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Role of Engineering

Aircraft Engineering Engineering in the Aerospace Industry There are many areas of endeavor where engineers are a vital and necessary part of success. One of the most exciting fields to emerge over the past century, and which continues to make groundbreaking and truly life-altering advances in the modern era, is aerospace engineering. The making of air and space craft encompasses far more than might be initially thought; in addition to airplanes and space shuttles, the rockets used to deliver communication satellites into orbit and even the satellites themselves are designed by aerospace engineers. In this way, the continued use of current technologies like wireless Internet networks, television signals, and cell phones are hugely dependent on the success of aerospace engineers. The variety of different careers, opportunities, tasks, and skills that are found in the realm of aerospace engineering makes it one of the most exciting industries for prospective engineers looking forward to a rich and expanding career. One of the most easily imaginable occupations that an aerospace engineer might be involved in is the design of new aircraft. There are a variety of skills needed for a career in aircraft design; in addition to the ability to compute highly complex figures regarding stress, weight, principles of lift, and many other factors while designing the aircraft, strong visual skills and a solid understanding of industry software is also necessary (Raymer 2006). This is important not only for the engineer to have a strong sense of the physical possibilities of a design, but also for the communication of these visualizations to others who lack any engineering expertise. Though it is often of less importance, there is also a necessity for the aircraft engineer to have a good aesthetic sense (Raymer 2006). There are also less obvious and in some ways more technical engineering needs in the aerospace industry. The separate but related areas of propulsion, fluid mechanics, and structure are just a few of the specializations important in aerospace engineering (Garner 2002). In aerospace engineering, fluid mechanics is more accurately referred to as aerodynamics, which is also a more familiar term to many. Essentially, these engineers must study and understand the way gases -- such as air -- flow around air or space craft, adjusting the body design for stabilization, fuel efficiency, speed, or whatever else the client specifies (Garner 2002). This leads to one of the most essential skills for all…

Pages: 3  |  Thesis  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 5


Engineering Career in Aerospace

Engineering Career in Aerospace Engineering Aerospace engineering as a profession is a career of the future, dealing with anything from missile weapons systems to aircraft and spacecraft. The career depends on education, input of other engineers in other disciplines, and skills that come from on the job knowledge and discovery. A well-paying career, aerospace engineering is an area of employment…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Elites in Engineering

Elites in Engineering In the contemporary world, it has increasingly become significant for active engineers to be uniformly skilled in technical and management comprehension. This is in the view of the fact numerous graduates find themselves in significant leadership positions. To assist engineering professionals improve their leadership aptitudes within their profession through a course in Entrepreneurship, Leadership, Innovation and Technology…

Pages: 40  |  Dissertation  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 100


Engineering Ethics and Morality Related

It happened soon after the shuttle's conclusion of its 28th mission. According to some reports, the disaster occurred due to a damage which was sustained during the launch when a small part of foam insulation having the size of a little briefcase broke away from the external tank of the space shuttle, this debris struck the left wing's leading edge which damaged the TPS (thermal protection system). When Columbia was still in orbit, this fault was pointed out by some of the engineers but NASA refused to do anything about it. Therefore it can be concluded that if swift action was taken soon after knowing about this incident then all of this loss would have been prevented, although some blame poor engineering as the cause, the main reason is often deemed to be more ethical rather than technical. Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster It is a series of nuclear meltdowns, equipment failures and the release of harmful radioactive materials from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Although the primary cause of this disaster is technical one but the human error in all of this scenario can not be neglected. It was observed that the main damage to the power plant occurred because of the tsunami that hit the plant site soon after the earthquake. Here, it was the responsibility of the engineers working at the plant to make it safe from every possible known disaster and the factor of tsunami was largely ignored by everyone working at the site. If the engineers would have studied the outcomes of different disaster events in more detailed form from the start then all of this would have been avoided. Nicoll Highway collapse This highway collapse occurred on 20th April 2004 at Singapore when an under construction tunnel used by trains collapsed. The investigations regarding the collapse started immediately after the incident. The findings of these investigations concluded that the main cause of collapse was due to the inability of the retaining wall to handle stress. Four workers died because of this incident, on the ethical ground if the engineers would have studied the site in more detail and used more reliable raw material for the construction of the retaining wall then all of this could have been easily avoided. Willow Island disaster It is regarded as the biggest construction disaster in American history, the Willow disaster was due to the collapse of an under construction…

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Engineering Ethics

Engineering Ethics Ethics in the Study and Practice of Engineering: Pragmatic and Intrinsic Values in Science and Application As the world becomes increasingly interconnected and interdependent, issues of ethics and ethical missteps have become increasingly common and prominent in the media and in terms of public attention. The worldwide financial crisis is one example of how ethically questionable and/or ethically…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Engineering Application Is Often a More Complex

¶ … engineering application is often a more complex feature of an engineering endeavor than might be expected from external observations. There are many different considerations that must be taken into account when selecting materials for use in engineering, including the various strengths of the material, its weight in relation to its strength, its cost, issues involved with its extraction…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


