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Evolution vs. Creationism Biological Evolution

Most people view religion as based on faith rather than fact and anything that can concretely disprove the creation of the world and of man, as Creationists believe, will destroy the entire foundation of religion itself. While the evolution theory concerns itself only with how life on Earth has progressed and varied since the first life form, Creationists have targeted more than one feature of the theory: first, that man and ape had a common ancestor (Bakke); then that the questionable use of the word "theory" and, later, of evolution as a concept itself. And recently, the Pope released a statement that evolution is, after all, not in conflict with the Church's teaching about creation. It must also be pointed out that the evolution theory as a theory is not a mere guess or speculation, but a fundamental one, which is sufficiently backed by empirical or demonstrable evidence. Even the law upholds the evolution theory. It will be remembered that the teaching of the theory was outlawed in Tennessee in the 1920s, through the Scopes trial. Then in the 1970s and the 1980s, laws were made, requiring the teaching of science in more than 20 states, but only Arkansas and Louisiana passed these laws. Later, a federal district court overturned this law in 1982 and the U.S. Supreme Court did the same to the Louisiana law in 1987, which required that evolution be taught only with a "balanced treatment" of the creation theory (youdebate.com). It decided that creationism is not a science and, therefore, cannot be taught in public schools as an alternative, or in addition, to the theory of evolution. It, however, allowed religious creation stories in philosophy, religion and history (O'Neill). In effect, this Supreme Court ruling could neither prevent public schools from teaching the creation theory nor ban the teaching of the evolution theory. Both subjects are taken off the standard tests of public schools, and the local school board decides what should be taught (youdebate.com). The basis of this ruling was what Nobel Prize winner-scientist Linus Pauling said about science: that it is the search for truth and that what science does is to continuously explore and compare theories in an objective manner, using evidence drawn from the natural world. He emphasized that, when a particular theory fails to conform to evidence, it is either modified or rejected in favor of another theory that conforms. The…

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Evolution and Creationism. Evolution Is

It has been concluded, as a result, that belief in evolution affects the actions of children just as much as they affect an elder's. Erratic behavior in students is usually attributed to such beliefs especially when in absence of an absolute code of ethics; they choose to take a human life. The Kansas State Board of Education prohibited any reference…

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Evolution Creationism

Evolution and Creationism In the early 1920's the older Victorians, called Traditionalists, became alarmed at the social chaos they found in society, with Intellectualism, women beginning to feel less restricted, with jazz, dancing the Charleston, smoking, drinking, flaunting prohibition, abstract art, Freudian psychology and no one asking permission to do anything. The Traditionalists felt that everything valuable was slipping away. A wave of Revivalism swept the South to counteract Modernism and Intellectualism. There was conflict between the liberals and the conservatives in society, between the Evolutionists and the Fundamentalists. Things came to a head in the small town of Dayton, Tennessee, when John Scopes, a high school biology teacher, was tried for teaching the theory of evolution. The trial was widely covered by the most famous broadcasters in the nation. In the trial, also called the "Scopes Monkey Trial," it was decided that it would be legal to teach evolution in the public schools. (Futuyma, 1982) More recently, "Creationists" have brought up the issue again, trying to get a religious theory accepted back into the public school curriculum. The Fundamentalists want "Intelligent Design" taught in the classrooms, rather than "Darwinism," a term meaning "Evolution," which is now the dominating theory espoused by science teachers and biologists. (Darwin 1962) Today, the social scene is similar to the 1920's, in that Fundamentalists are alarmed at the apparent licentiousness in society today. Young people seem to be out of control, the nation seems to be moving away from its roots, the core American family is hard to find and religion is on the wane as fewer and fewer people go to church. The Neo-Creationists, however, are not like their forbearers in that they do not believe in a young earth (only a few thousand years old) or in a literal interpretation of the Bible. These Fundamentalists simply reject naturalism, as opposed to supernaturalism in the beginning of life, and oppose an atheistic "scientific method" as the means of natural selection and other scientific phenomena. They want religion to be an alternative choice for young people who study the universe. Darwin is described by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy as: distinctive form of evolutionary explanation for the history and diversity of life on earth. Its original formulation is provided in the first edition of On the Origin of Species in 1859. This entry first formulates 'Darwin's Darwinism' in terms of five philosophically distinctive themes:…

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Which One Science or Religion

Religion has been on the losing side of a prolonged conflict with the secular world for the past two centuries. However, since the September 11 attacks by Muslim terrorists at the World Trade Center, religious terrorism has been regarded as the most dangerous threat to the Western world since the Soviet Union. Countless political leaders, scholars, and journalists criticized the aggressive Islamic fundamentalist doctrines which guided these Jihadist warriors into their suicide missions. Many intellectuals drew parallels between the purification mission of Islamic fundamentalists and the apocalyptic obsessions of the U.S.'s own fundamentalist evangelicals, some of which were in important government office. Indeed, it appeared that religious fundamentalists from Christianity, Islam, and Judaism had hijacked important government offices, possibly bringing about the decline of Western Civilization into another Dark Age and reversing the tremendous gains made by the intellectuals and scientists of the Western World. Review of Sources The essays below all involve a science-religion dispute of some sort but focus on different aspects of it. Ruse, Demere/Walsh and Glynn all address the most controversial recent debate in the science-religion conflict: the validity and value of Creationism as a scientific theory. Begley addresses a much more abstract issue which is the convergence of science and religion in the nature of their inquiries. Finally, Zindler addresses the effect of Evangelical Christian doctrine on its adherents' decisions by analyzing the many follies of former President George W. Bush. a. Michael Ruse -- Evolution and Creationism Both Contribute to Human Understanding Ruse argues that science and religion, through constructive dialogue, could moderate the excesses of each other. Religion can moderate the hubris of scientific ambition and science can explain the technical workings of the universe. His most compelling piece of support in favor of Religion is Augustine's theory of creation, the metaphor of God planting seeds which were to grow living beings and populate the Earth. Evolutionism and Creationism are possibly compatible as he suggested with his reference to Augustine's "seed" metaphor. b. Sharon Begley -- Both Religion and Science Can Reveal Life Begley argues that science has reached the point where it is starting to ask the same questions that religion has been asking for millennia. Some areas of science have encountered phenomena for which they do not have the tools to explain, such as Einstein's discovery of the "spooky" processes of particles in the field of Quantum Mechanics. These discoveries alarm…

