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Drug and Alcohol Abuse Is

Two of the passengers in Jacqui's car were killed and two others escaped safely, but Jacqui was trapped inside when the car caught fire. She was burned over 60% of her body. Her hair, ears and one eyelid were burned off. Since then Jacqui has had to suffer more than 50 operations and is permanently and severely disfigured. Reggie Stephey, the driver of the other vehicle, was sentenced to seven years in prison and had to pay a fine of $20,000. His life was destroyed as well. Finally, drug and alcohol abuse can take a heavy toll on a young person's relationships. Teens that are using drugs or alcohol often experience a change in personality. Their moods change rapidly and can fluctuate between highs and lows. They can become emotionally unstable. The drug or alcohol abuser may also lose interest in caring for their appearance and may begin looking unkempt and messy. A substance abuser may steal money or other valuables from loved ones in order to purchase drugs or alcohol. They can become deceitful, hostile, uncommunicative and even abusive towards loved ones. All of these personality changes can affect relationships between friends and family. In summary, the use of drugs and alcohol among teenagers and young adults can change their lives in dramatic ways. Teens that abuse drugs are alcohol may cause themselves permanent bodily damage or death by the drugs themselves. In addition, they are far more likely to do harm to themselves or to another person while under the influence. Their actions may have a far reaching impact on themselves and on others that do not necessarily lead to death, but can lead to devastating consequences. Finally, drug and alcohol abuse lead to personality changes, and this can have a serious impact on relationships with friends and family. References Hafetz, David. Jacqueline and Amadeo: Chasing Hope. Austin American Statesman. 2002 May. February 13, 2010. < http://www.helpjacqui.com/pdf/jacqui.pdf> National Drug Statistics Summary. Adolescent Substance Abuse Knowledge Base. 2007. February 13,……

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Adolescents Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Adolescent Drugs and Alcohol Abuse Adolescence represents a sensitive stage of development posing a high risk for contacting dangerous addictive behaviors. Drugs and alcohol abuse present a single most serious problem within this population making them vulnerable for serious delinquent behavior. Statistics show that around 50% of American adolescents have used alcohol atleast once while 20% admitted to have been drunk. [NIAAA] Research studies indicate that substance abuse and alcohol indulgence among adolescents create severe impairment of cognitive functions resulting in poor academic performance. Asides the general decline in academic performance, adolescent drinking and drug usage results in increased risk for committing serious crimes such as rape and theft. Alcohol inhibits the central nervous system, which severely impairs the judgment capacity of the person. Consequently, intoxication with drugs or alcohol makes it difficult for the person to successfully overcome sexual advances or sexual violence. A recent survey of high school girls revealed that around 10% of them have been raped under the influence of alcohol. [NIAAA]. By altering the perceptions of the individual alcohol incites aggressive and criminal tendencies in the person. Sexual assaults Several studies have confirmed the fact that alcohol indirectly aids in sexual aggression by altering the perception of sexual arousal in their partners. Under intoxication sexual advances are considered as appropriate behaviors. Norris et.al (2001) confirmed these changing perceptions among drinkers. Several studies have indicated that the point of separation between consensual sex and a rape is very thin. While under the influence of alcohol, it becomes even more difficult for the person to understand the cues and to stop what starts as a consensual kissing from becoming a forced or unwanted rape.. [Abbey, 2003] the increase in the number of HIV cases among adolescents also indicates the amount of risk they take under the sway of alcohol. Even more alarming is the increasing incidence of sexual assaults and rapes between associates. Today, every college campus is flooded with ecstasy or other 'date rape drugs' like gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Rohypnol. These drugs totally halt the rational thinking process, impair memory and leave the victim unconscious and without any chance of resisting unwanted sexual activity. [Holly Harner, 2003] Drunken Driving Drunken driving is another problem of serious proportions among adolescents and is reported to cause twice the number of fatal accidents than among adults. As per the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), alcohol was directly responsible…

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Issues of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Drug and Alcohol Abuse Over the last several decades, the issues of drug and alcohol abuse have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been an effort on the federal and state levels to increase awareness. As the problem has continued to become worse, despite the tremendous amounts of resources that are spent on these programs.…

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Drugs and Alcohol Issues Many

There are probably recovered substance abusers who can eventually learn to limit their consumption to appropriate levels and to appropriate circumstances while eliminating excessive consumption or consumption patterns that are problematic. Meanwhile, there are also probably other individuals who have had substance abuse problems whose addictive personalities and tendencies make it unrealistic for them to adopt any sort of flexible approach instead of the absolute abstention from those substances in the future. Chances are there are both biological factors such as addictive tendencies as well as environmental and personal psychological factors that determine behavior and the relative ability of every individual to moderate alcohol consumption, for example. In general, people who developed substance abuse problems as ways of coping with unrelated problems may eventually be able to resume drinking (for example) once those other problems are resolved and assuming they receive the necessary counseling and support to help them recognize warning signs and avoid falling into the same pattern again if similar problems develop that could trigger excessive consumption. Other individuals might be able to control their tendency toward over-consumption through rules that impose limits, such as to the number of times they drink in a week, how much they are allowed to consume on any given occasion, or what circumstances and environments (or people) to avoid because it is those associations and……