Social Engineering Tactics

Social Engineering Tactics SOCIOLOGY There is a lot of controversy when it comes to understanding social engineering. Its Mere definition sparks various arguments amongst renowned scholars. "It is basically the act of manipulating a person to do something that may or may not be for the person's best interest "(Social, 2010).It involves making a person to do certain actions, and acquiring information from the person. It might seem like a deceptive way of doing things, but it is what everyone does in their daily lives like an innocent child trying to get candy from their parents, or someone on a campaign trail seeking votes. Its level of complexity and wide scope of use makes it a science. Just like any other type of science, social engineering can be used in almost all kinds of activities and for various reasons (Podgorecki and Alexander, 1996) This paper will focus on how social engineering is being applied and how individuals and organization can be protected. Due to its wide scope of application key highlights will be on: impersonation, hoaxing, creating confusion, reverse social engineering, spamming and use of fake anti-spyware. Common social engineering tactics Impersonation Impersonation is one of the oldest tricks the engineers persuade their targets to release information or to do something for them through telephones and mails. It usually takes longer than other methods because the engineers need accurate information so as to fully convince their targets. An example, an engineer using this method may pretend to represent your bank, and then give a few details about your account, and then will tell you there is a technical hitch and your account has been disabled so he needs your pin so as to activate your account. This technique requires a lot of effort and research to appear legitimate to the victim. Hoaxing A technique like hoaxing is much simpler and easier for engineers. This is tricking people to believe that something is real and it is false. It mostly affects individuals because there are more vulnerable to such ploys than corporations (Thapar, 2008). Another technique similar to hoaxing is creating confusion. This is basically creating a situation and taking advantage of it. An example can be a person causing mayhem in an office thus distracting staff while his accomplices get access to information. Reverse Social Engineering, Spamming and fake antispyware There are other more complex methods that are emerging from…

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Sustainable Engineering Practice a Review of Three

Sustainable Engineering Practice A Review of Three News Articles Gies, Erica. "Solar Waste Recycling: Can the industry stay green?" Spot.us. 9 Aug 2010 Web Several decades have passed and the use of Solar Technology has increased and changed over time. While it is certainly a green and sustainable resource, there are several components of the technology that reach End of Life (EOL) or otherwise have to be replaced. IN order to follow the initial paradigm of the technology, these "waste" components need to be These outgoing parts need to be reused or recycled in order for Solar energy to remain wholly in the green zone. Traditionally technology has been difficult to reuse, so recycling has usually be the course. Old computers can sometimes be reused to emerging countries, but more than likely the toxic components need to be safely deconstructed and recycled. The same is true of Solar technology and several new companies have sprung up to take advantage of this market. Solar modules contain some of the same potentially dangerous materials as electronics, including silicon tetrachloride, cadmium, selenium and sulfur hexafluoride, a potent greenhouse gas. So as solar moves from the fringe to the mainstream, insiders and watchdog groups are beginning to talk about producer responsibility and recycling in an attempt to sidestep the pitfalls of electronic waste and retain the industry's green credibility. (Geis) The Solar panels have an approximate 20-year lifespan, and the non-profit group, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, is attempting to enlist entrepreneurial startups to get their businesses in place now before too many "dead panels pile up." Solar energy use is predicted to rise fifty percent every year creating an eventual exponential recycling problem. However, enough solar energy strikes the earth in one hour to meet the entire populations energy need for one year. Currently we are capturing only the smallest fraction of a percentage and given the need for more energy without environmental catastrophes, sustainability of this resource is a must. Rozgus, Amara and Rhonda McGee. "The 2010 National Engineering Survey --The Roles of Engineers are Changing; But Some Things Never Change." Consulting-Specifying Engineer (CSE). 9 Aug 2010 Web

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Sustainable Engineering Practice Role of Engineers (Computer

Sustainable Engineering Practice Role of Engineers (computer systems engineering) in the manufacturing industry The discipline of engineering has been considered to involve a process that requires creativity and is meant for the synthesis and implementation of the knowledge acquired by humanity. This means that the major task that engineers have is that of serving the community by improving their welfare, safety, and health giving the environment due consideration. This responsibility remains for all engineers regardless of the industry in which they work. Thus, engineers must always have the community in mind when developing and applying the science of engineering up to the management level (Code of Ethics 2000). Generally, the profession of computer systems engineering tries to match the current technology with the needs of a specific industry and to achieve this computer systems engineers evaluate and install software, hardware, and a variety of support equipment which together form a functional network that has the capability of supporting a number of operations within that industry (Tatum 2003). The major target of such an engineer is matching the products of the industry to the clients' needs. Roles of Computer Systems Engineers and the key characteristics The manufacturing industry ha several needs with regard to the products involved ranging from the production processes to the distribution processes. For instance, a company may have the need of having a more robust computer system for tracking their sales and a computer systems engineer will address such a need. A part from just addressing such an issue the computer systems engineer may go further to convince the company that including some add-ons to the system will bring an improvement on how the billing process and the sales department relate (Tatum 2003). This shows that for a computer systems engineer to be considered competent he must be able to address the needs that the industry has currently and also find out how to make the system more valuable to the company not only now but also in the future. There are cases when a company may require carrying out an installation of a new system, or even upgrading a system that already exists, in such a case the computer systems engineer has the duty of formulating ways of accomplishing the task more easily. Such efforts will result into the smooth flow of information within the company and generally lead to the enhancement of the company's internal…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Engineering and Sustainability Consortium Clarifies Goals, Walmart

