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Teaching and Learning

Teaching and Learning Review of an Education Journal Article In their article regarding teaching learning strategies, Weinstein and Mayer (1983) define what a learning strategy is, give some implications for teachers, and conclude with an examination of several different kinds of learning strategies. To begin, the authors call learning strategies, "behaviors and thoughts in which a learner engages and which are intended to influence the learner's encoding process" (pg. 3). Thus, tasks that motivate learners, allow them to organize, or otherwise aid them in their learning can all be considered learning strategies. According to the authors, it is important that students learn to develop such strategies as a way to handle both their own thinking and the information that they gather in school. According to the authors, "Learning is an active processes that occurs within the learner and that can be influenced by the learner" (pg. 3). Teachers must be prepared, then, to encourage students not only to learn what has been set out for them, but also to learn how to learn by adopting learning strategies. The authors conclude -- before a call for more research and a caveat that its findings will further alter these strategies -- with a list of some learning strategies. These include rehearsal strategies, elaboration strategies, organization strategies, comprehension monitoring strategies, and affective strategies. Because Weinstein and Mayer (1983) reference new research in the article, it can be assumed that this article was penned in order to inform others about the new research on learning strategies and how to implement it in the classroom. Although the article is short, it is clear that Weinstein and Mayer (1983) had a research problem the elusive nature of learning strategies. The researchers wanted to define and give examples of strategies for learning for teachers, in addition to pointing out the teacher's role in the development of student's learning strategies. Because of its……

Pages: 2  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 2


Language Teaching and Learning in Task-Based Instruction

¶ … language Teaching and Learning In task-based instruction there is some misperception over the word 'syllabus' and 'curriculum', it is necessary, however, be appropriate in starting with commentaries that are terminological and their meanings. Candlin (1984: 31) made the suggestion that curriculum is involved with creating overall declarations about language learning, learning drive, knowledge, assessment, and the part and relations of learners and teachers. Syllabuses, in contrast, are more restricted and are founded on explanations and records of what really occurs at the classroom level as teachers and learners put on a given curriculum to their own condition (narrower definition). Nunan (1993:8) also concurs with Candlin and proposes: 'Curriculum' is connected with development, application, assessment, Organization and management of education programs. 'Syllabus', conversely, emphasizes more narrowly on the assortment and grading of subject matter (Candlin, 1984). With that said, the goal of this assignment is to describe 'task' and enlarge on the foremost values and features of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT). Then the researcher will refer to the advantages and disadvantages of TBLT for EFL learners and the right way of applying this approach in the educational context as well as outline possible application difficulties that are within those context According to Willis' definition a 'task' is viewed as a "goal-oriented activity" or an activity which "involves the use of language but in which the focus is on the outcome & #8230; rather than on the language used to achieve the outcome." Theory Describing "task" "By task, what is really mentioned is that it is a goal-oriented action with a clear determination. Doing a task that is communication includes attaining a result, generating a final creation that can be respected by others." After going back "into the history of TBL, the first operators of the idea of task was N.S. Prabhu who began started working in Bangalore in South India. Prabhu had utilized TBL in extremely huge classes but grounded his teaching regarding a sequence of tasks (Willis, 2008). Prabhu "demanded that pupils were just more probable to learn language if they were discerning about a non-linguistic issue than if they were focusing on specific language types. Instead of a language form, students are offered with a task they have to achieve or an issue they have to resolve." Task-Based Language Teaching comes as a strong growth of the Communicative Method. Even though TBL and CLT (Communicative Language Teaching)…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Language Teaching and Learning Methods

Language Teaching and Learning Methods: Focus on the Natural Approach of Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language One of the oldest and most widely-cited beliefs involving learning as a process is one that is noted in an ancient Chinese proverb which reads, "Tell me, I forget. Show me, I remember. Involve me, I understand." Such a notion is…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Aspects of Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Primary School Education

¶ … Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Primary School Education Technology and Mathematics education (technology as a whole or individual aspects of technology e.g. use of calculators, smart board, web quests, laptops, data projectors, calculators, Web 2 activities) or The Australian Government has taken a strict action to fortify the primary education standards so as to fully explore and utilize…

Pages: 6  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Education Theories Knowledge of Learning Styles, Learning

Education Theories Knowledge of Learning Styles, Learning Theories, Approaches to Education There is a great deal of worthwhile information for today's instructional professionals related to styles of learning psychological approaches to learning, to be found in contemporary literature. This paper will present a review and analysis of the literature, reflecting a diversity of ideas and techniques for the learning process.…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 10


Education Research-Based Cooperative Learning Literature Review Good

Education Research-based Cooperative Learning Literature Review Good writing skills are critical for today's students to be successful. Most teachers would agree that communication is pretty important in education. In fact, it's a necessary component of education, livelihood, and basic functionality in our society. it's also fairly obvious that there are two main ways to communicate, although more obscure forms exist.…

Pages: 10  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Paradox That Teaching Is Not