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Response to Creation and Evolution

¶ … Evolution Few topics stir more passionate debates than the theories of evolution and creationism. However, there are atheistic evolutionists and there are theistic evolutionists, who accept a compromise between creationism and evolutionism.(Evolution). In its true form, evolution explains that the universe is the result of random accidents, in which life arose through chemical processes, meaning that all life-forms, from fruit to flowers, animals to humans, share a common ancestor.(Evolution). This theory includes topics that range from chemistry to astronomy to biology that are responsible for the creation of the universe (Evolution). From the Big Bang theory has emerged the Inflationary Universe Theories, which include approximately fifty different variants, although generally they all claim that in the beginning there was nothing and then suddenly a "singularity" appeared and exploded, laying the foundation for basic evolution (Evolution). However, for all these theories, none can claim to be the true explanation of the universe, and none can answer what was there before there was "nothing" or what or where the "nothing" originated. According to a 2004 Gallup Poll, forty-five percent of Americans believe that God created human beings, approximately 10,000 years ago, while some thirty percent believe that Charles Darwin's theory of evolution is a well-supported theory, another third believe that the Bible is the actual word of God and is taken literally, word for word (Vitaska 2005). According to the Chambers 20th Century Dictionary, "creation is to bring into being or form out of nothing," something that humans cannot accomplish (Redditch 2002). This is the typical argument presented by creationists, who somehow relate evolution to a man-made event. However, theory of evolution is just as mysterious as the theory of creation, both are attributed to an event that simply "happens," whether by God's divine order, or simply by a cosmic event, yet in each, man is the eventual outcome, not the reason or cause. Many advocates of creationism believe that……

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Evolution vs. Creation. One Can Imagine How

¶ … evolution vs. creation. One can imagine how Charles Darwin stirred things up when he developed his theory, considering that the controversy is still so hot today. Recently, Carl Zimmer wrote "A Fin is a Limb is a Wing" for National Geographic, which included an up-to-date look at life's complexity. Biologists are starting to understand how complex structures developed step-by-step from the simplest beginnings. That is, how a gene for a limb in a bat's mole-like predecessor turned a hand into a wing and finally a mammal into the air. Zimmer's article was barely out to readers when Casey Luskin who supports Intelligent Design had written his rebuttal. Intelligent Design believes that nature is too creative to be a natural occurrence, it had to be designed by a more intelligent begin. It is no wonder that Luskin wrote his comments so quickly. Most of Zimmer's article is a thorough, well-researched and written piece for National Geographic readers -- those individuals who are interested in the sciences and environment, but do not want a highly academic piece with a great deal of jargon and scientific formula. The question, then, is why did Zimmer start out his article with a jab at the Creationists? It could have clearly stood as a well-rounded piece without waving the red flag in front of the bull. There are several types of articles written for magazines and newspapers -- the news item, the feature article and the editorial to name the major ones. The best journalism is when one does form not fall into the other. News mixed with innuendo cannot be seen as credible -- for who knows what is actually factual and what is assumption? On the other hand, a feature story is a detailed presentation of facts that appears in an interesting form for the purpose of entertaining or informing the average person. Rather than give the opinion of the writer, it weaves together the comments of those who are interviewed. It aims to supplement the bare facts of the news report by giving more detailed information regarding the persons, places, and circumstances that appear in the news column. Once the author's opinion is expressed, then it starts to become an editorial or personal essay. Obviously, the reader can often determine the bias of the publication (and the writer) by who is interviewed and these individuals' comments. However, it is the interviewees'…

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Creationism vs. Evolution in Public

However upon reading the Bible, the first stated verse reads that "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth ....: (Holy Bible Scripture) Summary and Conclusion The element that must be allowed due consideration is that the first seven days, or the first week on earth was most likely not a series of seven days that were 24-hours long. Secondly, when attempting to understand such factors as some are not meant to understand or alternately are incapable of understand have no ability to grasp the omnipotent and powerful presence of God who both the actions of human being as well as the very thoughts in their mind. Perhaps it is something in the individual's environment or influences in their upbringing such as the church they attended or the teachings or lack of being taught by parents, teachers and the community at large. Each individual knows within that there is something that inherently connects the two differential but very possibly compatible view of how the earth and life as it is know to humans in……

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Evolution in 1987, the Supreme Court of

¶ … Evolution In 1987, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in Edwards v. Aquillard. That case was seminal in its importance to the idea of the teaching of Evolutionary theory in the public schools. Since the 1920s, the U.S. Education System has wavered regarding the teaching of creationism vs. evolution in the public schools. In the 1960s, new scientific and teaching standards fueled the debate. Many conservative states attempted to force through legislation that would require the teaching of creationism along with Darwinian evolution. In the early 1980s, a Louisiana law, titled the "Balanced Treatment for Creation-Science in Public School Instruction Act" prohibited teaching evolution unless it was accompanied by a balanced approach in teaching creationism. This essentially forced schools to teach a Biblical belief that life arose abruptly according to Genesis if the school wished to integrate evolution into the classroom. Louisiana Governor Edwards argued that it did not force the teaching of creationism, but simply required that if evolution was taught, creationism should be taught as well, forming a balanced curriculum. In support of Aquillard, 72 Nobel scientists, 17 state academies of science, and 7 other scientific organizations filed amicus briefs positing that evolution was a scientific theory while creationism a non-scientific explanation based on faith. The Aquillard side did not demean of underhandedly critique the teaching of creationism, but remained convinced that teaching a Biblical theory violated the Constitutional separation of Church and State. In a 7 to 2 vote the Court ruled against Louisiana and held that the State law did indeed violate the Constitution. Using the Lemon test, the court argued that Louisiana's law failed on all points of the law: First, it was not enacted to test secular purpose. Second, the primary effect of State law was to advance a viewpoint that an advanced being created the universe and it was a series of chemical reactions that occurred to stir life, amid a process of slow change over time to allow species to develop. Further, the Court found that despite the verbiage, the Louisiana law did not protect academic freedom, but in turn required religious beliefs to be introduced into the classroom since modern biology relies on learning evolution as a concept. Dissenting Judges Scalia and Rehnquist wrote that students should be allowed to make up their own minds about topics such as this. This case had a great effect on…