¶ … Engineering and Sustainability Sustainability Consortium clarifies goals, Walmart relationship (Arizona State University): This article details a consortium of scientists, researchers, and engineers from a variety of research institutes that is trying to develop a Sustainable Product Index for a wide variety of common products. The consortium has been working closely with Wal-Mart, but stressed that their efforts are aimed at the retail world at large, and are not simply meant to help this retail giant. Their main goal is to develop scientific methods for measuring the sustainability of products, which could be used (with continual adjustment) well into the future. The creation of an index of many current products would have immediate benefits. This article relays some important news in he world of sustainability; when consumers know how sustainable the various products they buy are, they can make more informed decisions that will lead to new overall sustainability in industry and commerce. Engineers are a vital part of the consortium's efforts, enabling an understanding the true impact and long-reaching effects of the many manufacturing and distribution processes involved in the index. Sustainability and Crop Engineering (Jared Flesher, Green Inc.): Genetically modified crops have been touted by the engineers that developed them as the answer to world hunger and other problems, but questions have arisen as to whether these crops are truly sustainable. Though plants can be genetically engineered to resist certain diseases or pesticides, they have not proven as productive or as able to reproduce as non-genetically modified plants. This leads to questions about whether it is really prudent to devote agricultural land to their development, as well as concerns regarding what……

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Civil Engineering Student, I Am Attempting to

¶ … civil engineering student, I am attempting to apply for the engineering management program, and although my grades are not as high as they could be, I am convinced that they do not adequately reflect my overall professional abilities and skills. For the longest of time, I have thought that grades are not such an important factor when compared to being able to apply the knowledge obtained at school to real-life experiences, such as one might find as a gainfully-employed professional civil engineer. I would like to point out that despite the fact that I did not have a really high GPA, something above 3.5 or better, I was selected during my time as a sophomore to participate as an engineering intern at the State of Massachusetts Highway Department. Considering the number of other highly-qualified applicants for this position, I thought of myself as rather fortunate to have been chosen. Therefore, I decided to confidently apply what I had learned at school to this internship; I also……

Pages: 1  |  Admission Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Tissue Engineering

Tissue Engineering is an interdisciplinary field which utilizes the principles of life sciences as well as engineering for the creation of biological substitutes or replacements that can heal, improve, maintain or restore the functions of tissues. It involves contributions from doctors, chemical engineers, cell biologists, chemists and material scientists. Since it is comparatively a new field, tissue engineering has to…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Human Factors Cheap Engineering

Accidents / Engineering Accidents in the workplace or the home are the result of a variety of factors. Only thorough investigation can help the process of future prevention and mitigation measures. Professor M.W. Thring's statement, that all accidents are the result of cheap engineering, holds a certain truth, although other factors also need to be taken into account. Human factors may for example include the fact that a starting business owner is under considerable financial strain, and hence does not wish to invest too much in engineering. Electrical wiring is for example notoriously expensive. The danger of using cheap engineering, however, is that the materials used is often of a lower grade than those used by companies charging a larger fee. Electrical faults may then lead to life-threatening electrical failures, blackouts at crucial moments, and short circuits that may lead to fires. This kind of failure is especially dangerous when the company stores explosive substances on the premises. In this, a manager's urge to save funding becomes an expensive mistake. Cheap engineering could also pertain to the building materials used when erecting the business premises. A less experienced building company may for example charge less for its services. Once again, cheaper building materials are used, or unnoticed design flaws may occur. This combination can lead to material breakdown or fatal flaws that may cause the premises to collapse or crumble, in turn leading to accidents in the workplace. This is also a case where cheap engineering is directly responsible for workplace accidents. The problem is again that the drive to save money can become very expensive in terms of insurance fees or compensation to workers and their families. The same is true in the home, and indeed perhaps more so than in the workplace. A prospective home owner, just after spending an amount of money on his or her new premises, would wish to save as much money as possible on building and engineering costs. This however results in the same hazards as in the workplace. The homeowner and his family are thus in danger of injury or death as a result of using……

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Continuing Education for Engineers

¶ … Education in Engineering Engineering is a highly technical profession that requires considerable professional training to enter the field. By the time a professional engineer completes his or undergraduate education program and then satisfies the professional certification requirements that are prerequisites to practice in the field, he or she is highly qualified and capable of fulfilling the obligations and responsibilities of professional practice. However, like other sciences, engineering science is a continually evolving field in which a professional cannot rely exclusively on prior training to remain competent in the field. Since so many aspects of applied engineering directly affect human safety, it is essential that all practicing professional engineers continually update their knowledge bases and skills (Harris, Pritchard, & Rabins, 2008). Generally, the individual engineering licensing agencies and professional associations maintain their own requirements for continuing education in their particular areas (Harris, Pritchard, & Rabins, 2008). However, these requirements represent only the bare minimum by virtue of the tremendous variability in the individual practices of most professional engineers. In principle, it is impossible for a broad set of continuing education requirements of all mechanical engineers or of all civil engineers to adequately ensure the complete continued professional competence of all of the members of those respective professional associations. Therefore, the engineering firm and employing agencies have an ethical responsibility to ensure that the continued education of their engineers meets the actual needs of their specific professional responsibilities beyond the more general minimum requirements set by professional associations of engineers. Generally, this responsibility would require employers to establish their own in-house training requirements that address specialty areas and sub-specialty areas beyond the depth of knowledge that they can……

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Engineering Registration the Website for

One only needs to be a member of an accredited program in engineering at a college or university to be a student member, or a recent graduate of such a program to register with the organization. Thus, the steps to becoming licensed are to find out the specific requirements of one's state, to decide what field of engineering specialty one wishes to embark upon (if one has not already done so) and prepare to take and pass the exam in this specific field. Then, one must accumulate the necessary experience, if this cannot be waived in one's field or state of practice, to become licensed. If one has past internship experience this requirement may be waived. To register with a professional organization, however, one need not be a licensed engineer merely for a general membership, only for the full membership available only to those engineers who are licensed -- instead, one can obtain a regular, student, or recent graduate membership if these categories are applicable to one's current status. Works Cited Texas Society of Professional Engineers. (2002) Official Website. Retrieved 29 November 2004……