"[Menchu, 1983] Hence, the motivation to learn must be therefore before an education system could be erected. Similarly, Menchu's autobiographer David Stoll believed Menchu's account did not collaborate with historic evidence. For this purpose, he ventured on a quest, interviewing hundreds of people and tracing the history of the place. Lessons from Menchu thus act the catalyst, motivating Stoll to further his knowledge. Similarly any kind knowledge cannot be acquired unless one learns of it and one cannot teach unless one learns about it first. For this reason, Freire's statement that "There is no teaching without learning" proves true. In countries like Japan and Korea, the process of learning starts from a very fundamental level, inherent in their culture. A child learns of his/her ancestor from home, then at school. Any additional learning that needs to be done has to come from the school. However, additional learning or rather learning of other cultures will have to stem from existent education system. That means that the education system will have to accept that its students need more knowledge to become equipped with the standards of the world. It must allow its teachers to expand, to learn from other cultures before it could be brought home. Ricardo Lagos, expressed its timeliness when he said, "...The differences between inheritors and the disinherited of the next century will be access to education. That is why education is so important." Japanese company cannot dispatch its executives to America unless they learn about the culture first. Education, is not only an advancement of knowledge only but it is an acquisition process. A person cannot teach unless that person has learned it, experienced it him/herself. Menchu could not have narrated her life story unless she experienced it. A child cannot learn effectively from the teacher unless he/she experience it. At all levels of education, successful absorption of knowledge stems from ongoing learning process. Confucius, concludes, "From whom indeed did our Master not learn? But at the same time, what need had he of any fixed and regular teacher..." From the above discussion, it could be said that education and the process of acquiring it is not a simple teach-learn process. It is in fact an ongoing learning process whether one is the student or the teacher. Since knowledge and its acquisition, the desire to acquire it all depend on how one uses it, it changes all the…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Learning and Development Critique

Again the entire Intel-Hybridism theory applies to this approach, since the brain at a certain maturity level of development responds best to this type of conditioning stimulus. Furthermore, behaviorism is influenced, by association, in terms of increasing recall and actions that are used in tandem to enhance the learning experience. Specifically, Hull mentions the stimulation of synapses with repeated stimulation. This creates a platform for both the stimulation of desired behaviors that are associated with the learning processes, as well as with cognitive development, which is based upon the learned behaviors. When applied in terms of motivation and self-regulation, the maturity level of cognition is again applicable. A very young learner would not have as high an ability as an older learner towards motivation and self-regulation. Indeed, motivation would be the general responsibility of the teacher for young learners. The foundations of teaching strategies will determine the ability of more mature students to indeed become self-motivated and self-regulated in their activities. Paris and Paris (2001), for example, mention a differentiation among students of the same maturity level in terms of motivation and self-regulation; not all students have these skills in the same amounts. The authors suggest various methods of stimulating motivation and self-regulation in students. When they are required, for example, to be reflective and metacognitive when performing certain tasks, they will be stimulated towards greater maturity in their motivation and self-regulation. Clearly, motivation and self-regulation are not merely a natural component of cognitive development, but is increasingly stimulated by behavior as the learner grows older. Hence, the Intel-Hybridism theory may benefit from slight modification in recognizing that individual development occurs differentially. At the same time, different students, according to such development, may respond differently to behavioral stimuli in the learning context. As such, these stimuli and the theory itself may need differentiation according to the needs and learning situation of each individual classroom, and possibly according to the needs of each individual student. The Intel-Hybridism theory responds well to critique on the grounds of the biological basis of teaching and learning as well as the motivation and self-regulation of learners. In concluding this analysis, the theory has been shown to be useful in terms of offering the strengths of Piaget's and Skinner's theories while complementing each other in such a way that the weaknesses are diminished. The theory then lends itself well to the possibility of modification according to…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Teaching and Learning Theories

Learning Theories The educational field provides access to a variety of learning theories, many of them offshoots or modifications of previously popular stratagems of learning styles. Numerous studies have been conducted to verify, justify or analyze these theories and their potential usage in the U.S. educational system. Many of these studies have provided educators with more than a little knowledge…

Pages: 8  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


English in Teaching and Learning

Zeng (2007, p. 46) explains the debate behind the medium of instructions at schools in historical terms. When Hong Kong was relinquished by the British during the 1990s, the government mandated schools to use Chinese as medium of instruction for all subjects. The rationale given for this was the international recognition that mother-tongue instruction is preferable to second-language instruction. Regardless of these views, English has remained prominent in Hong Kong's business, mass media, and personal environments. These environments are also conducive to many young people being able to formulate complex ideas in English. Hence, many parents and students have opposed the government's mandate, along with teachers and other officials (Zeng, 2007, p. 46). Zeng notes that children with English-medium schooling have tended to find more prestigious jobs in several areas, including the business and law, where bilingualism is considered an asset. Hence, English medium instruction is considered to lead to a young person's ability to contribute better to the economy. Poon, Lau, and Chu (2013, p. 946) mention an interesting compromise devised to address the medium of instruction question in schools, which might be regarded as furthering the Education Commission's position that English may be used as a medium of instruction on the strength of certain conditions. Hong Kong schools today are allowed to offer English medium instruction, partial English medium instruction, or Chinese medium instruction in subjects including Mathematics depending on the proven language proficiency of their students. In this way, schools are able to better cater for the specific needs of their students. Schools who do not meet the requirements necessary for using English as a medium of instruction have several options to gradually incorporate English into their content-based classes while enhancing the language abilities of their students to increasing levels. It appears that this position provides a suitable compromise between student and teacher ability, as well as the likelihood for students to enter professions in the economics and other Mathematics intensive sectors. It is a fact that English will remain an important medium of communication throughout the world. Any person who wishes to enter the business or economics field will need to be proficient not only in Mathematics, but also in English. References Education Commission (2005, Dec.). Report on Review of Medium of Instruction for Secondary Schools and Secondary School Places Allocation. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of The People's Republic of China. Retrieved from: http://www.e-c.edu.hk/tc/reform/resources/MOI&SSPA_report_Eng.pdf Poon,…