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Jerry Coyne's Why Evolution Is

Natural selection can be a difficult process to define because it has to explain how each adaptation has evolved from prior adaptations. Moreover, natural selection demonstrates how animals have become better suited for their environments; there is no devolution, because adaptations will only be naturally selected if they improve the reproductive opportunities of animals with those mutations (Coyne, p.120). One…

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Only a Theory Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul by Kenneth R. Miller

Miller Evolution Miller's Theory of Evolution Perhaps most significantly among thinkers on the subject of 'natural selection', Darwin's seminal works touched inherently upon so many disciplines as to bear applicable interpretations in nearly any context. His update of the evolutionary principles which preceded him brought to the fore of academic discourse a widespread reconsideration of the nature of life. Particularly,…

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Origin of Life Evolution vs. Intelligent Design

Evolution -- id EVOLUTION vs. INTELLIGENT DESIGN According to Stanley a. Rice, associate professor of biology at Southeastern Oklahoma State University, the term evolution can best be defined as a process which involves many different kinds of change, usually gradual changes related to what is known as adaptation which refers to "genetic changes over time in populations of organisms" (150),…

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Intelligent Design, Evolution Intelligent Design vs. Evolution

Intelligent Design, Evolution INTELLIGENT DESIGN vs. EVOLUTION One of the major issues concerning evolution and speciation -- or, rather, how the flora and fauna that we see around us came to be, starting from species that are largely now extinct -- is the process or mechanism by which they occurred. Intelligent Design advocates believe that the evolved species that we…

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Intelligent Design and Evolution Theory

Intelligent Design vs. Evolution Arguing for Intelligent Design Intelligent Design (ID) is a process that advocates believe explains the features of the universe. In the theory of ID, the features of the universe had to have been created by an intelligent source, "…not [by] an undirected process such as natural selection," according to the Center for Science & Culture. By analyzing the components of a system, a scientist can theorize as to whether the "natural structures" seen in the universe are the product of natural law, pure chance, or intelligent design -- or perhaps a combination of all three. Scientists working with the ID theory are always searching for objects that have similar properties as other objects found that do indeed provide information on their intelligent origins. Unlike creationism, ID does not claim that "…modern biology can identify whether the intelligent cause detected through science is supernatural"; and moreover, the "scientific method" known as intelligent design involves observations, hypothesis, experiments and conclusions, like any other scientific method of research (Discovery Institute). There can be no argument to negate ID when observing the eye of a snapping turtle for example; the turtle's eye could not have evolved in a "stepwise fashion" because it is made of several interacting parts, and removing one part among the several would "cause the entire system to cease functioning" (Discovery Institute). The eye of the turtle must have been created at one time. As for the Cambrian explosion 530 million years ago, there was a sudden appearance of biological diversity that could not possibly have appeared in a step-by-step process such as Darwin described. For example, the predatory Anomalocaris (a large, aggressive shrimp-like creature) appeared (according to fossil records) in a very short time frame. How can evolutionists explain the sudden appearance of the Anomalocaris? Arguing for Evolution First of all, with regard to the eye of the snapping turtle, and other vertebrates, Don Prothero, a paleontologist at Occidental College and an author of books on evolution, claims there have been "multiple, well-documented" empirical research papers that show how "complex structures like……

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Theory of Evolution

¶ … Evolution The concept of evolution embodies the belief that existing animals and plants developed through a process of gradual and continuous change from previously existing forms (Evolution pp). Also known as descent with modification, this theory constitutes organic evolution, while inorganic evolution is concerned with the development of the physical universe from unorganized matter (Evolution pp). As opposed…

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Scientific Creationism

¶ … Henry M. Morris' book Scientific Creationism that are controversial, adversarial, enlightening and intriguing. Though the book was written to explain how the beliefs of those who state that the earth was created by a superior being and those who belief in evolution are compatible, instead of explaining that compatibility to the satisfaction of all those involved, it opens…

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Evolution in the Book the

According to this idea, God created man and then women out of Adam's rib. There is no scientific proof behind this viewpoint because it is not based on any scientific evidence. It is instead a theory based on the religious teachings of people. Not just animals are prone to evolution and adaptation, but so is the larger world on the whole. Humans of course can evolve and have done so from millennia. In addition plants can survive if they are attempting to be grown in an area which has proven to inhospitable to them. A cactus, for example, is grown in the desert but has needed to adapt to drink less water in order to survive in this hash climate. If the plant did not have the ability to do this, then it would very quickly die. Even the large world has been proven to change, to break apart, and to move away. It is believed that the world was once part of a whole, unified continent which is now known as Pangaea. On this continent, all the lands were connected. However, due to the separation of the continents there are now seven distinct continents as they are known today. The theory of Plate Tectonics discussed how the continents, due to earth activity such as earthquakes or flood, has created seven distinct localities. What is more, on the different continents, fossils from the same historic period have been located in countries and continents around the globe, indicating that the animals had once lived in the same vicinity. Through each rock layer, anthropologists and geologists have indicated how long a certain animal have been deceased in each part. Similarities in the parts indicate pairs of fossils, giving evidence to both sides of the tectonic myth. Works Cited: Dawkins, R. (2009). The Greatest Show on Earth: the Evidence for Evolution. Free……

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Convergent Evolution

Convergent Evolution Throughout nature, many organisms can be found that exhibit highly similar characteristics. The bones found in the human hand are similar to those in the pectoral fins of whales and those in the wings of a bat, for example. This is an example of divergent evolution -- all of these structure have the same root in evolutionary history, and developed into different arts as the various organisms grew apart from each other. Another process that takes place in evolution, and that is in many ways even more surprising and compelling, is convergent evolution. This refers to similar structures developing in evolutionary separate sources, or "the development of similar characteristics by taxonomically different organisms" (WGBH 2010). Unlike the similar but different characteristics of hands, fins, and wings, convergent evolution leads to characteristics that are far more similar, but develop from far different evolutionary sources. One recently discovered example of convergent evolution exists in the White Sands desert of New Mexico. Here, researchers have found three varieties of lizard whose species exist in dark-formed varieties across most of the Southwestern United States, but that are basically white-skinned in the desert (Fountain 2010). The three lizard species have been evolutionarily distinct from each other for some time, but each species developed the same characteristic -- i.e. white skin -- in the six-thousand years or so that have passed since the deserts of this area became white. These lizards are a clear example of convergent evolution, as the same characteristics appeared in a very short evolutionary time period from three completely separate taxonomic branches of the evolutionary tree. Another example of convergence comes from butterfly wing pattern mimics of their surroundings.……