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Software Engineering Outline Requirements for

In other words, CAT output provides information for formal reduction strategy designs. These formal reduction strategy designs can be used to eliminate such problems as reducing redundant classes or replacing unnecessary classes or inefficient subclasses with more efficient superclasses. Since the software design process is considered an iterative process, the goal of revising UML class diagrams with a CAT helps a software engineer evaluate and therefore reduce redundant coupling during the software design process and this entails the fact that less refactoring will be required once the software is in a production phase. A second refactoring example is the use of the Rational Rose which is a UML-based CASE tool. Using a UML-based CASE tool to get the big picture for refactoring helps reduce risk or problems by the fact that each refactoring can be easily diagramed and evaluated so each small alteration visibly displayed can aid in reducing risk. By using a case tool there is an added benefit of the system always remaining fully functional during and after any minute refactorings. This again is an added opportunity to reduce the chances that a system is inadvertently thrown of whack or even seriously broken during a restructuring. CASE tools like Rational Rose tend to add more importance to the design phase and less stress later in the implementation phase. CASE tools permit the engineer to easily produce a diagram that express basic fundamentals and help to show where refactorings could be needed later on. 2.3 This section tries to explain what is wrong with the provided diagram above and also to propose a modification that would better solve the concern observed. In this example, a mirror hierarchy is demonstrated that occurs as two or more class hierarchies take on a similar shape because each model functions on a series of related concepts and certain factors standout to make the process better or worse. For example, considering each class hierarchy in isolation the overall process may make perfect sense but when considering the factors or classes as a group they may not work well together and therefore not make sense. The assessment of this diagram is that equipment in turn defines the purpose of the lab. The problem is that a mirror diagram works on the premise that one should be allowed to substitute subclass occurrences for a superclass. In this diagram you could therefore assume that nuclear equipment could…

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Reverse Engineering it Is Impossible

But, for this information to be useful, it is necessary to know what motivated the requirements of the existing system to determine what needs to be retained from the existing system to meet new requirements (Rayson, Garside and Sawyer). Therefore, in addition to reverse engineering, the requirements engineer must use whatever information resources are available to construct conceptual models of the pre-change organization and its business processes and from these derive the requirements of the legacy software. This typically entails an iterative process of inferring stakeholders, roles, tasks and business objects and verifying these against the structure and behavior of legacy ftware. Bibliography Biggerstaff, T.J. (1989, July). Design recovery for maintenance and reuse," Computer, pp. 3649. Muller, H.A., Wong, K. And Tilley, S.R. Understanding software systems using reverse engineering technology. Department of Computer Science, University of Victoria. Retrieved February 15, 2005 from Web site: http://www.utdallas.edu/~yxq014100/group/paper/visual-sw-arch/understanding-software-systems-using-reverse-engineering-technology.pdf Rayson, P, Garside, R. And Sawyer, P. Recovering legacy requirements. Computing Department, Lancaster University. Retrieved February 15, 2005 from Web site: http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:k0X09yv5sx4J:www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/computing/users/paul/publications/rgs99_refsq.pdf+%22Reverse+engineering%22+accuracy+legacy& hl=en…

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Engineering Ethics Websites Were Reviewed:

The Institution of Engineers, Australia ethics code provides the most detailed information about ethical principles and their methods of implementation. Like the council's code the Australia code is defined by a two-tier system, in which the general cardinal principles are first listed and are next followed by the code's tenets, which provide more specific information about the cardinal principles. In addition to this, however, the Australia code provides general interpretations of the tenets through the use of examples and scenarios. So for example the tenet discussing about relationships between colleagues is interpreted as meaning that members should provide honest and fair criticisms towards the work of others, should give proper credit to colleagues who helped in completing a project, should compete with each other on the basis of merit, should avoid replacing colleagues during the completion of a project without notifying them, and so forth. Besides providing detailed interpretations of its principles, the Australia code also includes several ethical issues that were noticeably absent from the other codes reviewed here. Such issues include the act of whistle blowing and the act of serving as an expert witness. The code ends with discussing about how the organization handles its members who allegedly breach it, which is another topic of consideration not delved into by the other ethics websites. Works Cited "American council of engineering companies ethical guidelines." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. October 1980. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005: http://www.onlineethics.com/codes/acec1980.html 'IEEE (Institute of electrical and electronic engineers) code of ethics." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. August 1990. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005: http://www.onlineethics.com/codes/IEEEcode.html 'The institution of engineers, Australia code of ethics." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005: http://www.onlineethics.com/codes/IEAcode.html…

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Women with Children in Science / Engineering Fields

¶ … children is a disadvantage/advantage for women who want to have a career in science or engineering by comparing with the women who have not the children Having children is a disadvantage/advantage for women who want to have a career in science or engineering when compared with women who do not have children This paper explores the gender differences…

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Application of Layout and Topology Optimization Using Pattern Gradation for the Conceptual Design of Buildings

Topology Current Research in Topology Optimization: An Article Review Current research and practice in engineering and design relies increasingly on computation-driven optimization techniques that result in a more efficient and more effective use of resources, creating stronger and more lasting structures out of less materials. The computational problems that can and do arise in light of the complex tasks that…

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Hydrology & Civil Engineering Hydrology:

Two inches of rushing water from a flood knocks a person off his or her feet. Two feet of water sweeps an automobile downstream. "Flash floods occur with little or no warning and can reach full peak in only a few minutes," FEMA warns. Property damage from flooding in America now totals over a billion dollars a year. One dramatic disaster reported by FEMA is, on a large scale, what can happen when heavy precipitation occurs in a short period of time: "On July 31, 1976, the Big Thompson River near Denver overflowed after an extremely heavy storm. A wall of water 19 feet high roared down the Big Thompson Canyon where many people were camping. 140 people perished and millions of dollars of property were lost." Again, to mitigate the issues of flash flooding, cities and states and counties will turn to civil engineers that work with hydrology. Subsurface Water Subsurface water is water beneath the surface of the earth. Along with groundwater and soil water, subsurface water makes up approximately.5% of all water in the hydrosphere. There are three zones of subsurface water: 1) the soil water zone, 2) an intermediate zone, and 3) the ground water zone. When heavy rains saturate the soil above and seep down, the pore spaces between soil materials quickly are filled with water, and that is when flooding occurs. Civil Engineering / Hydrology Innovations Not all hydrology-related civil engineering success has to do with floods and fresh water. In fact, among the more practical engineering innovations to come along is "ice blast technology," which combines electrical and mechanical components in a machine that uses tiny ice pellets for pressure cleaning. Ice particles are made in an immersed cold drum to form a pre-stressed ice sheet that then breaks up into small ice particles. What are its uses? The U.S. Navy, Stanford and the Universities of Michigan and Washington use ice blast machines to remove loose lead paint - a process which saves them money and is environmentally safer than using caustic, toxic chemical solutions. By using ice blasting, the Dutch Ministry of Transportation has enjoyed a 55% cost savings over high-pressure water blasting in removing barnacles from giant pumps. The city of Santa Monica uses ice blasting for cleaning beach houses and removing graffiti and chewing gum from school grounds. Ice blasting has even been used in nuclear maintenance to reduce radiation…

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Value Engineering and Reliability Value

Conclusion The Federal Acquisition Regulations defines value engineering as an organized effort to analyze the functions of systems, equipment, facilities, services, and supplies for the purpose of achieving essential functions at the lowest life-cycle cost consistent with required performance, quality, and safety (Heller, 1971). Value engineering is quickly gaining recognition as the best way to save money and improve reliability. The primary focus of value engineering is to improve a project or product through a function oriented, systematic approach that concentrates on improving the performance, and eliminating high cost functions that may not be needed, while improving value and reliability. The end result of this approach is a successful action plan to improve competitiveness, or help make an important project work well. For this reason, value engineering is considered one of the best problem solving tools for improving quality, value, and reliability in products or projects. However, it is important to remember that reducing a project's scope, compromising its reliability or value, or using cheaper materials that will not function with reliability standards is not value engineering. Bibliography Brown, J. (1992). Value Engineering: A Blueprint, Industrial Press Inc. Heller, E.D. (1971). Value Management: Value Engineering and Cost Reduction, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Johnson, Kelly. (September 28, 2000). Does Value Engineering Live Up to Its Name? PM Engineer. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB). (May 21, 1993). Value……

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Management Requirements Engineering Process Is

When we have a poor specification it fails the validation in spite of successful verification process. Mistakes in the specification process are translated into the software design ultimately leading to the finished product, which does not cater to the actual user needs. [Steeve Easterbrook] Implementation The implementation of the project as per the scheduled date depends on the proper specification…

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Systems Engineering Documentation When a

When systems are developed, there is a great deal of data accumulated and paperwork generated. It is not surprising to have hundreds and even thousands of pages of documentation for a system such as a computer-human interface. Different forms of documentation are helpful to different aspects of systems engineering. For example, designers and developers often use operational-need and operational-concept information to get a thorough understanding of the identified need and what purpose it will serve. It helps clarify why certain decisions are made to limit misunderstandings. Lists of system requirements clarify the exact goals that designs must meet and are used for the final criteria to be tested and evaluated at the end product. It especially helps to determine why one design is used over another one. At the very least, system documentation helps keep everyone on the same page (pun intended), hopefully minimizing inconsistencies and ambiguities between different people working on the same project. Once the product is developed, the same documentation can be used by managers to determine if the project can be successfully repeated in the future, by operators who will be implementing the design to build the product and by individuals who are responsible for the safety and maintenance of the product. Naturally, documentation must be continually updated with changes and improvements in the system design. There is nothing more upsetting than finding out in the middle of recreating an operation that the work must be redone because of an alteration -- be it large or small -- that has been made in the process in order to enhance the end result. Such updates in documentation also continue the learning process infinitely, since each time the system is recreated, the individuals involved may find another way to bring about positive change through such aspects as reduced material costs or decreased labor needs.…

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Budgeting Engineering Organizations, Like Most