Pages: 3  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Teaching Methods & Intercultural Education This Work

TEACHING METHODS & INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION This work seeks to examine how intercultural approaches to teaching and learning might serve to contribute to New Learning for the 21st century in primary schools in Australia. Additionally this study intends to examine the role of education in improving relations between people across diversity and to improve equality, justice and freedom. This work will…

Pages: 10  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 60


Teaching and Learning

¶ … education is that of special education, for students with physical or cognitive disabilities. Because every student is affected in a unique way, providing enough teachers to adequately support these students is a considerable challenge. However, according to the article from the journal Preventing School Failure, a crucial resource is often overlooked in special education: the children's family. The article by K. Patterson, K. Webb, and K. Krudwig examines the influence of a new program called "Family as Faculty" in which parents are deployed in partnership with teachers in designing student's Individualized Educational Programs (IEP) s. The article created a simulation, in which case-based instruction was deployed in a simulated individualized education program meeting between real parents and student special education instructors. It was then evaluated for its usefulness in the context of a special education teacher's preparation. According to the researchers, the experience "influenced 16 beliefs of 89 special education teacher candidates about the value of partnering with parents. The parents, who all had children with disabilities, participated in meetings "embedded in a teacher-preparation course to bring authenticity to the experience" of student teachers of special education students (Patterson et al. 2009). The article suggested that better integrating family into the learning process created a bridge between the knowledge conveyed in the classroom and learning at home. The need to get the parents 'on board' during IEP meetings was reinforced through case-based learning. Showing student teachers how parents could be useful through case-based learning was deemed a vital part of any special education program for effective future instructors. The research involved in the article did not take place in an actual school. Rather, it was deployed amongst a population of student teachers before they had left their university environments. This case-based simulation learning was "defined as a written, problem-based account of an authentic teaching dilemma…The role of the instructor using case-based instruction has been in various ways described as that of facilitator, moderator, catalyst, resource, and director" (Patterson et al. 2009). The parents used in the……

Pages: 2  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 1


Teaching Reflective Commentary Portfolio

Teaching Reflective Commentary Portfolio Mathematics is an area of education not often sought after by those teachers interested in true education. The subjects typically seem dry and students rarely take the courses seriously. In the field of accounting, however, there has been a much larger deficiency in properly educating students. As stated by Rob Gray (2006), in his article, There…

Pages: 17  |  Research Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 17


Individual Learning Plans in Community Education

Individual Learning Plans in Community Education The Question of Individual Learning Plans for ESOL Learners The purpose of this work is to research how individuals learning plans affect the role of the ESOL practitioner in community education? Further this work will document the fact that although individual learning plans are necessary they do not suit all types of learner in…

Pages: 15  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Online Teaching

Online Teaching Technology advancements have made a lot of improvements in every walk of life. The field of education has also been blessed by the technology and the concept of online education has emerged. Online learning has become the most popular mode of learning in a very short span of time. The reason for its fame is unlimited, however, being cost effective and suited to the demands of the learners are some of the most common reasons of its popularity. Ironically, online teaching is one of the most controversial modes of teaching. The reason of the controversy is due to the fact that it rejects the educational philosophies which have the central role of a teacher. In contrast, online education has no role of a teacher. This paper sheds light upon the element of social presence which is a prerequisite in the online learning environment as analyzed by Benjamin Kehrwald in his article namely 'Understanding social presence in text-based online learning environment'. This article tries to understand the importance and presence of social presence in the online learning environments. The main aim of this article is to develop a uniform definition of social presence in order to improve the instructional effectiveness and to understand how the students experience this phenomenon while learning in a virtual environment. In order to understand all these factors that are present in an online environment, the writer employed the research methods to collect data and to reach on a valid conclusion. The main aim of these methods was to gather enough data in order to validate the hypothesis of social presence in the online learning environment. The study involved gathering data from a group of experienced students who had al long history of using online learning for educational purposes. The definition of social presence was developed by gathering the research data. The main crust of the information gathered was that social presence being felt by the students was when there was some sort of feedback or reaction they received from other students. One very important finding of the study was that the process of interaction between students that takes places between online learning makes the whole learning experience richer and more positive for the learner. However, the limitation to this point is that it cannot be generalized because not every online learning offers interaction between students. The writer held the idea that the component of…

Pages: 4  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


Democratic Education Question No. What

Why do you think neoliberalism has become the dominant discourse of education, despite the fact that Finland seems to go against most of the tenets of neoliberalist education and yet scores so well on the PISA tests? Is it the inevitable way that the world is moving and education needs to adapt, or are there other models that should be…