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Darwinian Evolution Tragedy of the Commons

Darwinian Finance The Evolution of a Financial Crisis Not a day has passed in the last several months that some news regarding the current global financial crisis has been released. The situation is still the primary focus of all major media outlets, and is also at the forefront of many individuals' minds. At the heart of the focus on this situation is the search for someone or something clear to blame for the sudden collapse of the global economy. This clarity will most likely never emerge, however. The causes and effects of such a situation are enormously complex, and can never be truly known with any certainty. That does not mean that there aren't useful ways to understand the situation though. One way to view the issue is as an example -- non-traditional, perhaps, but relevant nonetheless -- of Darwinian evolution through natural selection. Before such a paradigm can be applied to an economic situation, however, a basic understanding of the principles upon which Darwin (and most of the scientific community) believed the evolution of a species -- that is, a certain organism filling a specific niche in an ecosystem -- was effected. Darwin, incorporating Malthus' theory of population growth into his own observations, believed that evolution took place over time with minor changes in each generation due to natural selection. All members of a species in a given area will enter competition when the resources needed for survival are limited. Furthermore, he theorized (with help from Malthus) that populations would continue to grow until available resources were not enough to support them all. It is here that selection takes over; different attributes of given individuals within a certain population of a species will have greater or lesser advantages at obtaining food, defending themselves against predators, and/or attracting a mate, all of which affect……

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Pierre Teilhard's Understanding of Evolution Links Christian

¶ … Pierre Teilhard's understanding of evolution links Christian and scientific understandings? Rather than seeing Christianity and science as fundamentally incompatible, the Catholic theological Pierre Teilhard attempted to link the two in his understanding of material and human complexity and consciousness. Tielhard believed that the universe by its very nature had a tendency to strive to become more complex, as manifested in evolutionary evidence. In other words, from protozoa to patterns in mammal development, species evolve into more complex systems, which create the appearance and reality of an evolution of species. There is a divine impetus in this greater complexity that is reflected both in the Bible and in scientific records that justify Darwin's theory of evolution, such as fossil records. Human thought, in parallel and in consort with human biology (including human brain development and because of God's spiritual design) also grows more complex in its thought patterns and consciousness. The evidence of God is this pulling of humanity into greater complexity in the form of an as Omega Point. What about his thought may be most difficult? One of the more……

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Mosaic Evolution of Early Mammals

Evolution Luo, Z., Chen, P., Li, G., Chen, G. & Chen, M. "A New Eutriconodont Mammal and Evolutionary Development in Early Mammals." Nature, (2007) Vol 446; 288-293 Evolutionary research tells us that one of the keystones in the development of modern mammals was the adaptation over the millennia of the mammalian middle ear. The theory being that as the species evolved from its reptilian origins, the delicate bones of the middle ear made the transition from the reptilian lower jawbone and evolved into what we now know as the three small bones in the middle ear. They are the hammer (malleus), anvil (incus) and stirrup (stapes) which are connected to one another in what anatomist term the ossicular chain. While this transition has been theorized about, for the first time a fossil has been found that actually shows signs of the transitional period occurring. This fossil also presents similar transitions occurring in lower lumbar vertebra and thoracic vertebra of the spinal column, another hallmark of mammalian evolution. This fossil is Yanoconodon allini gen, Class Mammalia, Order Eutriconodonta, Family Jeholodentidae, or know by his friends as just Yanoconodon. Named for the Yan mountain range in China where he was discovered, and condon which is a typical suffix associated with the naming early mammals referring to the teeth, Yanoconodon is a very tiny mammalian ancestor that lived during the Jurassic period. Weighing in at around 2 grams and about 20 to 30 centimeters long, it is extremely rare that any fossils have survived intact. The researchers meticulously examined this fossil, which is imbedded in a slab of siltstone and fastidiously mapped all the bone structures. There were certain missing portions so some approximations had to be made regarding those areas, but none that would have impeded the validity of their research. After analyzing all of the dental and skeletal characters of Yanoconodon the researcher determine its place along the chain of evolution and cite it as a close relative of species known as Jeholodens. By doing so they can then make further assumptions regarding its mammalian characteristic and its place in the evolutionary transition of mammals. Jeholodens had some characteristics of early reptiles such as well-muscled and broad rear legs, but its front legs were beneath its belly as in modern mammals. More than likely with this configuration it was able to maintain an upright posture at times, another mammalian transitional trait.…

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Evolution as Presented by Charles Darwin Is

¶ … evolution as presented by Charles Darwin is based on three dynamics: natural selection, competition, and descent with modification. Descent with modification describes how species change, competition describes the pressure to change, and natural selection describes what changes occur. This abstract makes the claim that natural selection, the process by which animals carrying reproductively beneficial traits slowly alter the genotype of a population by competing successfully, favors those species which are able to effectively adapt to a wide range of environmental changes. These genotypic advantages are obtained through descent with modification, which refers to minor mutations within a species that occasionally produce traits that improve on the "original" species. The abstract goes on to make the claim that the more modification has occurred, the more fit the organism will be and hence the more favored by natural selection. This is because the changes produced by natural selection under competitive pressure will encourage changes that enable the organism to better adapt to its environment. Finally, the abstract concludes by explaining that descent with modification produces a lineage of ancestry, so that closely related organisms can trace their lineage back to a common ancestor. The more closely related they are, the closer their common ancestor will be in terms of generations. Critique This abstract seems to make the common mistake of personifying evolution. A mindset that thinks of nature as "encouraging" or "trying" to produce a result is……

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Human Evolution Is the Origin