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Drugs and Alcohol's Influence on

Drugs are also tied to crime as well. The same study showed that 45.8% of inmates surveyed had used illicit rugs within a month of being arrested. Additionally, 19% of Canadian inmates studied in this survey had used drugs daily prior to their arrest, with an astounding 34% of inmates having used drugs at least once a week before they were apprehended (Brochu et al. 1999). The drug most used on the day the crime was committed was cocaine, according to (Brochu et al. 1999). Moreover, the research shows that the type of drug used is often associated with particular types of crimes. For example, use of cocaine and its derivatives is mostly associated with the crimes of theft and robbery, while marijuana use was tied mostly to break ins (Brochu et al. 1999). Therefore, the literature does show a common relationship between drugs / alcohol and crime. I personally believe that an internship experience would only further validate the issues raised in the current body of literature. Actually being able to experience dealing with people under the influence of drugs and alcohol would help show their increased erratic behaviors. More importantly, having a such a close relationship with people who abuse drugs and alcohol might help allow me to ask in-depth questions regarding the nature of their behavior. I believe that upon asking why crimes were committed, alcohol and drugs would have a large role to play in a number of cases. Essentially, the close proximity to those who abuse drugs and alcohol would only confirm the close relationship presented in the research between drugs / alcohol and crime. References Brochu, S.; Cournoyer, L.G.; Motiuk, L.; & Pernanen, K. (1999). Drugs, alcohol and crime: Patterns among Canadian federal inmates. Bulletin on Narcotics, L1(1). Web. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1999-01-01_1_page006.html Hart, Timothy C. & Rennison, Callie. (2003). Reporting crime to the police, 1992-2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. U.S. Department of Justice. Web. http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rcp00.pdf Parker, Robert Nash & Auerhahn, Kathleen. (1998). Alcohol, drugs, and violence. Annual Review of Sociology,……

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Effects of Drug and Alcohol Addicts on Our Society Specifically Economically and Socially

Drug and Alcohol The effects of drug and alcohol addicts on our society, specifically economically and socially The effects of drug and alcohol addicts on our society The effects of drug and alcohol addicts on our society There is little doubt that drug and alcohol addiction has become a pervasive part of our modern society. The increasing number of especially…

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Effects of Drugs and Alcohol on the Individual and Damages They Cause

Substance Abuse and Society Substance abuse represents one of the most pervasive problems in the United States. It is a problem that affects all levels and segments of the society. In terms of their effects on individuals and on society, all forms of substance abuse, whether it is alcohol or drugs has a similar affect on society and on the…

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Employees Suffering From Drug and Alcohol Abuse Policy

Human Resources Employees Suffering from Drug and Alcohol Abuse Policy Drug and alcohol abuse is not a new problem in our society. During various times throughout history there have been movements to address substance abuse and its effects. The issue of drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace has traditionally been met by a dismissive attitude. It has often been reacted to by trying to sweep the problem under the carpet, based more on moral precepts than a concern for the health issues involved. Yet, drug and alcohol abuse is coming to be much more widely understood as being harmful to both companies and workers (Drug and alcohol abuse - an important workplace issue, 2009). A company's policy should be to employ a workforce that is free from the use of illegal drugs and abuse of alcohol. Any employee that is determined to be in violation of this policy would be subject to disciplinary action, which may include termination. In order to maintain the standard of a drug free workplace companies are employing several different polices. An employee that reports to work visibly impaired and unable to perform their job functions are not allowed to work. If after meeting with the employee the supervisor determines that their indeed is substance abuse, the employee is sent home (Klingner and O'Neil, 1991). Companies are implementing and maintaining Employee Assistance Programs which provide help to employees and their families who suffer from alcohol or drug abuse. Through this program the companies are providing appropriate assessment, referral to treatment, and treatment of drug and alcohol abuse. Employees are often granted leave with a conditional return to work depending on the success of their treatment program. A condition of their return is often that they must be willing to submit to random drug tests (Klingner and O'Neil, 1991). Random drug screens for current employees are put into place to identify employees who use illegal drugs or alcohol, either one or off the job. Companies are making it a condition of employment to submit……

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Drugs and Alcohol Issues Explain