Pages: 8  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


School-Wide Inquiry Into Learning and

I am specifically interested in studying the 'PASS' test which is administered by my state in the third grade. For my approach, I intend to embark upon a case study method in which uses the principles of 'action research.' Action research fundamentally strives to address community-based problems from an insider's rather than outsider's perspective (Rose 2009). Students as well as teachers are viewed as involved participants in the approach. I will follow the preparation of third grade classes within two different public schools that must take the test. One will be in a 'failing' school district, the type of school district that standardized tests are deliberately intended to 'flag.' The second will be in an affluent school district in which students are traditionally identified as high-achieving. Questions I will attempt to explore are whether standardized tests are fundamentally helpful in addressing the needs of students in underperforming districts, the stresses it causes students, and the degree to which teachers feel that standardized tests have enhanced or inhibited their ability to help students learn. The experiences and impressions of the teachers and students in the failing district vs. The high-achieving district will be compared, to see if the latter district is equally affected by pressures to perform to meet state standards and if teachers have had to modify their curriculums as extensively to teach to the test. Does the school allow for more creative learning, given the reduced pressures of the test? To what extent does the test ensure that 'what gets tested is what gets taught' in both districts? And are there concerns that students who need the most emotional motivation to learn are being forced into the most restrictive and least enjoyable curriculums, while more affluent peers have more creative space to grow and learn? Reference Rose, L.P. (2009). Students as researchers: a framework for using action research. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(2).…

Pages: 2  |  Capstone Project  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Self-Reflection to Improve Teaching the

" (Bryant, 2010, p.1) In addition, Hohler states that the right setting is necessary for effective teaching. (Bryant, 2010, paraphrased) III. Observations/Concerns About Incorporation of Self-Reflection Self-reflection is a critically important aspect of gauging the effectiveness of one's teaching and towards this end collaboration is an element that strongly supports self-reflection because it provides one with a standard of pertinent and applicable knowledge in the role of the nursing educator about who they are teaching, what level of education is appropriate and effective and in terms of how effective their own methods of teaching are and how much of the information is retained as it is presented by the nursing educator. Collaboration and feedback are important tools that make provision of a measure of effectiveness that the nursing educator can use to improve or finely tune their methods of presentation or the information provided during the education initiative. In today's patient-education environment the use of technology is extremely important as an aid and support to the information that patients are provided. It is common for the nursing educator to be apprehensive about their teaching in the clinical setting. Cook (2005) explored the anxiety related to teaching of nursing students in a study involving 229 junior and senior generic baccalaureate-nursing students in which the participants completed three questionnaires. After taking the demographic data questionnaire, the Clinical Teaching Survey and a Self-Evaluation Questionnaire, which were designed to measure state anxiety, findings indicated that there were "moderate negative correlations between students' perceptions of the personally and professionally inviting teaching behaviors" which is reported to have provided an explanation for "41% of the variance in students' state anxiety. Junior students rated faculty higher on personally and professionally inviting teaching behaviors than did senior students. However, both groups of students scored similarly on self-report of stated anxiety while interacting with clinical faculty. Findings indicate that clinical faculty should be intentionally aware of how their teaching behaviors are perceived by students and influence student anxiety during clinical experiences." (Cook, 2005, p.1) Summary and Conclusion The nursing educator has to now only reflect on their own teaching but as well, the educator should be aware of the perception of others in regards to their efforts at teaching, should collaborate with other professionals, and should ensure that they are engaged in continuous learning throughout their career. Bibliography Brookfield's Four Lenses: Becoming a Critically-Reflective Teacher. Arts, Teaching & Learning…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Transformative Learning

Transformative Learning and Higher Education The primary goal of higher education is to help to prepare those who have been students to this juncture in their lives for the first steps into adulthood. But beyond this, there are various philosophically-grounded objectives to which the university should aspire, including the cultivation of ingenuity, the facilitation of positive social action and the formulation of tomorrow's upstanding citizens. Unfortunately, the perspective on transformative education argues, these goals are often far overshadowed by the demands placed upon individuals to get good grades, to remain focused on narrow disciplinary imperatives and to formulate professional objectives. The discussion here denotes that transformative education aims to dismantle the separation between these objectives by eliminating the boundaries between disciplines, the boundaries between professional objectives and personal objectives and the boundaries between the academic world and the social realm. Transformative education thusly promotes the pursuit of positive social change through the learning development of individuals. This is a premise which strikes one as particularly relevant to the context of higher education, and yet, our review of the texts by Glisczinski (2007) and Moore (2005) shows, such a perspective is often critically lacking at the instructional level. This, Moore indicates, is so in spite of the relative theoretical acceptance attained by transformative education. Moore reports that "many academics supports the ideals of transformation and social change and the importance of these constructs for the public -- outside of the university." (Moore, p. 77) However, certain conceits of the educational system have made this quite a secondary interest. The experience that greets many students when they have reached the level of higher education is one of simultaneous social unfamiliarity and, all too frequently, a less than novel academic reality. The study by Glisczinski (2007) argues that in spite of the inherently transformative nature of the university experience, classes often do not reflect this notion of transition. The result, the article indicates, is that the experience of personal transformation far out-shadows the transformation achieved in the academic context. Accordingly, the article "revealed that 35% of participating college students reported experiencing transformative learning as a result of critical reflection on disorienting college experiences. This study explores curricular and pedagogical interventions designed to move critical reflection and perspective transformation from the periphery of higher education curriculum into a central framework for teaching, as an act of intentionality and decision making." (Glisczinski, p. 317) This…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Learning Disability Report