Neanderthals skeleto-muscular system indicates that the species was robust and heavily muscled; distinctive facial features are characterized by a protruding mid-facial region. Though Neanderthals' heights are comparable those of modern humans, analysis of the Neanderthal pelvic bones indicates that Neanderthals pelvic bones were significantly longer than those of modern humans. There are several conflicting hypotheses have been formulated in an attempt to explain the extinction and/or disappearance of Neanderthals. One such hypothesis formulated insinuates that Neanderthals became extinct due to climate changes or interaction with humans. It is also believed that Neanderthals interbred with H. sapiens and disappeared through absorption. Another hypothesis is that the Neanderthal disappeared due to a major natural disaster such as the Campanian ignimbrite volcanic super-eruption. It is believed that modern humans' extended maturation may be an advantageous factor over Neanderthals. This extended maturation may have facilitated learning and complex cognition. Furthermore, evidence has been produced to indicate that overall development in Neanderthals was significantly faster than that in H. sapiens. Modern scientific and anthropological discoveries continue to contribute to the study and understanding of Neanderthals as a society and a species or sub-species. Though differing perspectives on how Neanderthals lived and died will continue to arise, these differing opinions provide insight into how Neanderthals may have lived. Works Cited: Bradt, Steve. "Analysis of Teeth Suggests Modern Humans Mature More Slowly Than Neanderthals Did." Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Web. Accessed 4 May 2011. Retrieved from < http://www.fas.harvard.edu/home/content/analysis-teeth-suggests-modern-humans-mature-more-slowly-neanderthals-did> Evans, Laurence. "Neanderthals (Homo sapiens neandertalensis)." Nature's Holism. 17 October 2009. Web. Accessed 4 May 2011. Retrieved from Hall, Stephen S. "Last of the Neanderthals." National Geographic Online. October 2008. Web. Accessed 4 May 2011. Retrieved from Wong, Kate. "Neandertal Genome Study Reveals That We Have a Little Caveman in Us." Scientific American. 6 May 2010. Web. Accessed 4 May 2011. Retrieved from

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Evolution: Darwin the Purpose of

This seems to be a variation that even in natural selection stayed genetically strong in both species. Another example if the flying squirrel, able to soar from treetop to treetop. Another example is that in the arid grasslands of Africa around 5 million years ago, a species was emerging that walked upright and had smaller canine and molar teeth than those preceding this species. This species survived due to the favorable variations that occurred causing the species to gain use of hands for making tools and weaponry and carrying food into the trees for safety. "Artificial Selection" is that which occurs purposefully on the part of human choice. For instance if blue eyes are desirable and blond hair then the couple would marry someone with those traits, however, in today's highly technological environment the capacity for picking and choosing traits of the unborn child has become an option. Variation is that which is studied in relation to behavioral aspects of a species and is studied by psychologist and sociologists in the search to learn why species behave as they do. The study of evolutionary biology is extremely important in attaining an understanding of the governance of principles of "origin" and "extinction" of species. There are no "fixed" elements in biological species as they experience constant changes, adaptations, shifts and even emergency and extinction. Conclusion: It has been said that after Darwin wrote "Origin of Species" in 1959 that biology has never again been the same. Because of the ever-changing environment of the species, and the ever-changing adaptations to those changes Psychology and other behavioral sciences will be studying those changes in the species to try and understand the behavior of species. Bibliography: Bennett, Albert F. et al. (nd) "Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to the National Research Agenda " Executive Summary [Online] available at: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~ecolevol/fulldoc.html Ballyntyne, Paul, Ph.D (nd) "Evolution and Psychology In Darwin, Romanes, Morgan, James, Dewey, and the Chicago Functionalists" [Online] available at: http://www.coment.ca/~pballan/section4(210).htm Williams James and Functionalism (nd) available [Online] at: http://www.psych.utah.edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/James.html Bennett, Albert F. et al. (nd) "Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to the National Research Agenda " Ibid. Ibid.…

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Hominid Evolution

¶ … Farabee, M.J. Human Evolution. Available at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/Farabee/BIOBK/BioBookHumEvol.html Mammals originated from the ancient mammal-like reptiles prior to 200-245 million years referred to as Triassic Period. Most important forms of mammals evolved during the period including Primates -- the category that includes humans. The Primates are considered to be comparatively unspecific mammals: they do not have wings, have four limbs,…

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Pearl Jam's Do the Evolution

" Venter argues that we have not evolved enough to think independently, and free ourselves from this herd instinct. The next verses continue to attack human society, and our need for status and admiration. He notes that we are irresponsible in our actions "I'll do what I want, yet irresponsibly." Further Venter attacks human racism, in the line "Cause we know an appetite for nightly feasts. Those ignorant Indians got nothing on me." Here he suggests that what we see as evolved modern civilization is not much difference from what we would consider to be barbarian civilizations. The final verse is probably Venter's greatest condemnation of modern society. He says, I am ahead...I am advanced, I am the first mammal to make plans. I crawled the earth, but now I'm higher. 2010 watch it go to fire. It's evolution baby!" Here, Venter suggests that humans, despite being so "highly" evolved, will ultimately destroy each other. It's interesting that Venter chooses to focus on the social aspects of humans as an attack on humans and the idea of evolution. The idea of social evolution has been a terribly controversial issue in human history, and has shown its head in such ugly ways as the Nazi attitudes and the eugenics controversy. In conclusion, Pearl Jam's "Do the Evolution" is a modern take on the evolution of mankind. The song critiques the idea that humans are somehow "superior" because they are considered to be the most highly evolved organism on Earth. Venter argues that our herd mentality, and our racism will ultimately destroy us all. The lyrics and all information contained below are adapted from The Pearl Jam Network. 13 May 2002. http://pearljamnetwork.com/archive/lyrichuffer.cgi-yield/dotheevolution Do The Evolution Releases: Yield and Live on Two Legs Released: 1998 Running Time: 3:54 Song Type: Album Track Written By: Stone Gossard and Ed Vedder I'm ahead...I'm advanced. I'm the first mammal to wear pants. I am at peace with my lust. I can kill cause in god I trust. It's evolution baby! I'm a beast...I'm the man. Buying stocks on the day of the crash. On the loose, I'm a truck. All the rolling hills I'll flatten 'em out. It's herd behavior...it's evolution baby! Admire me, admire my home, Admire my son, he is my clone. This land is mine, this land is free, I'll do what I want, yet irresponsibly. It's evolution baby! I'm a thief, I'm…

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Evolution What Is Evolutionary Theory