Meanwhile, other people become obese or obsessed with computer gaming or alcoholics. There appear to be genetic components to addictive behavior because it is often evident in different generations within families. However, addiction is probably more of a dysfunctional behavior pattern and the product of various coping attempts of individuals through the wrong means. A person who discovers that drinking dulls the pain of some emotional issue may begin drinking more and more because of that reward. Another person may find emotional solace in eating sugary deserts or doughnuts. They may also exchange one addiction for another. But, in those cases, their addiction occurred as a specific result of the underlying issues and not because the person was necessarily afflicted with a disease of addiction. In many cases, addiction can even express itself over healthy behaviors, such as exercise. It may also fulfill some of the same subconscious needs as less healthy addictions. All of those types of addictions may have complex psychological and physiological components, but that does not necessarily mean that they are evidence of disease in the classic sense. 4) Which drug (drug classification) do you think has the most detrimental effect on the body's nervous system? From my understanding, methamphetamines can be devastating to the neurological system. They alter the way that neurons communicate and the way that neurotransmitters are released and reabsorbed. Apparently, regular use of various kinds of amphetamines and other drugs such as MDMA or "ecstasy" can destroy the neurons that produce important mood-regulating neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. They can also interfere with the ability of neuron receptors to respond to those neurotransmitters the way they are supposed to. In the long-term, those kinds of physiological changes can be the cause of clinical depression because the brain and mood of the drug user is no longer capable of being regulated through the normal process of mood regulation. 5) FOUR LOKO is a drink comprised of 23 and a half ounces, with 12-percent alcohol and the caffeine equivalent of at least two cups of coffee. Energy drink consumption has been on the rise over the last 3-5 years. A number of deaths have been associated with energy drink consumption in otherwise healthy young adults. Combined with alcohol many young people are using these types of drinks to stay awake yet intoxicated. SB 39 aims to block the selling of caffeinated beer beverages in…

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Drug Policy American Drug Policy:

The United States has spent a great deal of money on all phases of the "war" to try and make sure that drugs do not come into the county, or, at least, that they do not come into the country in the amounts that they have. Douglas Husak offers some figures associated with the war on drugs. In 2000 the…

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Drug Alcohol Abuse

Drug/Alcohol Abuse Drug and alcohol abuse has been a growing problem across the world especially in young adults. In U.S. alone, alcohol is the most often used substance. Almost 90% of adults state some experience with alcohol consumption. Alcohol is a depressant that impairs the nervous system activity. Besides, it can also affect judgment, mental state, agility, physical coordination and…

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Drugs Legal Drug Prohibition Causes

Although record numbers of contraband confiscations and seizes are made and the supply reduced, it is estimated that the volume of drugs trafficked successfully in United States has not changed. More alarming is the fact that after all these efforts the demand for drugs has also not changed. The Government's only response is that it is morally correct to fight a losing and impossible battle against drugs. Advocates of drug enforcement stress the adverse effects of drugs on the human body. But, are these moralistic and medical concerns enough to justify an increase in corruption, phenomenally escalating criminal activity and cost of the war on drugs? Every new President proposes more funds to support the war on drugs and they would not admit failure of the policy and consequent long-term failures in the future. If drugs are made legal then the excess government resources can be used to finance criminal investigations. The drug policy would be similar to that for alcohol. Usage by minors will be restricted and any person under influence who endangers others would be jailed. When the government had prohibited alcohols, the liquor laws became unenforceable, wide spread gang wars and corruption took place. These are effects very similar to the current situation. In a liberal society the only authentic way of reducing drug abuse is through education, moral and social pressures on adult users. Future generations may wonder why the United States adopted a self defeating drug prohibition policy. Sources: Lynch, Timothy. War no more: The folly and futility of drug prohibition. National Review, Feb 5, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1282/2_53/69388682/p4/article.jhtml?term=Accessed 4/3/04…

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Drug Abuse Prevention or Treatment Strategy

Drug Abuse Prevention or Treatment Strategy Every Government reserves the right to fight against the use and the abuse of illicit drugs, like for example, prescribed drugs like psycho stimulants, and the use of other drugs like tobacco and of alcohol. The Australian government has launched the National Illicit Drug Strategy entitled the 'Tough on Drugs' campaign in the year…

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Contingency Management Alcohol Marijuana Studies

Contingency Management ALCOHOL & MARIJUANA STUDIES The purposes of this review are to gain an understanding of the controlled studies using contingency management (CM) in the substance abuse field, and where applicable emphasize those studies that incorporate CM with community reinforcement approach (CRA). This paper should offer a critical review of the literature with an eye toward identifying important and…

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Drug Source Interpretations

¶ … drugfreeworld.org The public service announcements on DrugFreeWorld.org are very effective in showing the negative consequences of both licit and illicit drug use. Each announcement reenacts a real life situation caused by the use of specific drugs and the addiction that accompanies such drug use. These public service announcements present 'The Lie' in its original form, how it is…

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Relationship Between Different Personality Types and Addiction to Drugs and Alcohol

Personality Type as a Predictor of Addictions Evidence linking substance abuse, either alcohol or other substances, to an increased incidence of personality disorders. This study expands on previous studies and explores the link between happiness and depression stemming from a number of personality disorders. The hypothesis postulates that a link correlation will be found between a higher incidence of depression…

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Suicide Drug Abuse

Suicide and Drug Abuse There is a current trend to support the right to suicide or to die with dignity. This trend does not reflect popular view and I do not support the view that one has the right to commit suicide or in other words the right to die or to die with dignity. There are several reasons why…

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Official Legal Definition of Contradiction Is That

¶ … official legal definition of contradiction is that there exists between two ideas an incompatibility and evident opposition of two idea which share the subject of one and the same proposition. In simpler words, this means that when a party who is accused of a crime contradicts himself, it is presumes that he is guilty, since by definition truth…