The manger gives this consideration at each milestone decision point, addressing specific ongoing actions to actively manage (e.g., by implementing cost reduction or cost containment actions) the total life cycle costs of the project. Under CAIV, there is specific recognition that the best time to reduce lifecycle costs is early in the acquisition process because it may make sense for the manager to spend development funds in order to save a greater amount of production costs and/or operations and support costs when the program transitions to later phases. Both CAIV and DTC are intended to control costs and are implemented during the acquisition of a system, but there are many differences (Criscimagna). The primary focus of DTC is on the projected average unit procurement costs. Projected operations and support cost objectives receive secondary attention. In practice, DTC focuses on controlling near-term costs because there are few incentives to spend development funds to reduce production and operations and support costs. Trades are usually a case of reducing requirements to stay within a unit production cost budget. Unlike DTC, CAIV attempts to manage to a life cycle of budge objectives. CAIV is not intended to force eighty-percent solutions to stay within a budget; it tries to find a way to get to 100% solution within the budget. Relaxing one or more requirements may be the only way to stay within the budget. In summary, engineering organizations face unique challenges in budgeting because costs aren't always known in advance of the project. CAIV appears to be the optimal approach to budgeting in engineering organizations. It's certainly better than ignoring costs and is more comprehensive life cycle approach than a DTC strategy. However, even with the CAIV method, organizations must make sure that they update all measurable costs-to-date, learn from experience about better cost estimation techniques and improve step task processes to reduce costs (Gilb, 1997). Bibliography Criscimagna, N. CAIV. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:Zd0WiwL8Uk4J:rac.alionscience.com/pdf/caiv.pdf+CAIV& hl=en& ie=UTF-8 Crow, K. (2000). Achieving target cost / design-to-cost objectives. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: http://www.npd-solutions.com/dtc.html Geraldland. J. (1997, March-April. Differences in philosophy - design to cost vs. cost an independent variable. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:YiBVvHedvdwJ:www.dau.mil/pubs/pm/pmpdf97/land.pdf+%22design+to+cost%22& hl=en& ie=UTF-8 Gilb, T. (1997, August 21) Evo: the evolutionary project managers handbook. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: http://www.ida.liu.se/~TDDB02/pkval01vt/EvoBook.pdf…

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Systems Engineering Expertise the Balkanization

¶ … Systems Engineering Expertise The balkanization of organizations often impedes progress towards complex, highly challenging objectives. The continual adoption of system engineering concepts, frameworks and theories taken together are making it possible for organizations to attain greater results based on closer collaboration [1]. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how systems engineering creates a competitive advantage by selectively combining specific strengths of each functional area of department to create a more agile approach to delivering value to customers. Analysis of Systems Engineering As A Catalyst Of Greater Innovation The synchronization of supply chain, sourcing, supplier quality, production and services requires a systemic approach to optimizing the contributions of each. Add to this the need for compliance and quality management, and the critical need for systems engineering as a means to continually improve becomes clear. The greater the level of synchronization across the most constrained resources of any enterprise, the greater the overall performance along the quality and performance dimensions of the systemic processes [2]. The production of medical devices, aerospace and defense components, and other highly regulated products rely on systems engineering to engrain quality into every aspect of sourcing, production and service. The inclusion of quality management standards is an essential cost of doing business in the medical products industry as the Federal Drug Administration can audit a production line at any time. The role of industrial engineering expertise in the synchronization of development, production and marketing is critical for the ongoing operations of any highly regulated business. Systemic insights into the specific departments' contributions to each aspect of quality is also critically important in the production of all medical devices. They are especially critical……

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Social Engineering

In terms of actual examples of social engineering, these are numerous and include acts from the smallest of scale to increasingly difficult and with most serious effects that are still ongoing and even spreading (Francophoned case study presented below). As an example, in a day-to-day situation, a social engineering process can be identified in a communication from an individual advising…

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Quality and Innovation in Product Process Design

¶ … Engineering Qs Concurrent engineering, as the name implies, involves the simultaneous designing of various components of a given product. Essentially, different teams working on different parts of a complex final product -- such as an automobile, for instance -- work in unison on the various parts of their product, ideally reaching completion at approximately the same time. This is in contrasts to sequential engineering, in which the various components of a complex final product are designed separately, one after the other, which can be much more costly and inefficient than concurrent engineering for a variety of direct and indirect reasons. In concurrent engineering, frequent communication between groups leads to fewer needs to redesign elements as the project moves forward -- all components are designed with an accurate and current awareness of how the whole will fit together. There is also a significant time savings, which of course translates to cost savings, when concurrent engineering is employed; different teams working simultaneously necessarily complete projects faster than independent teams working in sequence. Customer involvement in the design process is also often more possible with concurrent engineering, leading to greater utility in the final product. 2) One of the many methods that can be utilize to determine why an engineered system might have failed, and what other failures might be caused, is a fault tree analysis, or FTA. The FTA is a tool that graphically maps out the elements in a given system that contributed or might have contributed to a system failure. It essentially maps out the events, whether normal or abnormal, that can or have occurred in a system, and……

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Mechanical Engineering

Role of Defense Industry Engineers Today The General Role of Engineers for Defense Types of Work Performed by Engineers in the Defense Industry Key Attributes and Skills Required Ethical Issues for Defense Industry Engineers The Role of Defense Industry Engineers Today This report outlines the various roles of engineers working in the defense industry today. Some laypersons would likely be able to explain in general terms the role of engineers in industries such as construction because they are able to see the results of this work for themselves. There is likely less known about the role of engineers working in the defense industry, though, because of the secrecy that surrounds this work and its importance to national defense. Although engineers have been relied on to provide the requisite defenses for cities, states and nations throughout history, this role has changed in fundamental ways over the centuries, particularly during the second half of the 20th century. In order to develop a more informed view of the role of engineers working in the defense industry today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed, scholarly and governmental literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion. Review and Discussion The General Role of Engineers for Defense Engineers have been actively engaged in a country's defense for millennia, but it only fairly recently that their role has been defined by standardized job descriptions and performance standards (Silver & Brennan, 1998). The role played by engineers in the defense industry became more complex with a broader scope during the second half of the 20th century as a result. In this regard, Rae and Volti add that, "The military is of course hardly an alien intruder into engineering. What makes the postwar era unique is the great increase in both the scope and the technological complexity of warfare" (142-143). In this increasingly complex environment, the types of work performed by defense industry engineers have also become more complex and these issues are discussed further below. Types of Work Performed by Engineers in the Defense Industry The defense industry is comprised of several disciplines, with the types of engineering work involved differing according to the nature of the enterprise. One of the major sectors in the defense industry is the aerospace industry. In this industry, engineers are responsible for designing, testing, and supervising the manufacture of aircraft, missiles and spacecraft…

