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Twitter on Sports Journalism the

He uses the example of a blogger named Nate Dunlevy, who runs an Indianapolis Colts site, and wrote a story about NFL writer Len Pasquarelli's claim that Colts' defensive end Robert Mathis was planning to hold out of training camp once the NFL labor situation was settled (Seth). Pasquerelli had quoted anonymous sources in support of his story, did not…

Pages: 10  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 10


Ed Gold Scholarship as Might

After working as a contributor to Applause Africa Magazine, I feel ready to begin a new career in journalism with a focus on bringing about change in the developing world. Walter H. Diamond and Dorothy B. Diamond International Business Journalism Fellowship My interest in journalism stems from my desire to share the rich cultural experiences I have had in Africa. After my appearance on The Apprentice: Africa, I met entrepreneurs, designers, writers, and politicians while on my tour across Sub-Saharan and South Africa. Their stories inspired me to create a venue to share their tales. I launched O&M Media and produced a new Pan-African television series, called Africa's Top 100 Entrepreneurs. In preparation for the show, I co-wrote the treatment and production bible, conducted detailed interviews, and contributed stories about the entrepreneurs to the local media to attract sponsors. Despite the grueling work of launching a company and starting a show from scratch, it was immensely gratifying to bring previously unrecognized experiences to the public's attention. Upon returning to New York City, I found myself yearning to share more of the remarkable stories I had gathered while living in Nigeria. By cultivating my writing skills, I realized I might be able to once again establish a platform for the many inspiring stories. I began contributing to Applause Africa magazine in New York, composing pieces on topics such as the success of African fashion designers. My experience with O&M Media and Applause Africa magazine has not only reinforced my interest in journalism, but also made me aware of the higher purpose of my writing. Through my reporting, I want to teach readers about today's Africa, cultivate positive opinion and ultimately benefit its hard-working, inspiring entrepreneurs. Becoming a journalist means accepting the privilege and responsibility of presenting the truth about Africa to the public.…

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New Media Implications the Improvement

Others view them as heroes that are fettering out the facts and figures that the established news media does not want others to see. Whether one views them as legitimate news makers or just part of the audience that is just stirring things up can vary, but this obviously is an example of the lines between audience and newsmakers blurring…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 20


Manipulation of Media Coverage During

The fact of matter is that the image of the destruction of the statue of a man who was believed to be an oppressive ruler was portrayed as the most appropriate indication of the end of the war and the start of the liberation process in the region. Most of the presenters on these news channels widely and strongly claimed…

Pages: 10  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Media Archaelogy and Videogames in

The author lists a variety of other women who have played an important role in media archaeology. The point is that there is no person whose work is negligible or indeed of more vital importance simply because of their gender. Like the changes we experience in technology and communications today, there is also a change in our view of society…

Pages: 12  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 12


Pulitzer Prize's Effect on Journalism

Pulitzer Joseph Pulitzer and his Eponymous Prize: The Shaping and Stature of Modern American Journalism Joseph Pulitzer is remembered variously as a pioneering voice and face in the newspaper industry and the field of journalism, and as a quasi-robber baron with more greed than conscience and a willing to sell principles if it meant selling papers. Neither view can be…

Pages: 13  |  Essay  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 0


Ethics in Journalism: Case Study Looking at

Ethics in Journalism: Case Study Looking at the headlines of the various publications on the news stands today, and it quickly becomes clear that the place where journalism is coming from today is less one reflective of the ethics of journalism as is depicted in the Society of Professional Journalists' Code of Ethics, and more reflective of a tabloidism, for…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 0


Media Ethics

FOX News In today's world of media information, there are constant concerns of bias and unfair reporting. While some conservatives believe the media to be liberal, other liberals see the media as conservative. This paper will discuss one news station, that of the Fox News Network, and will discuss whether or not this station uses censorship to present an unfair,…

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Ethnic/Race in the News Media