Special Ed Learning Disabilities Chart Special Education in Brooke County, WV At the elementary school level, Brooke County only as several dedicated special needs classroom in four of its primary schools (WV Dept. Of Education 2009). The largest of these is located at the Wellsburg primary school, and this was my place of observation concerning the implementation of special needs education practices and principles in action. Inclusion policies were not implemented especially strongly here; two high-functioning individuals were in the special needs classroom despite their obvious intelligence level. Behavioral and social issues related to their condition (both had autism spectrum disorders) might provide the explanations for this placement, however. There are two team teachers and an aide in this classroom, allowing for a great deal of individualized and small group attention, which is in keeping with many basic principles and recommendations for most learning disorders and disabilities (LDA 2006). Disruptions were fairly frequent, but rarely escalated and were quickly clamed down by the teacher(s) and/or their teaching aide. Students were generally able to concentrate on their assigned tasks and in fact were engaged quite enthusiastically in their learning activities. Student achievement was definitely impact by the diversity of needs and abilities in the classroom, as well as the teaching of several grades at once (1st through 3rd). The limitations were minimized by the teachers' obvious practice and ability, however, and in general the educational achievements being reached in this classroom indicate highly successful practices and skills (LDA 2006). Parental Interview After my observation of the special needs classroom at Wellsburg Primary, I had the opportunity to interview the parents of one of the children in the class who suffered from an autism spectrum disorder. We discussed their son's specific areas and degree of difficulty; he is high-functioning, but extremely resistant to change. This makes learning new things and interaction with others exceedingly difficult, as other individuals, of course, rarely conform their behavior to his exact expectations even when they can figure out what those expectations are. Because of this, the main desire for these parents when it come……

Pages: 3  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 2


Industrialized Education Describe and Explain the Advantages

Industrialized Education Describe and explain the advantages and disadvantages of a highly industrialized form of distance education. Applying methods of industry to methods of education has been of interest to educators and businesspeople for decades. Through distance education, Otto Peters explains that a fundamentally different type of education has been achieved. In this type of education, large amounts of students can be reached with efficiently produced information towards an end goal of more productive persons entering their fields. Additionally, the division of labor used to create distance education mimics the world of industry. Thus, distance education has been called "the most industrialized form of teaching and learning," designed "on the basis of industrialized processes" (Example 1). But both advantages and disadvantages to this "highly industrialized" form of instruction exist. An exploration of the advantages and disadvantages of a highly industrialized form of distance learning will allow readers to determine whether or not the distance education revolution is one bearing positive or negative consequences for individuals, academia, and the workforce. In order to determine the advantages of a highly industrialized form of distance education, one must agree on the goals of distance education. Distance education, and in fact education in general, can be described as possessing goals of preparing as many people as possible for social betterment through new knowledge and imparting to these students the most accurate and greatest degree of knowledge possible. Based on these goals, a highly industrialized form of distance education has unique and important advantages. First of all, because it uses multimedia avenues to instruct, "it is possible to convey knowledge to a theoretically……

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Editorial Distance Education Theory

Distance Education Theory Moore opens his discussion with two important conceptual clarifications: that of distance learning and transactional distance. He begins by exposing the weakness of what the term "distance learning" denotes as he states, " [it] is troublesome since it suggests actions of one person, i.e. The learner, that are independent of the actions of teachers" when in fact a distance learning program is dualistic in nature as it involves both teaching and learning experiences (par. 3). In order to substantiate this claim, he drew upon the transaction literature which proves the existence of the interplay of multitude of factors in the education setting as "the teachers and learners, [transacts] in an environment that has the special characteristic of separation of one from another, and a consequent set of special teaching and learning behaviors" (par. 4). It is only the physical or geographical distance in distance education that becomes an avenue by which misunderstandings between the teacher and the learner can occur, hence the existence of "transactional distance." This shows that to simply dismiss distance education as a one-way education experience is a mistake in the offing. Moore then took the article in a historical spin when he traced distance education alongside an important social phenomenon - industrialization. He claims that distance education is viewed as an industrialized form of teaching as this type of education required standardized, normalized, and formalized learning tools and procedures to capture a larger target market to which it will be sold. However, Moore cited a number of authors disputing the claim that distance education is simply industrialized education. These authors showed proof that the phenomenon of industrialization has huge effects -- deeply penetrating people's material and constructed realities, a social change that took effect in traditional education as well. Moore's position in this controversy maintains that "... these effects of industrialization remain external to teaching and learning at a traditional university. In principle, they still take place in accordance with the same structural patterns that stem from pre-industrial age (par. 18)." By pre-industrial age, Moore refers to how "oral" of an activity traditional education is because it is an offshoot of traditional oral culture while distance education became possible because of technological efforts, which require playing along technical rules and language that is unbound by context. Moore acknowledges the fact that theorizing in the sphere "industrialization" - a concept that was born more…

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Long-Distance Learning and Online Learning

