real difference in the conditions of greatly suffering migrant workers. BIBLIOGRAPHY Alderete, E., et al. (2000). Lifetime prevalence of, and risk factors for, psychiatric disorders among Mexican migrant farm workers in California. Vol 90 # 4 American Journal of Public Health: PubMed. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446794 Clark, P.A., et al. (2009). Health care access for migrant farm workers: a paradigm for better health. Vol 8 # 2 The Internet Journal of Health: Internet Scientific Publications LLC. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.ispub.com/journal/the-internet-journal-of-health/volume-8-number-2/health-care-access-for-migrant-farmworkers-a-paradigm-for-better-health.html#sthash.PcBYG43Z.dpbs Dreier, P. (2012). California's harvest of shame. The Huffington Post: the HuffingtonPost.com.Inc. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-dreier/california-farm-labor_b_1826535.html Feldman, S.R., et al. (2009). Health care utilization among migrant Latino farm workers: the case of skin disease. Vol 25 # 1 Journal of Rural Health: National Institutes of Environmental Sciences. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2737349 Hansen, E. And Donohoe, M. (2003). Health issues of migrant and seasonal farm workers. Vol 1 # 2 Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved: Public Health and Social Justice. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.phsj.org/files/MigrantandSeasonalFarmWorkerHealth/MigrantandSeasonalWorkers-JHCPU.pdf McCurdy, S.A., et al. (2003). Agricultural injury in California migrant Hispanic farm workers. Vol 44 # 3 American Journal of Industrial Medicine: PubMed. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12929142 Thigpen, K.G. (2004). Beyond the bench: keeping migrant families safe. Vol 112 # 11 Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institutes of……

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Alternative Approach to Computerized Tomography

One is that it actually summarized the findings of literature from a fairly lengthy time period -- there are references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment. Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N. Journal: Medical History Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60. Publisher Information: Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a cursory history of the method of English forensic pathology employed in the early part of the 20th century. The authors do so within the larger context of contrasting the notion of a celebrated forensic pathologist with the concept of conventional forensic pathology within a laboratory. It essentially reenacts the homicide investigation of a famed murder trial. There is no hypothesis, research question or sample. I reviewed this article because it is fascinating to see how far the science of forensic pathology has come. Abstract: This article provides a thorough review of an early 20th century murder investigation in England to denote the key concept of putrefaction and celebrity status of forensic pathologists that was relevant at the time. Analysis and Synthesis: There are several principle ideas deconstructed within this article. One is the way that fame and celebrity status of a forensic pathologist can affect a murder trial, and the overarching view of this practice and profession. Another is the nature of this process, specifically the impact of the natural decay of the human body (once deceased) on the work of a forensic pathologist. Additionally, this article examines the evolution of the practice of forensic pathology from one based on the individual to one based on a process (which is more scientific than the former). In this respect, this work functions as a check for forensic pathologists and that for the profession in general. Individuals should never consider themselves more valuable than the process of this practice, and should make no assumptions. Finally, this article emphasizes the inherent dangers in this field related to convicting innocent…

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AIDS Immunity

AIDS Immunity: What is AIDS? AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome which is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The Acquired means that someone can get infected with it, Immune Deficiency means that the body's system for fighting diseases is weak and Syndrome stands for a group of health problems which make up a disease. The virus which causes…

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Stem Cell Policies

Stem Cell Policies Scientific Breakthrough The issue of stem cell research burst on the scientific scene in November of 1998 when researchers first reported the isolation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). The discovery, made by Dr. James A. Thomson, a biologist at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, offered great promise for new ways of treating disease. The cells, which are derived from several-day-old embryos, can theoretically differentiate into virtually any type of human cell, from blood cells to skin cells. Scientists hope to find ways of using them to repair damaged tissue to treat a myriad of diseases, conditions, and disabilities including Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury, burns, heart disease, diabetes, and arthritis (AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research). What is a Stem Cell is a cell from the embryo, fetus, or adult that has, under certain conditions, the ability to reproduce itself for long periods or, in the case of adult stem cells, throughout the life of the organism. Although most cells of the body, such as heart cells or skin cells, are committed to conduct a specific function, a stem cell is uncommitted and remains uncommitted, until it receives a signal to develop into a specialized cell. Their proliferative capacity combined with the ability to become specialized makes stem cells unique. Researchers have for years looked for ways to use stem cells to replace cells and tissues that are damaged or diseased (Executive Summary). The stem cell debate reappeared in full force during the 2008 presidential debates. On March 9, 2009 President Obama signed Executive Order 13505, Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells. Stem Cell Policy under Former President Bush (2001-2009) President Bush announced his decision in a primetime address to the nation on August 9, 2001. He decided to allow federal funding of hESC research to go forward, but only on cells already in existence. After researchers isolate stem cells from a human embryo, the cells often replicate indefinitely, creating a "cell line." The president decided that for a cell line already in existence, research would be permissible because destruction of an embryo had already taken place. But he refused to allow publicly funded research on any cell line created in the future so as to prevent the federal government from acting in a way that would encourage the destruction of human embryos (AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research).…