But all agree that there is room for improvement." (Rifkin) This is undoubtedly the case. The way in which ethnic and racial issues are covered by the media is skewed. The news media, as well as the entertainment aspects of the media, have an agenda to get ratings. This means that morality and social justice are often curbed in order to bring in the most money. "News gathering, to be sure, is a highly imperfect art, and problems with basic facts, not to mention nuances, are common. But when you are talking about conflicts that are at their root racial, ethnic or religious, the stakes are higher. This is the stuff riots, wars and deep-seated prejudices are made of, and the news media has an even greater responsibility than it normally does to get it right." (Rifkin) Since 9/11 and the introduction of the so-called War on Terror, it is even more dangerous that the media continues to fling racial and ethnic issues around carelessly. Bibliography AAR. "History of AAR." Artists Against Racism. http://www.vrx.net/aar/history.html Creeley, Will and Rendall, Steve. "White Noise: Voices of Color Scarce on Public Radio." Extra! September/October 2002. Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting. http://www.fair.org/extra/0209/white-noise.html Douglas, Susan. Listening In: Radio and American Imagination. New York: Times Books, 1999. Ely, Melvin Patrick. The Adventures of Amos 'N' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon. New York: The Free Press, 1991. Entman, Robert and Rojecki, Andrew. The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. Gilliam, Frank. "The Local Television News Media's Picture of Children - 2001." Study on Race, Ethnicity and the News. October 2001. Children Now. Complete Study Findings Available for Download at http://www.childrennow.org/newsroom/news-01/pr-10-23-01.cfm. Hangen, Tona. "The Adventures of Amos 'n' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon. Melvin Pattrick Ely. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001." Journal of Popular Culture. August 2004 Vol. 38 Issue 1, p 214, 2p. Nachman, Gerald. Raised on Radio. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998. Rifkin, Ira. "Covering Conflict: How the News Media Handles Ethnic Controversy." Media & Values, Issue 43. Spring 1988. Print Journal Archived Online by the Center for Media Literacy. http://www.medialit.org/reading_room/article382.html Stark, Phyllis. "A History of Radio Broadcasting." Billboard. November 1, 1994. http://www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/pennvalley/biology/lewis/crosby/bilboard.htm Stockman, Robbie. "Amos 'n' Andy-ism: What it Was and What It Is." http://people.ucsc.edu/~dramadon/Amos_and_Andy.htm…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Yellow Journalism Is a Term

Yellow journalism can turn the girl next door into a top news story in the blink of an eye. Media outlets clamor over news stories that exemplify crime, violence and sex. In analyzing yellow journalism as it is used today we can consider a notable example. Would the Chandra Levy case been a national headline if she had not been a congressman's mistress? Or would she have just been another nameless missing person that received little, if any attention from the press? While the Chandra Levy issue was a legitimate case of a missing person, the media acted as hungry vultures seeking to pick apart the intimate details of Gary Condits life, reporting any story that had a twinge of drama or scandal. While this is not yellow journalism in its purest form, the media did go above and beyond the call of duty to unearth any information that could be sensationalized. The Chandra Levy case is by no means an isolated incident. The horrible events of September 11th showed America for the first time in years "real" news. The coverage of the events of September 11th revealed that prior news coverage was not news coverage at all, but doctored up gossip. Have we not been conditioned to accept reports of OJ Simpson's new girlfriend, Michael Jackson's new nose job or the break up of Brittany Spears and Justin Timberlake as news, to some extent? The ethnical practices of most media outlets today provide as a gatekeeper so that true yellow journalism remains at bay. However, there are those who believe that yellow journalism has a place in media today. An article from EPN worldreporter.com contends that "what drives today's 'yellow' journalists, however, isn't profit, or greedy publishers, or even career advancement, but outrage." A new form of journalism, called activist journalism allows activists and journalists alike to report on their view of current events. Such reporting puts a spin on traditional yellow journalism while retaining some of the most fundamental aspects. Conclusion Yellow journalism, which made its debut over one hundred years ago, still impacts the media and the way in which news is reported today. Most media outlets are guilty of putting a yellow spin on the news at one time or another. As American's, the news in which we know it is extremely sensationalized simply because that is what we prefer, as demonstrated in our demand for…

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Partisanship of the News Media