Distance and Net-Based Learning Describe and explain in how far distance learning and Net-based learning are likely to change learning at universities drastically. Just about everyone agrees that Net-based learning represents a more advanced from of learning than previous distance learning efforts and that the Net will therefore have a much more significant impact on the ways courses are developed and taught and the way students learn. Some even wonder if traditional campuses will continue to serve a viable purpose in just a few years time. However, while Net-based learning is likely to revolutionize education, it is unlikely to usurp brick-and-mortar campuses. The Net will change the learning styles of students as well as how and who they communicate with. Net-based learning using skills such as browsing, exploring, searching, and connecting will make students more autonomous learners who explore non-linear paths of study to meet their own interests and objectives. These skills are utilized while students exercise cognitive flexibility and select their learning path (Peters, 1999). Electronic communications such as email and conferencing will replace face-to-face conversations and will provide access to a global "knowledge building community (Peters, 1999). Teachers will have to adapt to the new role of the student on the Net. For instance, the teacher role must shift from being a leader to being a coach as student autonomy in the learning process increases. The traditional methods of oral and written review of assigned textual material will no longer be the way to measure learning. Instead, students will measure and document their own learning progress. Within the knowledge building community, teachers will be one expert of many and must now function as a "team of experts" rather than as a sole source of expertise. With regards to course development, technologies in Net-based learning such as……

Pages: 2  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Distance Education in Assessing the Strengths and

Distance Education In assessing the strengths and weaknesses of various forms of distance education and its progression from manually-oriented approaches to electronically-enabled teaching platforms, it is clear that Chere Campbell Gibson's vision of how information enables greater long-term learning is happening today. At the center of Gibson's vision of learning is the opportunity for students to get away from rote memorization and engage in problem solving through interdisciplinary experiences. Ultimately technology can be an enabler of greater learning and the potential of giving students the flexibility of creating knowledge as well, and this is the catalyst of Chere Campbell Gibson's view of technology as an enabler of more effective teaching and learning. The intent of this paper is to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each form of distance education. Evaluating the Forms of Distance Education In evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of each form of distance education, the criteria of how effective each is in enabling long-term learning, and the ability to nurture a long-term learning process is used. Beginning with correspondence education and home study, the advantages of this approach to distance learning are its ability to scale to large numbers of students, cost, and ease of administration on the instructor side. In addition, correspondence education or home study, students have the option of studying and completing learning tasks and projects on their own. As with all forms of distance education, this specific one requires a high degree of personal initiative to stay focused on the material and move through it quickly. The disadvantages of this specific form of distance education are the isolation that the student endures as they complete the course. As more advanced forms of distance education provide collaboration online, this one does not. Second, there is little interaction with the instructor on a periodic or even real-time basis. The lag time is significant waiting to get feedback on how a specific assignment, test or course final exam has been scored. As a result, this approach to distance education is being rapidly replaced by more electronically-oriented means. Independent study is comparable to correspondence education or home study in that the student is often on their own the majority of the course. The difference is, independent study is used as a means of allowing students enrolled in university-level courses to complete requirements of a degree-related program on their own. This has the advantages of the home…

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Special Education Goetze and Walker (2004) Found

Special Education Goetze and Walker (2004) found that students who are most at risk of academic failure are those who lack reading skills. They found that use of technology enhanced literary capabilities of students who have special needs (Goetze and Walker, 2004). In fact, technology and literacy have a very strong link and scholars have been keenly interested in discovering…

Pages: 16  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 16


Education in Twenty First Century

Education Reflections on the Future of Education in the Twenty-First Century In a rapidly changing world education is more important than ever. The children of the Twenty-First Century face a society that is more diverse, more connected, and more technologically complex than any that has ever existed. Students come from a variety of backgrounds. Many do not speak English as a first language. They do not understand American culture and customs. Large numbers grow up in single-parent households. Their families struggle to survive on limited incomes, and with minimal resources. They have nowhere to turn in the daily fight against hunger, crime, and drugs. Others must overcome physical and psychological disabilities. Learning itself is a battle. Adults do not always present the ideal role models. Often teachers must assume the responsibilities traditionally born by others. Children need and deserve all the attention and love they can get. Educators must understand the problems of young people both inside and outside the classroom. Education in the Twenty-First Century will be all-encompassing; a full-time job that demands all a teacher's energies, patience, and talent. Imagination is essential. To meet the needs of tomorrow's students, today's teachers must be creative and pro-active. They must be willing to accept change, to acquire new skills, and practice new techniques. In the Twenty-First Century, the teacher's education, too, must never end. All children must be given the opportunity to succeed. In the Twenty-First Century, education must remain free and open to all. The public school system is an essential part of the learning process. Public schools provide a place where young people of diverse backgrounds can come together for the purposes of learning more about themselves, and about the world in which they live. Different religious beliefs, social ideas, and cultural attitudes help to enrich the learning process. Students discover a world beyond their own families and neighborhoods. It is the task of the teacher to give young people the tools to better understand that world, and to open up new horizons of knowledge. Curricula must be broad-based and take into account divergent concepts. Pupils must learn to question as well as comprehend. It is a teacher's job to challenge her or his students, to set goals that move those students beyond the merely expected, toward the discovery of hidden potentials and talents. Children must be encouraged in the direction of their own unique attributes. They must…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 0


Education Has Evolved Substantially Over the Years,

¶ … Education has evolved substantially over the years, from an almost strictly oral tradition in the Greek era, from the beginning of what is recognized as the Greek classical period to the end of the Hellenistic period. (500-30 BCE) the next educational period to be discussed is the Renaissance from roughly 1400 to 1550 CE, with an education based…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 4