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Elderly Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Elderly Substance Abuse Stereotypes of elderly people include the crotchety grandfather, the kindly grandmother or a gentle older person who tells stories of years gone by. The elderly are associated with concepts such as infirmity, illness and wisdom. Furthermore, as baby boomers retire, the "post-60" years are being seen as times of continued activity and productivity. More advances are therefore…

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Health Science in Regards to

Those running DARE program must have taken the war on drugs/zero tolerance frame into consideration and that is why they charged the law enforcement agencies with the primary responsibility of addressing illicit drug use. This made the DARE program to be diffused widely without concrete evidence on its effectiveness. Effectiveness of the DARE program should be premised on research findings…

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Reasons Why People Use Drugs

¶ … Drug Usage The war on drugs in the United States has been active for many decades. However, the number of individuals selling drugs, and most importantly, using them, has not gone down or reduced in any format (Allen et al., 2003). People, who choose to use drugs, do so for a variety of reasons. Their reasoning may vary from one another, but the negative effects felt by the person and those around him or her are practically the same. For the most part, people start using drugs at a very negative point in their lives, usually to escape their own reality (Miller, 2010). Another reason why people use drugs is to experiment with them. At times there may be moments where people feel pressured to fit in and try drugs in order to be part of a certain crowd. When young individuals start to use drugs, they may do it at a point in their lives where they may be rebelling (Allen et al., 2003). The biggest reason why people choose to do drugs is to escape their current reality. There are times where personal events in an individual's life may prompt the usage of narcotics. This is done so that they may forget what they are emotionally going through. Another reason why individuals would want to use drugs as a distraction is when they are trying to escape their environment (Miller, 2010). When people either have absolutely no control or feel like they do not have any control, over the situation that they are living in, they may choose to find solace in drugs. This is seen in low-income communities that are usually plagued with crime, violence, and drugs to begin with. Not only does the hope of escaping their own environment prompt them to experiment with narcotics, these drugs are also more accessible in these types of ambiance (Miller, 2010). Individuals may also choose to use drugs if they feel that doing so will allow them to be a part of a particular crowd. This is the case for many young people who experiment with a drug, but then end up getting addicted to these substances (Allen et al., 2003). Rebelling is a part of human nature, and at many times, the rebelling of adolescents, teenagers, and young adults, may have dire consequences. Choosing to use drugs as a way to fit in may have more…

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Hypnosis to Treat Drug Addiction

, 2003). Traditional treatment options can be very expensive, and even if a person has insurance he or she is not usually covered for drug or alcohol programs. That allows these people to fall through the cracks, or keeps them from focusing on getting some help in order to conquer their addiction and improve things for themselves and the people who care about them. Hypnosis for drug addiction could be one of the ways to start changing this, and to start making a difference in the lives of these people. While there are no guarantees of it working, the same can be said for methods that are already in use. Since the success rates for traditional treatments are not high, it is clear that something new should be attempted. The worst that will happen is that hypnosis will not prove any more helpful than other treatment options, but it appears to have a great deal of promise. Since there is so much promise seen, it is definitely worth attempting. Because there is such a strong connection between the body and the mind, it would stand to reason that manipulating the mind would be among the best ways to adjust what is taking place within the body (Astin, et al., 2003; Elkins & Rajab, 2004). Hypnosis has been used to help people succeed in their desires to stop smoking, and the urge and desire to smoke are very powerful in many cases (Elkins & Rajab, 2004). If it is possible for a person to stop smoking through the use of hypnosis, it is certainly possible to extend the value of hypnosis to other types of substances that can also be eliminated from a person's life (Elkins & Rajab, 2004). As a less expensive alternative to many of the more traditional treatment avenues, hypnosis can be an excellent choice for anyone who is susceptible to it and interested in getting clean and sober. References Astin, J.A., Shapiro, S.L., Eisenberg, D.M., & Forys, K.L. (2003). Mind-body medicine: state of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Practitioners, 16(2): 131 -- 147. Elkins, G.R. & Rajab, M.H. (2004). Clinical hypnosis for smoking cessation: Preliminary results……

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Legalizing Marijuana

Legalizing Marijuana There is presently much controversy regarding legalization of marijuana, as the number of supporters for the cause appears to grow concomitantly with the number of people opposing it. The former however have appeared to gain an advantage in the recent years, as society becomes more and more tolerant toward the concept. Not only does the general public has…