Partisanship of the News Media and Its Effect on the Last 25 Years of United States History Media Impact & Partisanship In the 21st century, there has been a particular development on the media front, and which has completely changed the outlook of media towards political factions (Merriam-Webster). The act of partisanship has been on the rise and media houses…

Pages: 12  |  Research Paper  |  Style: Turabian  |  Sources: 12


United States Still the World's Dominant Media

¶ … United States Still the World's Dominant Media Economy? Is the U.S. still the world's most dominant media economy? One could probably make an argument either way on this question. Scholars, authors, and media pundits all have worthy theories and learned perspectives. And there is no editorial or socially constructed consensus as to the whether the media potency of…

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Theory and Practice

¶ … business becomes increasingly competitive and global across a "flat" world, the role of the public relations (PR) specialist grows in value to the organization. It is important to have someone closely connected to both the customer needs and to the media to communicate that those needs are being met. PR specialists do 'ore than 'tell the organization's story.'…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 8


IT's Not Just PR

¶ … PR: Public Relations in Society is an enterprise authors Coombs and Holladay took as a consequence to the gap they felt it was created between various opinions expressed by those who attacked the field and its real meaning. The tone they set is objective and free of any partisanship. The introductory chapter of the book reveals the authors'…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 0


Embedded Weapons of Mass Deception How the Media Failed to Cover War in Iraq

Embedded: The Relationship Between Form and Theoretical Assumption in an Account of the Iraq War Danny Schechter's book Embedded: Weapons of Mass Deception looks at the media coverage surrounding the Iraq war and attempts to argue that the American news media failed in its duty to robustly investigate the claims made by the military and civilian government. However, the book's…

Pages: 20  |  Book Report  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 20


Diversity and the Media

Diversity and the Media Since the era of Civil Rights Movements, the United States has made great strides in improving civil rights for women and racial and ethnic minorities. Greater awareness of the diversity of the American society has become the subject of public education, media campaigns, and advocacy groups. However, it is far too early to suggest that the battles for civil rights are over. For example, diversity of America is not reflected properly in the media yet. Women and ethnic/racial minorities are often underrepresented, misrepresented, or stereotyped in the media. Challenging these underrepresentations and misrepresentations is crucial for improving the overall diversity of life in America. The problems in the media today are legion. As a report by the group Ethnic Majority state, the stereotypical way African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-Americans are portrayed today in the media reinforces negative perceptions of these racial and ethnic groups. The report also notes that underrepresenting racial and ethnic minorities in TV programs sends a wrong message about the ethnic reality in the country. When children watch programs that rarely present a mixed cast, they get wrong impressions of how the American society looks like (Diversity in the media and entertainment industries). There is a similar problem with regard to representations of women in the media. Here are some of the facts collected by National Organization for Women: only six percent of the commercial broadcast TV stations in the U.S. are owned by women; of the communications and media jobs created in 1990-2005, only one of four was filled by women; in the media/communications sector, men earn 29% more than white women and 46% more than women of color. The way gender diversity is misrepresented in the media is even worse. Consider this: "on primetime cable news programs, more than three-quarters of the hosts are white men and less than a quarter are white women. None of the hosts are people of color. The typical guest on these shows is white and male; overall, 67% of the guests are men and 84% are white" (Media activism). Fortunately, not all news is bad news. As Woods (2001) notes, some print media……

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AOL Huffington Post Merger Tragedy or Triumph for Mass Media