It causes the evolution of a population as a whole and not the evolution of an individual. The natural selection process is supposed to gradually shift the average characteristics of the group over time. However, why most populations demonstrate relatively stable dynamics is a question yet to be answered, and biologists are largely uncertain regarding the processes by which population stability may evolve through natural selection (Mueller et al., 2000: p 1284) Evidence of Evolution Evolutionary changes are obviously not observable directly as such changes involve decades and centuries. However, there are other evidential facts that explain and demonstrate the occurrence of evolution. The main sources that evidence evolution includes: fossil records, the geographic distribution of species, embryology, vestigial organs and artificial selection. The fossil record offers the most substantial evidence for evolution. Fossils are the remains of organisms turned into rocks after years of buried preservation under layers of mud. The fossil record illustrates a definite progression from the earliest and original species of single-celled organisms to the first multi-celled organism and from those orgasms to many simple and complex organisms inhabiting the earth today. However, fossil record presents many gaps, as it is probable that only a few species were preserved. Even so, palaeontologists have collected enough fossils to present a comprehensive record of the history and development of life on earth. Geographic distribution of species, generally called biogeography, is the second main source of evidence supporting the occurrence of evolution. The limited and peculiar nature of species of organisms present in specific geographical areas suggests that organisms, which have migrated from other regions, have evolved into new species, adapting to the new environmental conditions. Embryology is the study of the way in which organisms develop during the early stages of life present another source of evidence for evolution. The embryonic development of many organisms involves very specific events that can be explained only by the evolution of the organism from other species. The repeated occurrence of embryonic features of evolutionary ancestors during the early development of an organism is called recapitulation. The presence of vestigial organs is also suggestive of the occurrence of evolution. Vestigial organs are the remains of organs, which are generally purposeless to the current species, but were once useful to the evolutionary ancestor. The best example of vestigial organ is the human appendix, a narrow tube attached to the large intestine, which serves…

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Summer for the Gods the Scopes Trial

¶ … Trial One of the most famous public permutations surrounding the issues of Darwinism, religion in the classroom, and the separation of Church and State was the 1925 Scopes Trial, also known as the Monkey Trial, held in Dayton, Tennessee. The trial was important for setting precedents that had far reaching implications even to the present day, but it…

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Comparative Analysis Cultural Evolution vs. Biological Evolution

Cultural vs. Biological Evolution Cultural Evolution vs. Biological Evolution Biological and cultural evolution have many similarities. For instance, they both take place slowly over time. They both result in an organism that is substantially different from its predecessors. We, as humans, have another means aside from biology to use to evolve. In all other species, biology is the sole mean by which they evolve. However, with humans, it has been suggested that cultural evolution does not stand alone from biological evolution. This research will examine the fundamental similarities and differences between cultural and biological evolution. It will support the thesis that cultural evolution has a significant impact on biological evolution, even though they are actually two separate concepts. It has been suggested that biological changes are a result of cultural changes, for instance the movement from hunter gathers to an agrarian society (Richerson, Boyd, and Henrich, 2010). This forced humans to do different activities during their day. Over time, it has been suggested that this forced a biological adaptation in their digestive tract, their musculature and many other biological features. Others suggest that cultural changes were a result of biological evolutionary changes. This conundrum has plagued anthropologists for many years and at present, there is support for both sides. One of the key differences between biological and cultural evolution is that biological evolution is slow and happens over many generations. However, and idea can spread rapidly through a society. Many times, it does not even take a day, given the speed of the Internet. Today, cultural changes occur quite rapidly. Even if you go back 10,000 years, learning spread quickly from one generation to another, as a parent learned new skills and taught their children. Biological evolution could never keep up with cultural evolution in higher order creatures. Support tends to lean towards culture, rather than biology, to account for the wide range of large-scale social behaviors in humans. This study suggests that studying the dynamics of how variations are maintained in large groups explains diversity in human behavior. Bell and McElreath (2009) suggest that cumulative cultural changes resulted in rapid human divergence. They also suggest that these cultural divergences had an effect on biology, as they determined which groups would interbreed with whom. Those who were neighbors were more likely to interbreed than those who were distant. Neighbors were also in direct competition for resources. Boyd and Richerson (2008)…

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Proponents of Intelligent Design and the Supporters

¶ … Proponents of Intelligent Design and the Supporters of Modern Evolutionary theory The question of how life was created is one which has proven extremely tense throughout the duration of modern arguments. What was behind the design of the universe? What was responsible for the way the world has turned out? Such questions reefer to the debate between modern…

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Temporal Factors of Communism and Evolution Upon

¶ … Temporal Factors of Communism and Evolution Upon initial examination, there appears to be a multitude of similarities existent between the notions propounded by Karl Marx in the Communist Manifesto and those posited by Charles Darwin in The Origin of Species. The unifying thread that runs throughout both of these works may be found in their adherence to (if…

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Anthropology Doctrine of Man

Evolution Theory C) Theory of Creationism Deistic and theistic Evolution theories Genesis Nature of Man E) Conclusion Anthropology Doctrine of Man Man is still searching for answers to the fundamental questions concerning the why and how of his existence, the purpose of the journey of life and the ultimate destiny. Different theories have been put forward in explaining the origin of man ranging from creationism to evolution. The evolutionary theory of creation attributes all this diversification and the countless species of living beings to the process of systematic natural evolution. The Christian faith offers a different explanation in the form of the genesis account of creation. Even within the creationism theory there are mildly different views of the creation process. A brief discussion of these differing perspectives of creation would shed more light on that one primeval question which has continued to intrigue all of mankind from time immemorial. Evolution Theory The theory of evolution is in total contrast to the creation theory. God is totally excluded from the whole picture and it explains that everything from the living to the inert matter originated naturally from gradual changes over millions of years. In other words there is an outright exclusion of the metaphysical or the supernatural realms of existence and everything is described in terms of natural evolution and as a pure chance factor. So man is not a special being but only a natural evolution product from the primitive beings. The one drawback however in this evolutionary theory of existence is that it does not offer explanation as to how the original material which is supposed to have undergone all this transmutation, transformation and gradual evolution came into existence. That is to say that the evolution theory may explain that the tree came from the seed and the bird came from the egg but has no clue for the existence of the seed or the egg. Something is assumed to be in existence before everything else and in this aspect this theory is found wanting in a basic aspect. [H.P. Blavatsky] Theory of Creationism This is directly in contradiction to the evolution theory and ascribes every species and every element of creation to have been directly created by god instantly (6 days). That is to say that there is no macro evolution but god created everything that exists during the six days. (though not necessarily 24-hour day) The entire…