Literacy in Secondary Education

Literacy in Secondary Education Adolescent literacy has started to be reconsidered by teachers and researchers. The focus on adolescent literacy may be explained in two ways: First, both teachers and researchers in adolescent literacy have acknowledged the impact of culturally and linguistically diverse students on literacy. An example of this current trend is given by Alvermannn and her colleagues, in…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 14


New York City Multicultural Education

0 V. Reducing Racism, Prejudice and other Fear and Ignorance Factors: Evident in the patterns of unemployment, imprisonment, poor health care and educational failures which shows evidence in high number of people of color that are affected by these elements, is racism and discrimination in society. There are laws in existence that prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color,…

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Andragogy Malcolm Knowles' Theory of

Because of the experiential format of clinical coursework, where students primarily learn from their mistakes, the student will only get as much out of the course as she puts in. That is, a student who is poorly prepared for clinical coursework will commit mistakes at the basic level, out of which she will derive only basic lessons in the practice of nursing. Such a student will receive what amounts to remedial education from the clinical component of the course. A student who is prepared to the minimum level expected by the coursework, however, will commit mistakes at the relatively advanced level, and will derive more advanced lessons from her participation in the clinical component. The Necessary Climate for Clinical Teaching or Learning Clinical coursework is best delivered in a setting with ample training resources. Some element of professional training is necessary for clinical coursework because a student cannot be expected to know how to perform certain professional duties and procedures, which constitute the learning activities themselves, from their classroom-based coursework alone. An experienced clinical professional must be available to instruct the student on how to perform the duties and procedures that she will be evaluated on. The other fundamental component of clinical coursework is ample feedback and evaluation from an experienced clinical professional with sufficient knowledge of the student and her work in the clinical setting. Formal evaluations completed by the student's official clinical supervisor should be considered the absolute minimum for this component. Effective clinical coursework would require ample amounts of immediate feedback from the professional supervising the student's work on a particular task. The training and feedback components of clinical coursework are best delivered through the same individual or group of individuals. The individuals who provide the training are best qualified to evaluate the student on her application of that training during the respective task. The training and feedback components are best delivered through a single supervisor/mentor, an experienced clinical professional. It is optimal if the mentor has experience supervising students in a clinical setting, but not essential. Number of Students in a Clinical Setting Clinical coursework is best delivered in a learning environment with no more than 4 students assigned to each supervising professional/mentor. This ratio allows the supervisor to develop a substantial professional relationship with each student in order to deliver substantive and focused feedback tailored to the student's particular needs. It also ensures that the…

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Differentiated Instruction in the Self-Contained Special Education Classroom

Differentiated Instruction in the Self-Contained Special Education Classroom Differentiation in the Self-Contained Special Education Classroom: A Defense of Differentiation and the Importance of Special Education Environments Thanks to the No Child Left Behind Act, increasing educational research, and a revitalized interest in special education students and the methods by which they receive the best education possible, the question of differentiation…

Pages: 16  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 13


Confidential Interview From High School English Teacher,

Confidential Interview From high school English teacher, to stay at home mom and day care provider, to an expert in program planning and adult education with a doctorate, this program planner not only ended up working in adult education, but also used it to advance her own career. Her accomplishments, however, were not the result of luck. Instead, this program planner began to exert her ambition to succeed during her high school years. Although she came from a lower middle class family, she was able to attend a private university through a scholarship. She decided to continue her education about fourteen years later through, pursuing her master's degree in Adult Education at Penn State. In 1996, she graduated with a D.Ed. In Adult Education. Her post-graduate career did not encompass school alone, however. Instead, it also included work at the American Center of Distance Education as a publications editor. After working at this institution, she became the Director of Operations and Evaluation at the World Campus, as well as the Director of the American Center for the Study of Distance Education and the Director of Research. This educational and work history has given this professional the experience and exposure necessary to speak, first hand, about program planning and its role in adult education, as well as distance education. That experience stems primarily from this program planner's work at the World Campus, and her interaction with the Sloan Foundation. As the primary source of funding for the World Campus, the Sloan Foundation would need to be briefed about the various programs that the World Campus was planning. One of the programs that is freshest in this program planner's memory is a program relating to online education, which most of the programs that this planner dealt with were. This program dealt with ways to improve online education at all primary, secondary, and post-secondary levels, grades. The program planner goes on to expound on this program, acknowledging that many in the educational field have theorized that primary and secondary education, that is k-12 education, is inherently linked with higher education. Thus, k-12 teachers and post-secondary educators at online and traditional campuses should work to further integrate the two types of education. One of the programs that this program planner was in charge of planning was a conference between those involved in k-12 education and higher education having to do with online activities. In…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Distance Education Is About to Change

¶ … history of change in distance education and the theory of transactional distance and describe developments in those areas over the past two or three years. It may seem that distance education is a relatively new concept, especially with the advent of so many online or web-based distance education courses, but in reality, distance education has been around for…

Pages: 6  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 0


Effects Impact of Technology in Learning of Elementary School Special ED Students