Huff Post Huffington/AOL Merger On its surface, the merger in 2011 between popular newsblog site Huffington Post and one time dial-up web access pioneer America Online would seem an unnatural pairing. The former is among the most popularly visited daily-content sites on the web whereas AOL is a name more laregely associated with the internet's early history of commercial penetration. One might perceive the latter -- a media empire now including Time-Warner among its considerable assets -- as nonetheless a lesser partner than perhaps a media group with more current cache. However, as the discussion here shows, the partnership between the two entities may well represent a perfect pairing, given their mutual interest in finding ways to present news as an entertainment commodity. As a result, we would argue here that there is a certain triumph in this merger for the field of mass communications, which sees Huffington gaining the backing and resources of a company philosophically familiar -- through such broadcast ventures as CNN -- with the proliferation of news as a brand of profitable programming content. The result is a new prototype in the context of mass communications, a site simultaneously driven by news content and community responsiveness. In a certain respect, this has helped to reduce the force of gatekeeping in the news dimension of mass communications and has, consequently, ignited hostility from more traditional mass media outlets. Indeed, even as Huffington Post has gained considerable reputation in this area, it garners a certain degree of criticism for its orientation. For instance, Snow (2011) points out that Huffington is often skewered for its presentation of content largely borrowed from other sources as being wholly original. In this way, the site postures as a legitimate source of journalistic reporting while in actuality, its prioritization of content drives a different strategic orientation. According to the Snow text, critics such as the far more traditional journalistic institution the New York Times have characterized Huffington not as news but as "aggregation." The text indicates that "aggregation' . . . too often . . . amounts to taking words written by other people, packaging them on your own Web site and harvesting revenue that might otherwise be directed to the originators of the material. In Somalia this would be called piracy. In the mediasphere, it is a respected business model." (Snow, p. 9) Indeed, the model would be sufficiently respected to make…

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Media in America How Does

Americans who want to shape their own values may attempt to limit their reliance on the mass media, and make up their own minds on the most important issues in their own lives. In conclusion, it is clear the American mass media influences values in many ways. By choosing what Americans see, read, and hear, the media places constraints on information, and leads Americans down definite pathways. Americans are highly influenced by the media they choose, and do not choose, and so, American values are now dependent on information provided by others. As the media becomes more liberal, so does the information they produce, and public journalism will continue to attempt to influence how people behave and act. References Arant, M.D., & Meyer, P. (1998). Public journalism and traditional journalism: A shift in values? Journal of mass media ethics, 13(4), 205-218. Brown, A. (1996). Economics, public service broadcasting, and social values. Journal of media economics, 9(1), 3-15. Coleman, A.W. (2000). "Calvin and Hobbes": A critique of society's values. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 15(1), 17-42. Gomez, D.S. (2001, April). Sex, peers, media -- and family values: The NEA health information network's 'can we talk?' program helps thousands of parents talk with their kids, in English or Spanish. NEA today, 19, 29. Goode, S. (1996, March 4). Character and values confuse the mass media. Insight on the News, 12, 18+. (1992). The mass media in liberal democratic societies (S. Rothman, Ed.). New York: Paragon House. (1994). News influence on our pictures of the world. In Media effects advances in theory and research, Bryant, J. & Zillmann, D. (Eds.) (pp. 1-15). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.……

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Media Ownership it Is Very

The journalists and station managers in the local Fox TV affiliate are producing less and less of the news segments seen in Madison's Fox channel. Instead, these news and commentary segments are produced in "NewsCentral," a centralized communications production station operated by Sinclair. The same news segments and commentaries are piped to all the local affiliates, from Madison, Wisconsin to…

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Media Film & Media in

Through the magic of sampling (the process of choosing discrete parts to represent a continuous whole), almost anything -- text, sound, speech, film, graphics, animations, music -- can be digitized, and whatever can be digitized can be presented on a computer and transmitted over a network. (EMCPP "Digital Convergence" 2012) Digitization allows for many processes and changes to the original…