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Sickle Cell Retinopathy

Sickle Cell Retinopathy Sickle cell hemoglobinopathy encompasses a group of inherited genetic disorders, which cause erythrocytes to sickle and adversely affect multiple organ systems. The sickled erythrocytes lead to microvascular occlusion, which affects the peripheral retinal vasculature and results in retinal ischemia and development of proliferative sickle cell retinopathy. If this series of events does not stabilize or reverse, the end-stage results may be retinal infarction and/or detachment 1. Pathophysiology Non-proliferative ocular outcomes of sickle hemoglobinopathies include conjunctival vascular occlusions that lead to irregularities of the smooth vessels. These findings are apparent on dilated ophthalmoscopy and occur due to local vasoocclusive events. Visual side effects are rare. Progression to the proliferative stage involves growth of abnormal vascular fronds, which predispose to vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment. The initiating event in the pathogenesis of proliferative disease is thought to be peripheral retinal arteriolar occlusions. Local ischemia from repeated episodes of arteriolar closure is presumed to trigger angiogenesis through the production of endogenous vascular growth factors 2. Sickle cell retinopathy progresses through five stages, which are defined below 3: Stage I: Peripheral arteriolar occlusions Stage II: Peripheral arterio-venular anastomoses Stage III: Neovascularization Stage IV: Vitreous hemorrhage Stage V: Retinal detachment In stage I, peripheral arteriolar occlusion is present. In stage II, vascular remodeling occurs at the boundary between perfused and nonperfused peripheral retina with the formation of arteriovenous anastomoses. In stage III, pre-retinal neovascularization occurs. The neovascular fronds typically assume a shape that resembles the marine invertebrate Gorgonia flabellum, known more commonly as the "sea fan" 2. Stage IV is defined by the presence of vitreous hemorrhage, and stage V is defined by the presence of retinal detachment, which results from mechanical traction created by chronic, enlarging fibrovascular retinal membranes, with or without hole formation in the retina. Treatment The primary goal of proliferative sickle retinopathy treatment is to minimize or eliminate neovascularization because vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment account for most visual loss in hemoglobinopathies. Vision loss prevention is contingent on early detection and treatment of proliferative sickle cell retinopathy. Visual loss is believed to be predominantly a complication of perfused proliferative sickle cell retinopathy. To better define the place of treatment, identification of the determinants of autoinfarction is required, but identification of patients whose proliferative sickle cell retinopathy is likely to proceed to visual loss is of greater importance. Although surgical treatment is not indicated for stage I and II…

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New Respiratory Drugs That Have

Again, it is a prevention drug and cannot stop a bronchospasm that has already in its latter stages. It is important to not treat patients with Brovana if they have the following medical issues: heart disease with an un-rhythmic heart beat and/or high blood pressure, diabetes, liver disease, thyroid infection or disorder, and an inheritance or family line of Long QT syndrome. Brovana daily intake is prescribed differently according to the patient's need but is always taken with a nebulizer, never swallowed or taken by mouth. In case a dose is missed, it must be skipped and the patient must take the next dose when it is time for it (Cerner, 2010c). Symbicort Symbicort is basically a drug that is a combination of two drugs: Budesonide, a steroid which is used to decrease the inflammation in the body; and Formoterol, a bronchodilator which is used to relax the muscles that help in the breathing. Symbicort is a prevention drug that is used to remedy the instance of bronchospasm in patients who have asthma or COPD. Some of the side effects of the drug include: worsened asthma attacks, chest pain, eye problems, white patches in mouth, headaches, diarrhoea, and muscle/joint pain amongst others (Vogelmeier et al., 2005). References Beeh, K.M., Derom, E., Kanniess, F., Cameron, R., Higgins, M., van As, A. (2007). "Indacaterol, a novel inhaled beta2-agonist, provides sustained 24-h bronchodilation in asthma." Eur. Respir. J. 29 (5): 871 -- 8. Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010). Dulera Inhaler. Accessed 02-02-12 from: http://www.drugs.com/dulera.html Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010a). Tyvaso. Accessed 02-02-12 from: http://www.drugs.com/tyvaso.html Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010b). Alvesco. Accessed 02-02-12 from: http://www.drugs.com/alvesco.html Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010c). Brovana. Accessed 02-02-12 from: http://www.drugs.com/brovana.html Feldman, G., Siler, T., Prasad, N., Jack, D., Piggott, S., Owen, R., Higgins, M., Kramer, B. et al. (2010). "Efficacy and safety of indacaterol 150 mcg once-daily in COPD: a double-blind, randomised, 12-week study.." BMC pulmonary medicine 10: 11. Forest Pharmaceuticals Inc., (2011). Daliresp. Accessed 02-02-12 from: http://www.drugs.com/pro/daliresp.html Vogelmeier, C., D'Urzo, A., Pauwels, R., Merino, J.M., Jaspal, M., Boutet, S., Naya, I., Price, D. (2005). "Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy: an effective asthma treatment option?" European Respiratory Journal 26 (5): 819 -- 828.…