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Sustainability Classifications in Engineering Discipline and Approach

¶ … Sustainability classifications in engineering: discipline and approach," the author sifts through the plethora of definitions, theories, and political viewpoints in relation to the concept of sustainability. The engineering sciences play a unique role in sustainability science, and are responsible for at least participating in the discussion about sustainability. In fact, the concept and practical application of sustainability is of the utmost importance to the engineering community. However, engineering departments at universities and individual scientists do not agree on a definition of sustainability -- or on the role of the engineer. The primary and most formidable issue in sustainable engineering is the mitigation of climate change. Whether the causes for climate change matter to the engineer is one of the issues in sustainability literature. The engineer is ultimately more concerned about solutions to climate change than about causes, which are important only insofar as it affects future trajectories. A comprehensive examination of sustainability discourse can impact the development of public policy. One issue related to sustainability is what relative or intrinsic……

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Role of an Engineer

Environmental Engineering Environmental Engineers Of the many different sectors in which engineers can find employment, one of the most exciting and rapidly expanding areas is that of environmental engineering. This is a rather broad field that can incorporate many different types of engineering knowledge and practices, but is essentially and primarily concerned with the protection and/or rehabilitation of the planet's natural resources -- the water, air, and land -- for the purposes of creating lower-impact and sustainable methods for continuing human activities (Salvato et al. 2003). This can mean finding ways to reduce pollution into waterways and the atmosphere, ways of removing pollutants that have already been released, effective ways of managing not only pollution but other impacts on the environment from industrial and commercial endeavors, and a host of other areas of human activity and endeavor. Environmental engineers have become of increasing importance in recent years, not only for the elimination of pollution and the minimization of current impacts of human commerce and life on the environment, but also in the creation of new technologies that make for more sustainable living (Reible 1999). This means that many building projects, technology designs, governmental agencies and policy advising groups need input from environmental engineers, and this need is only growing (Reible 1999). This makes environmental engineering an excellent field for anyone who has the essential skills to study engineering, as well as a well established ability to take in a number of complex considerations and has a strong commitment to helping improve humanity's relationship with the environment. There are several key characteristics that must be possessed by successful environmental engineers. The number of various factors that come into play in most environmental issues will require the understanding and coordination of a large amount of diverse types of data from a number of sources, so an environmental engineer must have a wide array of knowledge and a quick grasp of new and changing circumstances and information (Weiner et al. 2003). An innovative view is also a key characteristic that environmental engineers ought to possess to maximize their success in this field; though many of the problems facing the environment are decades old, they require new solutions for which there is often no real infrastructure or previous experience to build on. Enjoying the collection of knowledge……

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Role of Engineers in Water Industry

Water Engineering The Role of Engineers in the Water Industry From the times the Romans built the aqueducts -- indeed, since the time the fields of Mesopotamia were irrigated -- one of the most essential services of engineering to society has been the manipulation of water. As one of the basic necessities of life, the ability to provide water where none can be found is vital to today's agricultural industry and the upkeep of many cities and whole populations of people. Just as essential, though perhaps somewhat less grand in the way it comes across, is the use of water in the removal of wastes, both in the form of sewage and industrial waste. The prevention of disease and environmental degradation depends upon the ability to efficiently and effectively remove waste from areas where it is created, and it is up to engineers to implement the methods for achieving this. Engineers employed in such fields are a subset of civil engineers, most often employed by various governmental agencies and working on behalf of the citizens (DOT 2003). Specifically, engineers in the various water industries possess a specific knowledge base concerning how water can be moved, and harnessing its power in a variety of ways for the maintenance and betterment of society. Water engineers do not simply assist their own societies, however, but also export their talents to the developing world -- helping it, in fact, to develop. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, for instance, is involved in many international projects to help certain countries and communities develop better water systems and infrastructures to provide clean water and adequate sewage systems to their citizens (USACE 2009). This affords the water engineers working on these projects opportunities to travel and see cultures and parts of the world, and to do some real good for the people living there. The fact that water engineering is so closely tied to the quality of life and of health for a given community is one of the aspects of this field of engineering that makes it such a compelling career option; the services provided by water engineers are essential to a healthy, happy, and functioning society. This is also likely one of the reasons that engineering jobs, especially for civil engineering projects such as most water engineering endeavors, are expected to remain stable or even rise in the coming years, despite the possibility of a…

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Why Does the I 35w Mississippi River Bridge Failed?