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Media as an Extension of

Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan (2011) report that the pervasiveness of the media in the lives of individuals today and the significance of those media results in it being "surprising to realize that the mass media are relatively a new phenomena. Most forms of mass media are still in their infancy.' (p.7) The media product is stated to be such that different readers or viewers have differentiated interpretations. The active creation of meaning is referred to by sociologist as the "social construction of reality" which means, "while realities exist, we must negotiate the meaning of that reality." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.8) The social process or the process of socialization teaches the individual to perform their "social roles as friend, student, worker, citizen…" and in this process the dominant values, beliefs and norms or society are reported to become our personal values and norms and "we learn to hold 'appropriate' values and beliefs. We learn to behave in socially acceptable ways." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.8) However, the individual also becomes aware of the "learned nature of our beliefs" and this happens through exposure to other cultures and societies. This enables the individual to think objectively about his or her own personally held beliefs and the beliefs of the society in which they are situated. In years past, media projected information outward however, all of that has changed. One of the biggest changes in recent years is that audiences as users of medium "contribute content to the platforms created by media companies." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.11) The example stated is such as Amazon product reviews, Facebook updates, and a YouTube video as well as blog entries on Flicker. Mass media reaches a large audience and many of these are anonymous users and readers. The difference that exists between mass media and other types of communication are according to Crouteau "not always simple or clear-cut…the distinctions have become blurred with the introduction of new technologies." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.11) Media and particularly in today's society, social media, saturates the lives of individuals as they interact and communicate on a daily basis with friends and family both near and far. Social media has furthered socialization between cultures that would never have in years past been able to communicate in such a familiar manner. This has opened the world up and allowed individuals to experience other cultures and…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Internet Has Changed the Practice

" (Malikpr, nd) Universal Accreditation Board of Professional Public Relations Personnel Survey Report The Universal Accreditation Board in its report entitled "The Practice of Analysis of the Public Relations Profession" states that in terms of the impact of technology "To put current work in perspective, respondents were asked to describe how public relations work has changed over the past three…

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Media and Vietnam War in

From time to time, he ordered certain American journalists expelled from the country because of their unfavorable coverage, particularly stories about the ineffectiveness of the Army of Vietnam (ARVN), corruption and drug dealing in high places, or the inability of the government to win over the peasants. In 1962-63, the Kennedy administration became highly critical of Halberstam and other print journalists, and tried to have them removed from Vietnam, even as it gradually turned against Diem as well. During the phase of escalation and Americanization in 1965-68, the media generally continued to report the official military and administration line that Westmoreland's strategy was winning the war, up to the Tet Offensive in 1968. In 1965, Lyndon Johnson became enraged at CBS News for showing American soldiers burning down a Vietnamese village, and personally called the head of CBS News Frank Stanton early in the morning -- a call reported laced with great profanity (Halin 6). This type of story was not typical of the 1965-68 period, though, perhaps because of Johnson's success in selling the war and declaring that it would be won in two or three years. Only after the Tet Offensive, when Walter Cronkite appeared on CBS News and called the war a "bloody stalemate" did Johnson really believe that he had lost the support of Middle America (Halin 6). Nor did the media generally grant the antiwar and anti-draft movement very favorable coverage in 1965-68, but often reported government sources as attacking it for undermining the war effort, giving aid and comfort to the enemy, and also being infiltrated by Communists. During this time, "reporters still began their inquiries with the World War II premise that draft resistance was outrageous" and that the domino theory and Cold War consensus were correct (Gitlin 101). Public opinion polls, including those conducted after the protests in Chicago in 1968 and the shootings at Kent State in 1970 that left four students dead, were generally hostile to the demonstrators rather than the authorities (Gitlin 244). After Tet and the de facto resignation of Lyndon Johnson, the media coverage became far more negative and critical of the official line on the war, and this is reflected in the severe decline in public support in 1968-72. This was the era Richard Nixon was thinking of when he blamed the media for causing "serious demoralization on the home front," which mostly occurred during his…

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Media in America as the

But that will not solve their problem, because it has been the so-called fourth estate, the news media, that has collaborated with Congress in preventing the Executive Branch from operating in secrecy. The news media, as Woodward makes clear, are never going to return to the pre-Watergate days when a president's actions were not questioned. Nor should they, even in…

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Media and Military Operations Recently

This was a small victory for the media but it was not any greater of a fight then the one that the general public had in wanting to attend criminal trials. The need for open trials was recognized, however, and closing trials off to the media was considered to violate the rights of the media and the rights of the…

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History of Paparazzi and Tabloid Journalism Paparazzi