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Drug Addiction

Addiction -- Why? Addiction can be categorized in three ways as follows: social addiction, physical (physiological) addiction, or psychological (chemical) addiction (Knapp, 1996). Addiction to a substance typically stems from abuse of that substance and substance abuse is occurring in the midst of addiction; though, (short-or-long-term) substance abuse does not necessarily have to occur before the criteria for addiction is met (Stiles, 2011). All addicts are substance abusers but not all abusers are addicts. It is important to make the distinction between the two even though abuse of a substance is happening in the midst of addiction, other predispositions contribute towards addiction and in many cases an addict is predisposed towards addiction long before his/her first use or becomes an addict not from abusing a substance but simply from using one that may not be illegal (alcohol, cigarettes, legally prescribed medications). Further, it is also important to make a distinction between addiction to substances with addiction towards feelings or activities. The majority of discourse about addiction revolves around substances, particularly illegal drugs, illegally obtained prescription drugs, or alcohol. However, many psychologists and medical professionals, particularly those who specialize in addiction, continually emphasize the power of addiction in all its forms (social, physical, and psychological) on such feelings and activities as gambling, eating (food), sex, spirituality, self-harm tactics, power, money, shopping, pornography, politics, violence, fear, theft, and any other obsession/compulsion that becomes an integral part of one's life in which the trigger is required to "feel" normal and involves some degree of negative consequences (Stiles, 2011). The "why" of addiction is somewhat controversial and varies among stories. It is clearly a mixture of socio-cultural factors with certain biological factors and life experiences. The only commonalities of addiction are as follows: everyone is (1) first a "user;" (2) coping/compensating with/for something; (3) affected by addiction in all aspects of life (eventually). Bio-psycho-socio-cultural factors As previously stated, the cause of addiction seems most accurately described as a mixture of socio-cultural factors with certain biological factors and life experience factors. Some experts argue that people are born addicts while others argue that people become addicts. Some addicts are……

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Special Population & Substance Abuse

Most of the paroles fail and rearrests occur within the first six months of release of inmates having substance abuse disorder. All new admissions in the U.S. prisons had staggering proportion of parole failures, from being 17% in 1991 to 35% in 2000 (Petersilia, 2000). V- Drawbacks of not providing rehab treatments and facilities There are a number of drawbacks…

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Marijuana Should Not Be Legalized

2). The DEA document asserts that the DEA is "not alone" in viewing smoked marijuana as having "no documented medical value." The DEA quotes the American Medical Association which does not endorse medical marijuana programs or the legalization of marijuana albeit the AMA does urge continuing "clinical research" to see if marijuana could be medicinally potent. Other groups supporting more studies (but opposing legalization) include: the American Cancer Society; The American Glaucoma Society; and the American Academy of Pediatrics (DEA, p. 4). Moreover, the DEA sites its own research -- including 111 researchers "registered with DEA to perform studies with marijuana, marijuana extracts," and other derivates that are found in the cannabis plant -- which indicates that "…smoked marijuana is harmful" (5). The DEA continues its narrative on marijuana on page 6 of the 2011 paper by asserting that the proposition that "smoked marijuana is 'medicine' is, in sum, false-trickery used by those promoting wholesale legalization." And while there are 18 states that authorize the distribution of medical marijuana, some states are very firm in their law in terms of what medical issues qualify as medical marijuana. In New Jersey, which was the 14th state to make medical marijuana legal, there are only 12 illnesses that doctors are allowed to prescribe marijuana for, and that list does not include "chronic pain." The DEA provided the names of wealthy Americans that have provided funds for various medical marijuana campaigns; the DEA says that "a few billionaires" but not "grassroots support" provide the money behind these pro-medical marijuana campaigns. Those billionaires are "George Soros, Peter Lewis, George Zimmer, and John Sperling," a group that reportedly provided $1,510,000 to the California medical marijuana initiative in 1996. Problems Created by Marijuana Use Psychology professor Douglas A. Bernstein writes that whether or not marijuana can be proved to be addictive, or whether it leads to other kinds of drugs, "…it can create a number of problems" (Bernstein, 2007, p. 361). Marijuana "disrupts memory formation, making it difficult to carry pout complex tasks," Bernstein explains (361). Many people believe they are more creative while using marijuana, but Bernstein says it "…actually reduces creativity" (361). Moreover, the drug affects muscle coordination so driving while using marijuana is "quite hazardous"; and in addition, motor impairment continues "long after the obvious effects of the drug have worn off" (Bernstein, 361). For long-time regular users, Bernstein writes that "…impairments in…

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Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments:

" (Zoccolillo et al., 1999) Thus, the AAOD student is at a clear disadvantage in terms of successfully completing a high-school diploma and moving on to a career-oriented post-secondary education. Additionally, high school is generally also a milieu in which the adolescent learns other non-academic life skills, including mature means of relating to peers and supervisors, responsible treatment of deadlines…

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Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse

Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse The fact of childhood sexual abuse has become a central area of concern in countries throughout the world and has been described by experts as a "...major public health problem affecting thousands of children and adolescents in the United States each year" (Johnson, 2008). The trauma of childhood abuse of this nature is in…

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Substance Abuse in Adolescents: Examining the Problem