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Altering the Universe: From Gutenberg

Some might argue that there is still a risk to the embryo, albeit it is notably less than is the risk from thawing or freezing. In this case, while there is some risk is to the embryo, the potential gain to society in general and to the people battling horrible diseases is clear. (Bartlett, 2001). Life forces the weighing of…

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Spread? Classification of the Influenza

As the resistance increases, so does the pressure on the virus to develop a new variant strain, which, in other words, is referred to as the 'antigenic drift'. If all these newly formed and slightly different viruses have the capability of entering a living creature as a virus infection, then they end up being the cause of endlessly repeating epidemics.…

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Alzheimer's Disease Is a Neuro-Degenerative Disorder That

Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative disorder that currently affects close to 4 million people in the United States (National Institutes of Health). By 2025, the number of Alzheimer's cases is expected to increase by 44% in the United States (Alzheimer's Association, Fact Sheet). From the onset of symptoms, Alzheimer's disease can last from 30 to 20 years (Alzheimer's Association, Alzheimer's).…

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Polycystic Kidney Disease (Pkd) Is

Drowsiness, joint pain and nail abnormalities are other symptoms that may happen with PKD ("Polycystic Kidney Disease"). Treatment Even though autosomal dominant PKD has no cure, proper treatment of this genetic disease can relieve symptoms and make life longer. Cyst infection, bleeding, kidney stone etc. can cause pain in the kidney area. At first, the doctor will assess the causes that are contributing to the pain in order to direct the patient about treatment. If it is evaluated as chronic pain due to the enlargement of cyst, over-the-counter pain medications (aspirin or acetaminophen) may be initially suggested by the doctor. If the pain is severe, it can be relieved by the means of surgery (for shrinking cysts). It must be noted that surgery may only provide an impermanent relief and does not reduce the progression speed of the disease toward kidney failure ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 4). The urinary tract infections due to autosomal dominant PKD can be treated with antibiotics. Urinary tract infections can cause cyst infections which are difficult to treat as a lot of antibiotics do not make a way into the cysts for curing them. The effects of autosomal dominant PKD can be slowed down by keeping blood pressure under control. High blood pressure can be kept under control by changing the lifestyle and taking a variety of medications. In many cases, blood pressure can be kept under control just by taking proper diet and doing proper exercise ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 4). Thus, the main goal of treatment is controlling PKD symptoms and preventing complications. Although it is not an easy task to control the high blood pressure, controlling it is the most imperative part of PKD cure. There may also be a need of removing one or both kidneys through surgery. Moreover, end-stage kidney disease may be treated by dialysis or a kidney transplant ("Polycystic Kidney Disease"). Method(s) of Prevention At present, there is no treatment that can put a stop to the formation or enlargement of cysts ("Polycystic Kidney Disease"). Directions for Future Research The scientists today have been able to recognize the processes that activate the PKD cysts formation. The field of genetics has advanced tremendously due to which the understanding concerning the abnormal genes that are responsible for autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive PKD has increased. Recently, researchers have been successful in discovering quite a lot of compounds that have emerged to slow…

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Detection of the Borna Disease

[Author not available 2003] BDV and Neuropsychiatric Disease reason for renewed interest and research into the pathogenesis and characteristics of the BDV is the possibility recently discovered of the BDV being an etiological factor in human behavioral disorders as well. [Jurgen 1997] Numerous scientific studies are being done to accumulate evidence to clarify this issue. One study showed that 10-15%…

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Diseases West Nile Virus, Malaria,

During these outbreaks, hungry infected fleas that have lost their normal hosts seek other sources of blood..." ("Plague," 2004). The first sign of plague is a hot, swollen, and painful lymph node called a "bubo." The swollen node is often accompanied by fever, headache, and exhaustion. These symptoms usually begin about two to six days after the person is exposed…

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Foodborne Illness Foodborne Diseases and Illnesses Are

Foodborne Illness Foodborne diseases and illnesses are becoming increasing severe and widespread in the world. This type of illness is defined by the World Health Organization ( WHO) as follows: "Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Every person is at risk…

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