History Of Paparazzi and Tabloid Journalism Paparazzi are photographers who make a living by taking photos of celebrities. They are paid up by their clients who include: gossip magazines, celebrity blogs and traditional news outlet. Tabloid journalism is journalism that includes use of brief news content, an abundance of pictures, some fiction, and often they blatantly appealed to the human interest in crime, sex, and disaster this type of journalism employs sensationalism as a device to capture readers' attention. Sensationalism is the use of material intended to produce a startling or scandalous effect, especially one pertaining to the senses. Tabloids attempt to captivate the masses with their colors and headlines about wonderful, amazing, and even shocking stories. Tabloid journalism tends to be aimed at a mass market and chooses colorful topics which are likely to be controversial. Tabloid journalism has existed since the last century when many abuses were uncovered. Tabloids helped exposed evils such as the lack of proper industrial safety and thus had a useful function in their defense. Power brings responsibility. History of paparazzi and tabloid journalism The origin of the word "paparazzi" is speculated to have come from Federico Fellini's 1960s film "La Dolce Vita." Fellini was inspired to make the movie after an At the most basic level, paparazzi hang out on the streets and in public places waiting for an opportunity to photograph a star. In public, the paparazzi can snap away unhindered by laws. But for a paparazzo who wants to make the big bucks, this method is far too inefficient. Paparazzi must make sure they are in the right place at the right time to get the shot. Paparazzi work a lot like private detectives. Each paparazzo culls a network of informers to help keep tabs on celebrity targets. These informers can be people who work in businesses frequented by celebrities, such as restaurants, shops or salons. The paparazzo often pays for this information. In many cases, people who work for the star might be bribed to divulge the whereabouts of their employer (Kane, 2010). The word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. To the compressed tablets they marketed……

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Mass Media Affecting Degree of Acculturation for Taiwanese Adult ESL Learners Ages 18-25

Acculturation of ESL Learners in Taiwan How impactful is the mass media in terms of the acculturation for Taiwanese adult English as a second language (ESL) learners (ages 18-25)? This issue has important implications for the ESL students both in terms of learning the English language, and in understanding the culture from which the English language is predominant. This paper…

Pages: 10  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 20


Technology and Its Effect on Communication

¶ … Societal Impact of Modern Communication Technology There is no denying that modern communication technology has revolutionized society. We have changed from a planet of isolated nations into a globally connected universe in which communications are synonymous with speed and convenience. Part of this transformation has been an expanded focus on visual images. People watch television more than they…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Blog Reaction: Alterman, Eric. "What Liberal Media?"

Blog Reaction: Alterman, Eric. "What liberal media?" February 6, 2003. November 1, 2009 The cliche that the media has a liberal bias runs so deep that an entire, openly biased news network has used it as a clever marketing technique: Fox News has made its slogan "fair and balanced" despite the fact that it is entirely populated with right-wing pundits like Bill O'Reilly, with the only occasional token liberal to fan conservative flames of outrage on air. Even liberals often do not argue against this premise that the media has a liberal bias, despite the presence of such pundits as George Will, Pat Buchanan, Charles Krauthammer, and of course Bill O'Reilly in print and on air. The mere existence of a liberal is decried as "bias," as in the case of the presence of Nobel-prize winning economist Paul Krugman on the pages of the New York Times editorial pages, despite the counterweight of the equally conservative Wall Street Journal editorial page in the court of public opinion (Alterman 2003, p.2). In his 2003 article, "What liberal media," Eric Alterman for the Nation suggests that in fact the media is quite balanced. However, an alternative perspective might be that the media is quite good at "selling its product." Fox's……