Substance Abuse in Adolescents: Examining the Problem and Proposing Solutions The problem of substance abuse is one that has plagued the nation for decades. This issue stems far beyond the user themselves and far into the realm of national issues including: the economy, healthcare, legislation and public policy. For years, the nation has dealt with the issue of substance abuse, but only in its recent past has the issue become one that deals directly with adolescents. As the years pass by, substance abuse appears to affect a younger and younger demographic. Substance abuse in adolescents is an issue that not only affects the individuals abusing drugs and alcohol, but has the capacity to affect the nation as whole. Background, Statistics and Underlying Factors to Abuse Substance abuse is a major national public health problem that creates impaired health, harmful behaviors, and major economic and social burdens that continue far beyond an individual's adolescence and well into their adult life. Studies suggest that the younger an individual is at the onset of substance use, the greater likelihood that a substance disorder will develop and continue into adulthood (PLNDP, 2009, p.2). In fact, more than 90% of adults with current substance abuse disorders started using before the age of 18, with half of those beginning use before the age of 15 (Bachman, Johnston and O'Malley, 2002, p.4). Clearly, statistics like this are alarming, but there are solutions that can alleviate and hopefully fix the problem, if people are willing to look deep enough into the issue in an effort to weed it out at its roots. Since the issue of substance abuse rose to prominence within society and the media within the United States, researchers and individuals affected have tried to pinpoint the factors that lead to this problem. As no truly beneficial rehabilitative help or solution to the problem can take place without an understanding of the factors that lead to substance abuse, researchers have noted that a clear understanding of the psychological profiles and underlying personality characteristics of addicted individuals must be pinpointed. Research has found that there are certain individuals who are more prone to initiate and sustain severe drug habits than others, and certain factors such as: psychological, familiar and environmental commonly lead juveniles and adolescents to become dependent on drugs (Ilgen, 2011, p. 1349). On a psychological level, research has found that: environmental and personality stressors such…

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Physical Abuse in Relationships Due

As with female violence, male partners perhaps tend to leave the relationship more readily when encountered with female alcohol-related problems (Raul pp). Research evidence indicates that individuals who report alcohol-related problems are more at risk for intimate partner violence than those who do not report these problems, and symptoms of alcohol dependence are also noted concurrently in both male and female perpetrators of violence (Raul pp). In the National Family Violence Surveys, researches found that rates for female-to-male assault by wives is nearly equal to the rates for male-to-female assault by husbands, and appears that female-to-partner aggression and violence may be a significant issue in couples who engage in violent dynamics (Hien pp). Moreover, documented research indicated that the use of substances by the woman can precipitate partner abuse and can lead to more serious victimization of wives by husbands (Hien pp). According to research, there is little doubt that alcohol and substance use and abuse is a contributing factor in intimate partner violence, and although women are more often the victims, studies suggest that their substance use and/or abuse often plays a major role in perpetuating the victimization. Work Cited Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse. (2005). The Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 03, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site. Hien, Denise; Hien, Nina M. (1998, August). Women, violence with intimates, and substance abuse: relevant theory, empirical findings, and recommendations for future research. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Retrieved July 03, 2005 from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0978/is_n3_v24/ai_21154249 Martin, Sandra L.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Kupper, Lawrence L. (2003, August). Substance use before and during pregnancy: links to intimate partner violence. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Retrieved July 03, 2005 from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0978/is_3_29/ai_109351419 Raul, Caetano. (2005, March 01). Alcohol use and intimate partner violence as predictors of separation among U.S. couples: a longitudinal model. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved July 03, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site. Wood, Debra. (2005, June 01). Violence in U.S. families is a serious public health problem. Clinical Psychiatry News. Retrieved July 03, 2005……

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Mental Health Care System the

As a result, the juvenile justice system has been actively involved in the expansion of community-based treatment programs across the nation, particularly best-practice programs that might be adopted on the road to future reform; community assessment centers, juvenile drug courts (already in place in Florida, most particularly in Miami-Dade), integrated case management, graduated sanctions, and strength-based approaches. These actions on…

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Legalizing Marijuana Was Declared an

S. costs the tax payers as much as $12 billion annually; it also diverts the energies of the law enforcing agencies that would be better served in fighting the spiraling crime rates in the country's cities. This is reflected in the fact that there have been nearly 6.5 million marijuana arrests in the United States since 1993, far exceeding the total number of arrests for all violent crimes combined, including murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. ("Marijuana Prohibition Facts," 2004) Apart from the 'direct' estimated cost of $12 billion that would be saved by legalizing marijuana, the government would also be able to collect a considerable amount of money by way of taxes. Moreover, de-criminalizing of the drug would eliminate much of the underground criminal network in the country that gives rise to numerous social problems such as spreading corruption and graft among the law enforcing agencies. It is unfortunate that policy makers and law enforcers have failed to learn the lessons of Prohibition of alcohol in the 1920s when a similar ban against alcohol had escalated crime to astronomical levels and deprived the government of much needed tax revenue. It would, therefore, not be wrong to conclude that the rationale behind the continuing criminalization of marijuana is based on false premises and difficult to defend. Most scientific studies have conclusively shown that marijuana is a far less harmful drug than alcohol and tobacco. The cost of enforcing the existing harsh laws against marijuana possession is unnecessary and diverts the attention of the American justice system, which would be better served in fighting violent crime and terrorism. As such, there is no reason why marijuana should not be legalized forthwith. References "Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Marijuana Use." (2005). Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved on October 1, 2005 from http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/mjfaq1.htm Concar, D. (1998). "High Anxieties." New Scientist. February 21, 1998: Issue No. 2122. 'Marijuana Prohibition Facts." (2004) Marijuana Policy Project Foundation. Retrieved on October 1, 2005 from http://mpp.org/pdf/prohfact.pdf 'Study Compares Nicotine to Other Drugs." (1994). National Drug Strategy Network. Retrieved on October 1, 2005 from http://www.ndsn.org/AUGUST94/NICOTINE.html Whitebread, C. (1995). "The History of the Non-Medical Use of Drugs in the United States." Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved on October 1, 2005 from http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/whiteb1.htm The Congress passed the bill after about a minute of debate, which included a false statement by a supporter of the bill that the American…