¶ … technology in learning of elementary school special ed. Students Action Research Paper: Effects and Impact of Technology in Learning of Elementary School Special Education Students The use of technologies to assist in the teaching of special education elementary school children presents unique challenges and illustrates how the creative use of Web-based learning systems can accelerate and support the…

Pages: 39  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 6


Otto Peters

Otto Peters (1997) Industrialized Teaching and Learning is as close to a chastisement of education, and certainly academics, for failing to recognize the potential for distance education and learning. For Peters, the lack of pedagogy on the subject arose out of academia's limited scope of impending change, and academics inability to think out of the box. Peters says that main stream institutions missed the boat by not taking seriously the trend towards distance education and learning. Academics continue to criticize distance education and learning instead of recognizing the opportunities that distance education and learning creates for professors, especially those whose work in teaching is highly sought by students, but limited by classroom and the commitment to a single institution. Peters says that distance education and learning is wrongly categorized by academics as industrialized education, and this is an accurate point. The industrial revolution has passed, and we are in the age of a technological revolution. Distance education and learning is, and always has been, the product of the growing move towards the world reliance on technology. While Peters says that the relationship between industrialization and teaching has come to describe the relationship between the teacher and the learning process. Peters says: But the concept of industrialised teaching and learning no longer refers to the application of individual or even several principles of industrialisation, but to the analogy between the teaching and learning process and the process of industrial production (Peters, 2)." Use of the term "industrialization" to describe any relationship in the age of technology is outdated, and out of touch. Efforts to portray it as a necessity of industrialization, because many of the students of early industrialization were factory shift workers. This might have been accurate as a description of the students who were taking the courses, but it is difficult to say whether or not those students constituted a majority of the students utilizing distance learning. Also, in today's age of technology, it is no longer accurate to description the utilization of distance education and learning as a product of industrialization at any level. In fact, and Peters points this out, distance education and learning really is not about the relationship between the instructor and the learning process anymore. Distance education and learning is about where society is at now. Peters quotes Rumble, saying: Greville Rumble (1995a, 19) is also of the opinion that regarding industrialisation as typical…

Pages: 3  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


On Line Instructor Advice

¶ … E-Learning & Successful Online Teaching Many who transition from traditional brick and mortar teaching environment into the online teaching environment have the misconception that they are the same. However, nothing could be farther from the truth. Teachers making this transition need to realize that there will have to be many changes in the way that they present their…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Integrated Learning in the Classroom in Most

Integrated Learning in the Classroom In most schools today, educators integrate students who are non-native English speakers into the regular classroom. Students may be described in terms of their English language ability in order to create cooperative learning groups and to measure their progress. A student's English language ability is often described in one of the following ways: Emergent language learners, just beginning to learn the language. Limited English Proficient, or those with basic interpersonal communication abilities that allow interaction with peers socially. May also describe students with some level of cognitive academic language (CALP) allowing the student to interact more deeply with content. Native English speakers or students that use English as their primary language. This combination can present many challenges for teaching and learning. It is the teacher's responsibility to provide a classroom atmosphere where optimal learning can take place for all students. One of the primary tasks a teacher has is to create a safe environment where students can risk "trying" the language. In addition, certain strategies have been found to be particularly helpful in providing a learning community where everyone has access to not only learning English, but also the content. There are many research-based ELL strategies that can facilitate greater learning in the classroom for students at all levels described. Pre-instruction activities including graphic organizers, semantic webbing and KWL charts can help students multiple ways. Studies suggest these activities promote greater cooperation in the classroom and create an environment where students are able to create models for learning and absorbing information at a pace that fits them well. These methods can help create a learning environment where "global levels of competence" are possible based on a student's individual skills and ability to discover ways of organizing information that caters to their skill level and ability (Givner, Lane & Pierson, 2003, 213). One way a teacher can integrate this strategy into learning is by establishing a curriculum that naturally integrates pre-instruction practices into learning. By preparing students through various tools for learning, students are more empowered when engaged in actual learning activities, because they know ahead of time what the goals and objectives of learning will be. Multiple studies confirm that students learn in varying ways; while some are kinesthetic learners, others learn by example, others learn through auditory measures and still others learn best when teachers incorporate visual aids into the classroom. Visual aids can…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 2


Educational Psychology A) Student Learning: Constructivism Arose

Educational Psychology a) Student Learning: Constructivism Constructivism arose from learning theories originally created by Piaget and Vygotsky. At the basis of the theory is the use of prior knowledge or existing cognitive frameworks to use as a basis for acquiring new knowledge and skills (Cakir, 2008, p. 196). Van Glaserfeld (1995) offers a number of principles to describe constructivist knowing.…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 20


Causes as Well as the Available Approaches

¶ … Causes as Well as the Available Approaches Affecting Learning Abilities The Legislative perspective The need for early intervention The theory behind learning disabilities Approaches of teaching children with Learning disabilities Constructivist theory and its application Behaviorist theory and its application In this paper, we explore the concept of teaching student with learning disabilities. The concept of learning disabilities…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Technology Assessment Application

Technology Assessment in Nursing Changes in healthcare management are really requiring that nurses to become a little more technically knowledgeable and capable to rapidly familiarize themselves to by means of tools that are technical in their exercises. Educators that are nurse are acclimatizing to this obligatory capability by presenting technology into nurse education core curriculum as their finances will support…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 9

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