Pages: 1  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 1


Kennedy Assassination

Kennedy Assassination Over the years there have been numerous major events that have influenced the technology and the presentation of the mass media. But there may not be a more significant event than the Kennedy assassination and the impact it made on changing the industry. The Date That Changed Journalism Forever. On that dreadful Friday morning, thousands of Americans and many members of the press stood in line just to see President Kennedy's motorcade drive slowly through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas. Moments later, the President's assassination would change the country and the medium of television forever. After shots were fired, a stunned world would make television its primary source of breaking news, as Dallas journalists found themselves delivering a wrenching story to the American people (JFK: Breaking The News). In the four days between Kennedy's assassination and his funeral, the foundation was laid for the all-encompassing, 24-hour coverage that is the norm today. Broadcast journalists broke new ground as they kept the nation up-to-date on the rapidly evolving story. The media's coverage of the event made television the nation's primary source of breaking news information (JFK: Breaking The News). "This was really the event that TV news journalists like to claim brought them to age," says Barbie Zelizer, author of Covering the Body: The Kennedy Assassination, the Media, and the Shaping of Collective Memory (1992). "In 1963 TV journalists were seen as the fluff journalists. Print journalists were the serious journalists. When the Kennedy assassination occurred, of course, TV cameras were able to roll 24/7, and so what you got was an ongoing attentiveness to the event that print could not provide. "You have to remember that there were very few TV stations, and people had not yet had the kind of event that would cause them to corral around the TV. This was the very first time that TV brought the public together. The first relays of what had happened went out on radio then television media took over. "Television did what was unthinkable back then -- it stopped all broadcasting and all commercials. It stayed with the story for four days. It did everything it could to provide people with ongoing information. From Friday to Monday it provided the American public with an ongoing visual screen of what was going on in the assassination story" (Zelizer). Improvements in Media Technology By the time Kennedy was assassinated the…

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Commercialization of Journalism and the Inherent Ethical

Commercialization of Journalism and the Inherent Ethical Conflict The concept of 'News' would appear on the surface to warrant the very straightforward definition as being the reporting through mass media of current events. In particular, news journalism will generally have some type of relationship to current events, whether to serve as a channel for explaining events, a forum for discussion…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 9


Public Relations Campaign Proposal

Public Relations Campaign Proposal The following pages will focus on describing a Public relations campaign proposal for L'Oreal's summer products launch. The PR campaign proposed bellow is a variant considered to be best suitable for launching a new product line for such a great player on the cosmetic products market. The following PR campaign focuses on carrying on the relationship…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 2


Johnson, T.J. and Kaye, B.K. (2004). Wag

Johnson, T.J. And Kaye, B.K. (2004). Wag the Blog: How Reliance on Traditional Media and the Internet Influence Credibility Perceptions of Weblogs Among Blog Users. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.glog.nl/wiki/upload/docs/thomas%20j%20johnson.pdf The article considers the relative credibility of "Weblogs" as opposed to traditional news sources. The authors argue that, although this sources of media information has largely been ignored by the scholarship, it deserves recognition for a number of reasons, including its growing prevalence in the media. Before examining Weblogs specifically, the article focuses on past studies of non-traditional media and their credibility. Four research questions are posed, after which the methodology is described in depth. Ultimately, the research finds that there is a correlation between talk radio use and the perception of Weblog credibility. In other words, listeners to talk radio tend to regard Weblogs as more credible than those who do not. Reese, S.D. Rutigliano, L., Hyun, K., and Jeong, J. (2005, Apr. 1). Zapping the blogosphere: Citizen-based media in the global news arena. University of Texas, School of Journalism The research is based upon the assumption that globalization has brought a greater sense of connectedness among media users than ever before. The use of Weblogs is one manifestation of this, where Internet users connect by means of contributing news by means of online media. To create a platform for study, the authors examine different sources of news media, including the traditional, online citizen media, and blogging. Each receives great attention as the underlying concerns are being mapped and discussed. This study found that there is a greater correlation between online media and the perceived credibility of traditional news sources than might initially be assumed. Paulussen, S., Heinonen, A., Domingo, D. And Quandt, T. (2007). Doing it Together: Citizen Participation in the Professional News Making Process. Observatorio Journal, Vol. 3. Retrieved from: http://biblio.ugent.be/input/download?func=downloadFile&fileOId=731819 The study uses data from four countries to determine the factors that influence participatory journalism. These include Belgium, Finland, Germany and Spain. The authors note that the growth of the Internet has enabled a democratic type of participation in a greater sense than has ever been the case before. This sense of demogracy has become the heart of participatory communication, rather than any perceived credibility, it appears. Some of the concepts considered include public journalism, interactive journalism, participatory journalism, and citizen journalism. Ultimately, the study found that there is…