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Counseling Assessment Candy Barr Client ID Number:

Counseling Assessment Candy Barr Client ID Number: 55555 Gender: Female Date of Birth: 05-05-1974 Client's age -2006 Time of Assessment: 2:30 P.M. Time Spent: 1.30 hours Identifying Information: Ms. Barr is a 28-year-old Caucasian referred by her human resource representative for depression. This writer by observation would assess if Ms. Barr's body weight appear to be average for her height…

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People Who Use Medical Marijuana Favor Legalization of Marijuana

¶ … legalization of marijuana for medicinal use is a controversial topic in American society. Several states have enacted laws allowing the sale and consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes, but so far, only one state is actually considering allowing recreational marijuana consumption as well. One of the reasons that the medicinal use of marijuana is controversial is that the processes and regulations for qualifying as a medical user are state-controlled and subject to widespread abuse, such as where physicians routinely dispense prescriptions without rigorous limitation by medical criteria. As a result, the legal medicinal use of marijuana is contributing to the reduction of social constraints to recreational use. In some states, recreational users can obtain a valid license designating them patients with medicinal marijuana prescriptions. Meanwhile, there are patients who are legitimately entitled to medicinal marijuana who refrain from availing themselves of it, precisely because they know that marijuana is generally considered an illicit drug and they associate with a very negative social stigma. The other reason that the topic is controversial is that marijuana use is still illegal in every state under federal law, irrespective of state laws. However, the decision to prosecute or ignore violations of federal law has not been high priority and the cultivation and dispensation of medicinal marijuana is regulated and taxed by various state authorities all while being susceptible to immediate closure and prosecution under federal law simultaneously. Literature Review and Hypothesis Review of Existing Literature Page, Verhoef, Stebbins, Metz, and Levy (2003) conducted a qualitative study of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients in connection with the use of medicinal marijuana to mitigate their MS symptoms. The study consisted of a survey mailed to MS patients inquiring into their relative awareness of the potential benefits of medicinal marijuana for their condition, whether or not they had ever tried marijuana to alleviate their MS symptoms, why they chose not to do so, whether they supported the legalization of marijuana for medicinal purposes, and to measure their subjective beliefs about the degree to which the medicinal marijuana was helpful. The hypothesis was that prior experience with marijuana would correlate with greater perceived relief. Because patients (and members of society more generally) exhibit such widely differing views about medicinal marijuana, Reinarman, Nunberg, Lanthier, and Heddleston (2011) conducted a qualitative study of patients seeking medicinal marijuana licenses at a network of distribution clinics. Their hypothesis was that certain…

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Combat and Substance Abuse Posttraumatic

There are significant limitations to this conclusion, including a selection bias introduced by studying only veterans seeking care through the VA. Many veterans may be ineligible for medical coverage through the VA, have private medical coverage, or distrust the VA. Other veterans may be reluctant to admit having a substance abuse problem. The methodological problems could be addressed by academic institutions with no formal ties to the VA. In spite of these significant limitations, the above findings suggest that the dominant risk factors for substance abuse are similar for civilians and military personnel alike. Youth and mental illness appear to be the biggest risk factors, while combat exposure may contribute only a few percentage points. Mental health therefore determines the prevalence of substance abuse behavior for all persons, regardless of combat experience. References Adamou, Marios C. And Hale, Anthony S. (2003). PTSD and the law of psychiatric injury and England and Wales: Finally coming closer? Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry Law, 31, 327-332. Bagalman, Erin. (2011). Suicide, PTSD, and substance use among OEF/OIF veterans using VA Health Care: Facts and figures. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2013 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41921.pdf. National Center for PTSD. (2011). PTSD and substance abuse in veterans. PTSD.VA.gov. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2013 from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/ptsd_substance_abuse_veterans.asp. Nooner, Kate B., Linares, L. Oriana., Batinjane, Jessica, Kramer, Rachel A., Silva, Raul., and Cloitre, Marylene. (2012). Factors related to posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 13(3), 153-166. Petrakis, Ismene L., Rosenheck, Robert, and Desai, Rani. (2011). Substance use comorbidity among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric illness. American Journal on Addiction, 20, 185-189. Sirratt, Deborah, Ozanian, Alfred, and Traenkner, Barbara. (2012). Epidemiology and prevention of substance use disorders in the military. Military Medicine, 177(8 Suppl.), 21-28. Tsai, Jack, Pietrzak, Robert H., and Rosenheck, Robert A. (2012). Homeless veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan: Gender differences, combat exposure, and comparisons with previous cohorts of homeless veterans. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services……

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Counseling Scenario Janet Just Completed