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Evolution Dancing to Evolution's Tune the Author

Evolution Dancing to Evolution's Tune The author discusses natural evolutionary design and the factors behind its success. The drive to feed oneself and appease hunger, and the very strong urge for finding a mate are qualities that are commonly shared by the innumerable species that exist in our world. The delicately balanced neurobiological machinery in man guides and governs all his instinctive behaviors. The essence of all human activities, the purpose of all human endeavors, is to satisfy the eternal quest for happiness. But the search for eternal happiness has been a will-o'-the-wisp. At the root of all this are the genes, the fundamental units of life which control the neurochemistry. The author elucidates the important role of motivation in evolution and how the genes are self programmed to achieve this. Nature has used happiness as a bait to motivate living beings and to propel them into action. Happiness is thus a reward that man receives when he carries on the duties of maintaining his bodily functions- nourishing himself, procreating and extending his heritage. The genes control the neurochemistry behind the feelings of happiness. On cogitation it is revealed that our basic impulses are meant to serve the main purpose of gene proliferation rather than for our psychological well being as it appears at the outset. Over the last decade scientists have found out the significant role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in giving the feeling of happiness and satisfaction. [Bruno Dubuc] Experiments conducted on mice have confirmed that sustained stimulation of the pleasure centers of the brain makes them forget even the basic need for food. Selective neurons in our brain secrete this neurotransmitter (dopamine) as a reward for our indulgence in certain actions. Thus we are entangled in a vicious cycle of desire, action and satisfaction and develop addictive behaviors. These actions or reward seeking behaviors (eating, sex etc.) facilitate the proliferation of the genes. (Eating maintains the body while sex results in progeny). However, there is a hidden secret behind this gene-based neurochemical and neurobiological interplay which has continued to drive all living species into actions conducive to their own sustenance, reproduction and the well being of their progeny. Since the want for pleasure, or the search for happiness, is the key factor in the sustenance of evolution and natural propagation, nature designed it in such a way that these wants are never fully satiated. This is one…

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Adaptation and Evolution

¶ … student who makes the statement that they do not believe in biological evolution, yet believes that it is not necessary to worry about air pollution because through natural selection, the human species will develop lungs that can detoxify pollutants is contradicting. It is clear that they do not understand what biological evolution means. By definition, biological evolution is the process in which a new species evolve from existing species over time. (Wikipedia). Biological evolution is the change in organisms over time, often in response to natural selection, such that the descendants are genotypically different from their ancestors. This means that evolution occurs over time as a result of a species adapting to its environment. So, if the human species is going to develop lungs that can detoxify air pollutants, then this is something that will evolve through biological evolution over a specific period of time. It will be because of evolution and adaptation that the human lungs will develop into lungs that have the capability of detoxifying the air pollution that enters into the lungs. Humans and animals alike have the ability to adapt to their present environment, so over a period of time, the lungs will adapt to the air pollution and will eventually evolve into lungs that can handle the high levels of pollution. Therefore, biological evolution can be proven by……

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Human Evolution Heading? The Evolution

Indeed, all students in medical schools must be up-to-date to what the research specialists are undergoing. However, spending time on this kinds of subjects does not improve their every day practice and is not crucial for the treatments that are conducted on a day by day basis. 3. The case of the Blue Fugates The case of the Blue Fugates in Kentucky is representative for the way in which science can, to a certain extent, improve the lives of people. More precisely, it is rather known the fact that people have a tendency to be scared or at best avoid things or other people they do not know. The Blue Fugates is one such case in which people with a rare disease were in fact stigmatized by the fact that they had a bluish color on their skin. After research conducted on this issue, it turned out that in fact there was nothing special about these people and in fact suffered from medical conditions that in time would be cured. Even so, this community was left outside of the social norm particularly because of a change from the ordinary conditions of men. From this point-of-view, medicine and the evolution of research not only saved those people's lives but also contributed to an improvement of their social and community lives. 4. Race and racism An important aspect from the article relates to the fact that race can be seen as a social construction, rather than an acclaimed and proven developmental difference. As per the article, at the beginning of the 20th century the European race was said to comprise of different other races which in fact makes it impossible to establish so many categorical differences between human beings that in effect do not differ to such an extend as to assume they are part of different evolutionary groups. The assumption that people are different cannot be determined by using biology especially given that there is no clear distinction between people around the world. However, the constant attempts to differentiate have motivated racism along history, an aspect which at this point seems no longer appropriate. Race is not a criteria for……

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Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Linked

Many things could happen, including changes in weather patterns and extinction of populations which would upset the food chains of areas and may have world-wide effects. Sea levels could raise destroying homes and making land go under sea level putting millions out of their homes or dying from drowning. 4. Construct your own chart in order to summarize the geological and evolutionary events of the major periods that make up the four geologic eras of the Earth's history. Focus on major events only and avoid unnecessary detail. Era Events Phanerozoic (540 million years ago -- today) Cenozoic: first people, mammoths, & other prehistoric creatures Mesozoic: dinosaurs Paleozoic: first plants and life forms Proterozoic (2.5 billion years ago -- 540 million) Vendian: sponges and multi-celled organisms Early Proterozoic: first multi-cellular creatures; oxygen builds up on earth Archeozoic (3.9 billion -- 2.5 billion years ago) Little free oxygen; first rocks and oceans formed Unicellular life forms created Hadean (4.6 billion -- 3.9 billion years ago) First landforms created 5. Discuss the main application of the Hardy-Weinberg rule in evolutionary biology. The main application of the Hardy-Weinberg rule in evolutionary biology is in understanding and predicting future evolutionary changes. He says there are five things which bring about a creature's evolution. These are: low numbers of a population, genetic blending, mutation, natural selection, and gene flow. If these things do not present itself, then the population will not evolve, but will instead remain the same through the many generations. 6. In a population with 600 members, the numbers of individuals of three different genotypes are AA=…

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Evolution the General Assumption Is