Pages: 2  |  Annotated Bibliography  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Breaking the News" by James

The anecdote illustrates the conflict that happens between two journalists, and, eventually, between the journalists and the public (with the inclusion of the military), when confronted to choose between covering a newsworthy footage or saving the lives of people under the danger of death. The journalists' decision to become objective and cover the event instead of saving the lives of those in danger illustrates the lack of consideration that the mass media has on the reality that surrounds them. That is, they choose to objectify every reality that they encounter everyday, and assess their judgment and behavior based on the newsworthiness of an event as it is presented to them. In this example, Fallows shows how the mass media have become an autonomous institution that cares only for itself and not the public and its welfare, the very people whom they should serve, first and foremost. "Breaking the News" have effectively reflected what Fallows have asserted to be the current preoccupation of the mass media at present: that is, 'charming' and 'winning the acceptance of the crowd' (public). Ultimately, the mass media's preoccupation in influencing the public is based not so much on the concern that it has for the American public's welfare, but on the potential profits that media conglomerates can make when they are able to capture their audience, the public, in every news or entertainment piece that they offer. Sadly, the book has also opened the people's eyes to the hard reality that the mass media is firstly, an economic institution before becoming a social institution. Fallows' experiences and observations as a media practitioner over the years serves proof that the mass media has become an autonomous body that is detached from the public and the realities of the society, and, unfortunately, operating under its own agenda and purposes. Work cited Fallows, J. (1996). Breaking……

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How Newspapers Attract Readers

¶ … decline of newspaper readership. The author examines the statistics, the attempt by newspapers to attract readers by turning to sensationalism, and the opinions of experts in the field about how to increase readership. The author then proposes an ethical solution to the problem that avoids sensationalism but still provides the readers with what they want. Across the nation,…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Marshall Mcluhan Media and the Human Senses

Marshall McLuhan Media and the Human Senses Marshall McLuhan contends that all media are extensions of the human senses. True to form, all media presented whether print, audio, visual, electronic or other are nothing more than expansions of our perceptions of the world in one form or another. Media provides the medium through which mankind can engage the senses, explore…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Media Manipulation Does the American Media Establishment

Media Manipulation Does the American media establishment consistently reflect and report the news fairly, objectively, factually, and in its entirety? The answer to that question, according to numerous sources, is "no" to fairness, "no" to objectivity, "no" to factuality, and "no" to the entirety. This paper will review and report the opinions of experts and journalists who have analyzed the…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


American Political Parties the Political

" Additionally, viewers seek information that confirms what they already believe. Bernhardt et al. (2) quote Posner "… they want to be confirmed in their beliefs by seeing them echoed and elaborated by more articulate, authoritative and prestigious voices. So they accept, and many relish, a partisan press." Bernstein adds that people hear what they want to hear. "No one…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Boys on the Bus Media

The Boys on the Bus reveals the sad truth about the media in the Kennedy, Nixon and McGovern years. It is a truth that evolves with the mores of our society. One cannot believe that it has changed significantly - except to become less herd- driven and more star- created. If we accept the spin as fact and fail to inject a dose of humanity into the mix we will, indeed "get the leaders we deserve" and they will be as Kamber describes (6). The media designs photo ops, stages appropriate crisis and reveals the tragic pain of life with the appropriate spin. It has become more important to film the scene that to tackle the shooter. Timothy Crouse should write a sequel and entitle it Popcorn at Five PM. This because the news is becoming just another television drama. Dan Rather looks real against the bombs blasting in the night sky of Iraq. If the take is not perfect, will they re-bomb the city to get the shot? I am sure one could devise the appropriate political argument to justify it. Works Cited American Heritage Dictionary Palm SII.……

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Media Bias and Public Opinion

Such reporting is nothing more than propaganda." (POLLAGANDA - Manipulating Public Opinion, 1998.) This has, the authors suggest, produced a new term - Pollaganda - which is defined as follows: Media polling is used to manipulate public opinion and advance a particular bias. This is primarily accomplished by television networks, on which most people rely for daily news. (Those who…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0

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