She will first have to create a stable environment and build a network of people that can help her stay the course. This is important to not only Janet, but also her children. Furthermore, her self-steam would undoubtedly benefit from providing good care to her family as well. 4. Theoretical Approach I believe that genograms would be useful to help sort of the types of relationships that Janet has. Since she has 3 children with different fathers and four previous husbands, her personal life has a sum of complex relationships. I would schedule two sessions monthly as well as recommend the client to a substance abuse expert. 5. Therapeutic Progress and Success I would focus first on mitigating the substance abuse issues. The efficacy of cognitive -- behavioral treatment for substance abuse is contingent on changing clients' attitudes, beliefs, and expectancies (Davis, Ottawa, & Moser, 2014). One study defines success in terms of harm reduction to adhere to notions of 'any positive change,' client centeredness, and low-threshold services; the participants reported changes in demarginalization, engagement in the program, quality of life, social functioning, changes in substance use, and changes in future goals and plans which all seem like good criteria to rate success (Lee & Zerai, 2010). 6. Conclusion I think the initial counselling should use a relationship assessment to understand the patient's relationships as well as focus on the substance abuse and meeting basic needs first. This should hopefully provide some stability for the patient and her family. Success for these interventions can be defined by literally any benefit of harm reduction and positive benefits in any areas of treatment. Works Cited Davis, C., Ottawa, D.S., & Moser, A. (2014). Social desirability and change following substance abuse treatment in male offenders. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 872-879. Lee, H., & Zerai, A. (2010). 'Everyone Deserves Services No Matter What': Defining Success in Harm-Reduction-Based Substance User Treatment. Substance Use and Misuse, 2411-2427. Oleson, M. (2004). Exploring the relationship between money attitudes……

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Decriminalization of Marijuana Ever Since

The present difference between the cost of production of marijuana and its street price goes to the drug dealers and organized crime. The government can easily tap such profits by legalizing the drug and taxing it. Apart from the resources generated by such taxation, the de-criminalizing of the drug would eliminate much of the underground criminal network in the country that gives rise to numerous social problems such as spreading corruption and graft among the law enforcing agencies. The harsh penalties imposed on marijuana offenders also have no relationship with the seriousness of the 'crime.' Under the law, convicted marijuana offenders can be denied federal financial student aid, welfare, and food stamps, and may be removed from public housing. In many cases, those convicted are automatically stripped of their driving privileges, even if the offense is not driving related. Under several state laws, marijuana offenders may receive maximum sentences of life in prison. Moreover, the racial bias of the so-called "War on Drugs" means that a disproportionate number of African-Americans get arrested for marijuana violations despite little difference in marijuana use among the black and white communities. Conclusion The rationale behind the continuing criminalization of marijuana, which is based on false premises and convoluted logic is hard to understand. Unbiased scientific studies have conclusively shown that marijuana is a far more harmless drug than alcohol and tobacco. It even possesses a number of useful medicinal qualities that need to be further investigated. The cost of enforcing the existing harsh laws against marijuana possession is unjustifiable and diverts the attention of the American justice system, which would be better utilized in fighting violent crime and terrorism. There could hardly be more convincing reasons for legalizing marijuana; it should be done without further delay. Works Cited "Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Marijuana Use." Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. n.d. November 28, 2004. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/mjfaq1.htm Bandow, Doug. "Forget the War on Drugs Already." Cato Institute. January 01, 2004. November 28, 2004. http://www.cato.org/dailys/01-01-04.html 'High Anxieties." New Scientist. February 21, 1998. November 28, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/marijuana/news.jsp 'Marijuana Prohibition Facts." Marijuana Policy Project Foundation. 2004. November 28, 2004. http://mpp.org/pdf/prohfact.pdf Mathre, Mary Lynn. "The Medicinal Use of Marijuana." Nursing Vol. 4, No. 2 pages 8-9. June 1993. November 28, 2004. http://www.ukcia.org/medical/medicinaluseofmarijuana.html 'Study Compares Nicotine to Other Drugs." Ndsn.org. August 1994. November 28, 2004. http://www.ndsn.org/AUGUST94/NICOTINE.html Chief Counsel to the American Medical Association testified to the Congress during the hearing…

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Legalization Debate

Legalization Debate on Marijuana There is currently a great deal of debate concerning a relaxation of the laws surrounding drug use, and in particular the use of marijuana. Many individuals, some of them in positions of great power, have spoken out in favor of legalizing dangerous drugs such as marijuana. Examples of this push towards legalization include activist groups such…

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Disparity in Sentencing for Crack vs. Powder Cocaine

Disparity in sentencing for crack vs. powder cocaine Sentencing Disparities: Crack vs. Powder Cocaine - a Literature Review Sentencing Disparities Sentencing disparities are very prevalent when one examines crack vs. powder cocaine, but it is also important here to understand that this is not the only issue where this type of disparity is concerned. In other words, there are sentencing…

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Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Usage Among Youths

Alcohol, Tobacco & Drug Use by Adolescents The use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by adolescents in the United States has been a concern of parents, teachers, administrators and community leaders for many years and in many contexts. The purpose of this proposal for a dissertation is to embrace a number of research studies and scholarly articles that bring a…

Pages: 5  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 10

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