Thus, according to the theoretical underpinnings of the mechanism of biological evolution there is no predetermined biological mechanism or pathway that directs the process of evolution from simple to complex organisms (Carroll, 2001). Random mutations are just that; nondirectional and not predictable changes in the alleles of the population. Natural selection is simply a method which results in the genetic mutations that allows for the adaptation and survival of the population in specific environmental conditions to continue to survive (Carroll, 2001; Gould, 2002). While this process often includes a movement of a population towards more structural complexity, this is not always the case. An example of such an instance where the process of biological evolution did not result in a more complex organism is that of the hypothesized evolution of snakes. Although no one has ever observed the evolution of any particular animal, snakes are hypothesized to have adapted to specific environments such as long, heavy, grassy, terrains or terrains where they needed to burrow for survival by losing their limbs and in the process of the development of an elongated body also lost the use of their left lung (it is typically rudimentary at best in snakes; Vida & Hedges, 2004). As a result, the theoretical evolution of snakes as a biological population assumes a movement from a more complex to a less complex organism. Accordingly, the concept of biological evolution does not necessarily include a predetermined pathway from simple to complex organisms. References Carroll, S.B. (2001). Chance and necessity: The evolution of morphological complexity and diversity. Nature, 409 (6823), 1102 -- 1109. Futuyma, D.J. (2005). Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. Gould, S.J. (2002). The structure of evolutionary theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Hansen, C.J., Kawaler, S.D., & Trimble, V. (2004). Stellar interiors: Physical principles, structure, and evolution (2nd ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag. Vidal, N., & Hedges, S.B. (2004). Molecular evidence for a terrestrial origin of snakes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 271(Suppl 4), S226-S229. Wu, R. & Lin, M. (2006). Functional mapping -- how to……

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Bowler, Charles Darwin Peter Bowler's

In the first half of the nineteenth century, geologists had been particularly active in developing a body of knowledge that required some sort of interpretation: as Bowler notes, "In the course of the half-century from 1800 to 1850, the modern outline of the fossil record had been put together, revealing the ascent of life from primitive fish and invertebrates through…

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Role of Culture and Environment in the Evolution of Humanity

Therefore, employing the use of models such as the mathematical models to analyze the impact of culture on evolution shows that, the niche model is effective in influencing evolutionary outcomes of humans in the society (Herrmann et al. 2007). It is appreciable that, cultural evolution contributed to the growth of cooperative groups. The environments favor the evolution of human beings…

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Effects of the Theory of Evolution and Natural Selection

Charles Darwin's Path To Evolution Darwin is denoted as father of evolution. In perspective, Darwin developed his evolution theory during the same time as Alfred Russell Wallace, another scientist conducting similar research. However, Darwin accrued respect in science prior writing his article on 'On the Origin of Species'. The article was received with much success where the initial printing was immediately sold out although with wider readership and criticism. Darwin's ideas were accommodated within the scientific world into the business and social worlds (Bortz, 2013). In most cases, Darwin's theories developed into societal transformations. In his research, Darwin rose to a naturalist status, which gave him an opportunity of studying wildlife from Galapagos Islands. The islands amazed him due to great lifestyle diversity (Workman, 2013). Particularly, he had an interest in diversifying the island's various finches and appreciation of beaks that had high adaptation to particular lifestyles. Darwin hypothesized that nature required some form of processes leading to adaptation and diversity (Workman, 2013). Charles Darwin spent most of his time puzzling out the nature and content of the processes. After the return from his island voyage, he brought with him dead finches that were killed and stuffed on behest. Darwin put his notion in writing one an abstract of 490 pages titled 'On the Origin of Species' in 1859. Darwin's interpretation of Origin offers a diversified perception to the public. The theory of evolution was well accepted as a content of evolution occurring within the concepts of Darwin's human development steps. However, natural selection mechanisms were solicited as reminders of accepted lifelines (Bortz, 2013). This is because of the points that Darwin admittedly explained. For instance, there were issues of trait management in which parents passed onto children while the process remained unclear. The early 1900's marked the period when the focus and scope of genetics advanced into the intense focus study in which Darwin's natural selection mechanism received deeper scientific support and intense scrutiny. The discoveries from genetics enabled Darwin's theories to gain scientific grounds for observation, as well as the consequences of accepted plausible mechanisms in evolutionary change. Prior genetics reached the scene, the perception of survival for fittest were captured the public's imagination. The ideology also applied to elements of the business world that the structures within the society managed to develop (Frame, 2012). Darwin observed that all forms of diversity of life across the world emerged…

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Did Darwin Develop the Theory of Evolution?

DARWIN What was Wallace really talking about in his 1858 paper and was he convincing? Darwin and Wallace 1858 papers: Wallace's role in forming the evolutionary hypothesis Alfred Wallace has often been credited as a critical influence upon Charles Darwin in encouraging the naturalist to publish his theories on evolution: Wallace was working on his own theory of natural selection at the same time as Darwin, and had not Darwin feared being pre-empted by Wallace, he may not have been willing to share his twenty years' research with the world at the time that he did. Wallace's 1858 letters to Darwin, in which Wallace discussed his work are often cited as evidence that Wallace deserves credit as a 'co-founder' of the theory. However, there are certain critical differences between the two men's lines of thought. Wallace's different emphases and some of his errors in reasoning regarding evolution ultimately support the hypothesis that it is Darwin, not Wallace, who deserves the solitary credit for developing the concept of evolutionary theory. "In 1858, in Halmahera, Wallace wrote his essay on natural selection and posted it to Darwin…Darwin had been working on a similar theory for several years and now faced the prospect of being robbed of glory. [Darwin's friends] Lyell and Hooker arranged a reading for Wallace's paper and for a hastily written one by Darwin at the same meeting of the Linnean Society" (McKae 2013). But even had there not been that inspired 'save' by Lyell and Hooker, the lion's share of the credit must still belong to Wallace. First and foremost is Darwin's emphasis that evolution is a mechanism that begins with the individual, although over time the effects of individual character are eventually felt in the larger population. In contrast, "Wallace apparently thought selection acted on groups or species" (Montgomery 2009). There is less emphasis between competitions between individuals (even individuals from the same species) for the same resources in Wallace. "Whether selection acted for 'the good of the group' or on individuals was debated for a long time" but today the widespread consensus is that Darwin was right and evolution begins as an individual process through mechanisms particular to the animal such as mutations and competition for mates (Montgomery 2009). Darwin did not believe that evolution supported a higher social purpose for 'the good' of a social organization, even though it might unintentionally have that result, for example,…

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