¶ … 35W Mississippi River Bridge failed, and what ethical issues were involved. On August 1, 2007, the I-35W Bridge over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota, collapsed, sending cars, drivers, and construction workers to their deaths. The ethical issue in question with this bridge is that it was on a list of known bridges that had flaws, there are many other such bridges in the country's infrastructure, and yet, the bridge was not repaired in time to keep it from collapsing and killing 13 people and injuring 145 people. It is a miracle that more people did not die in the collapse, as it happened during rush hour, and the bridge was historically one of the busiest in the state. The I-35 West Bridge was constructed in 1967, and inspected regularly thereafter by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. The last time it was inspected was in May 2007, where the Department inspectors noted some "weld details," and noted they would continue to inspect the bridge. They did not deem it unsafe. The bridge was rated a 4 out of 9, and the U.S. Department of Transportation website notes, "The 4 rating means that the state can continue to operate the bridge without load restrictions (0= shut down, 9 = perfect)" (Editors). An engineering expert notes, "Until it plunged into the Mississippi River, it served as a transportation lifeline for the growing Twin Cities population, carrying across its 14 spans many of the SUVs, cars and trucks that accounted for the 42% rise in Minnesota's vehicle traffic from 1990 to 2003" (Flynn). Thus, it came under increasingly heavy use, it was showing signs of stress and wear, (such as the weakened welds), and it was known it was not a 9 or "perfect" bridge. This is an extremely dangerous situation, because it is not limited to the bridge that collapsed in Minnesota, it is a condition that affects bridges all over the country. Expert Flynn continues, "According to a report card released in 2005 by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 160,570 bridges, or just over one-quarter of the nation's 590,750-bridge inventory, were rated structurally deficient or functionally obsolete" (Flynn). The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is investigating the collapse and its cause, but a preliminary finding has been leaked to the press, indicating there was a design flaw in the original bridge design that was never found, and…

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Socialization of Girls in the US Away From Science and Engineering Professions 1950 200

SOCIALIZATION of GIRLS in the U.S. AWAY FROM SCIENCE and ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS (1950-2000) WOMEN in the WORKPLACE STUDY Historically and traditionally women have not entered into educational pursuits or the professions of science and engineering at the same rate as have men and in fact women who do enter these programs of study or profession, are known to leave this…

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Leonardo Da Vinci the Architect and His Machine Inventions

¶ … da Vinci's architectural and engineering designs, including his flying, water, and war machines, and his architectural designs such as the Galata Bridge. Leonardo is known as the true "Renaissance Man," because his life embodied the Renaissance thoughts of education, the arts, and innovation. An inventor, artist, writer, and engineer, Leonardo's interests led him to create a vast array…

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Genetic Engineering Cloning

Cloning and Human Engineering The controversy about cloning and human engineering has resulted in heated debate and discussion across a broad spectrum of disciplines and views. While cloning is essentially a scientific and medical discovery, yet the implications and the affects of cloning as a means of human engineering have wide ramifications and implications for society as a whole. The…

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Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

¶ … Technologies in Hydraulic Fracturing Technologies Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference: 6-8 February 2012 This trip report provides a summary of the events attended, reports reviewed and other aspects of my attendance at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference conducted 6 -- 8 February 2012 at the Woodlands Waterway Marriott Hotel and Convention Center, the Woodlands,…

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Process Reengineering and Knowledge Management Initiatives

¶ … Engineering and Knowledge Management The purpose of this paper is to identify a process or company that would benefit from implementing Business Process Reengineering (BPR), to describe the process, explain the reasons why it would benefit from re-engineering, and identify the key changes as well as the difficulties in the process and the suggestions for overcoming them. Secondly…

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Aerospace Engineering Plethora of Purposes

" (Renshaw) design of this magnitude would be essential to the reduction of environmental pollutants. In addition a vehicle that could change shape while flying would be unprecedented. High speed transportation is just one of the many products that are being designed and will be produced in the near future by aerospace engineers. Challenges to Aerospace Engineering in the United…

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Biomechanics Is the Application of

Biomechanics finds it greatest uses in the studies of athletes and industrial workers. The main aims of studies being increasing performance efficiently without compromising physical health. Biomechanics as its definition suggests is a cross disciplinary field. It combines the studies of mechanics, physics, engineering, chemistry, biology, medicine, and even statistics. There are few undergraduate degrees in biomechanics available. But as a specialized professional field, masters and doctoral degrees are available. A typical curriculum for a degree in Biomechanics would involve the student taking courses in: statistical methods, in the theory and design and physical activity, factors influencing exercise performance, neural basis for movement, motor control and learning, measuring motor behavior, motor development, cardio-respiratory adaptations to environment and principles of human physiology. Of course, there are specialized branches of Biomechanics. Sports medicine is one. Industrial Biomechanics is another. Biomechanics is a specialized field and is finding its niche in almost every walk of life from home furnishings, to apparel (especially shoes), the work place and sports. Most of the associated employment opportunities would therefore be in the areas of (besides pure research and teaching) sports medicine, biomechanics of dentistry, design of prosthetics, ergonomics, orthopedics, combined with a computer science degree and biomechanics -- computer simulation of biomechanics, orthopedics and muscle studies, trauma and reconstruction, physical therapy, motion analysis and locomotion, bio-robotics and rehabilitation. (ASB-Biomech.org, 2003) In conclusion, we can return to Socrates' belief that one must understand one's own body before changing the surroundings. In this endeavor, Biomechanics goes a long way. Bibliography ASB-Biomech.org. American Society of Biomechanics. 2003. ASB-Biomech.org. Available: http://asb-biomech.org/.October, 7 2003. Huff, S.J. Electromyography. 2002. Emedicine.com. Available: http://www.emedicine.com/aaem/topic179.htm. October 7, 2003. Imrhan, S.N. "Equipment Design for Maintenance: Part I - Guidelines for the Practitioner." International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 10 (1992): 35-43. Kallen, L.A., and Polin, H.S. "A Physiological Stroboscope." Science 80 (1934): 592. Lauder, G.V., Leroi, A.M., and Rose, M.R. "Adaptations and History." TREE 8.8 (1993): 294-97.…

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