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Korean Linguistics the Korean Language and Linguistics

Korean Linguistics The Korean Language and Linguistics The Korean language, a member of the Altaic family of languages, is spoken as a native language by peoples of Korean ethnic derivation living in the Korean peninsula, southern and eastern Manchuria, the Russian Far East (eastern Siberia), Kazakhstan, Japan, North America, and in other communities scattered throughout the world. The total number…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 7


Modern Language Associations of America,

So in order to maintain the synergy of academic and the language and linguistics followed and observed in the conformity of international standards cannot be subjugated. In the similar context if there were no standards followed than the cultural invasion in understanding the work done by researcher in part of the world may sound useless and amid to the researcher ion the other part of the world. Hence the historical development and deployment of the Modern Language Association cannot be denied and the historical perspectives also serve the key roles and responsibilities (Sparks, Javorsky, and Ganschow). Reasons of its Development The fact cannot be denied that learning languages and maintaining the dynamics of linguistics throughout the world is not a simple task; it has been for this reason English being an international language has to be sustained and maintained in a standard format. The Modern Language Association incepted the MLA writing format to ensure the sustenance of the language and literature along with all the specifications and requirements. The fact cannot be denied that the similar languages being spoken across the world differs from the local dialects' bounded by culture and the preferences, so in order to eliminate the infusion of various cultures in the English language the academic professional established this standard of writing and expressing the language in the standard format. Another important reason for the development and successful deployment of the Modern Language Association throughout the world is the fact that the researches conducted in any discipline across the world are to be shared with the fellow researches in the other parts of the world, so if an established standard ground misses than it cannot be assured that the research of one researches is perceived accurately by the other researcher. The importance of accurate understanding of the work cannot be denied because the academic or research work unless properly understood by all the researches cannot be expanded and replicated or reproduces. So in order to maintain the synergy of academic and the language and linguistics followed and observed in the conformity of international standards cannot be subjugated. In the similar context if there were no standards followed than the cultural invasion in understanding the work done by researcher in part of the world may sound useless and amid to the researcher ion the other part of the world. Hence in order to sustain the memento and synergy…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Linguistics, Language Acquisition, & Pronoun

In other words, overextension is pushing oneself beyond one's bounds. Consider the example of overextending the range of flexibility in a joint or a muscle as an analogy. Language is a muscle; the use of language exercises a muscle -- the brain. Language exercises very specific areas of the brain. Thus, just as in muscle growth in other areas of…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 8


Linguistics Ebonics Is a Term

Ebonics may borrow or take on words from Standard American English, but there are grammatical dissimilarities. In fact, there is substantiation suggesting that African-American speech has roots similar to that of Niger-Congo Africans. Ebonics shares African morphology and lacks certain phonemes. These phonemes play an important role in the syntax and comprehension of Standard American English. However since Ebonics lacks…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Real-Time Language Change "The Moral

Using the past to understand the future becomes a key element of what real-time assessments have to offer (Turell, 2003:7). In many ways, this approach is favored because it mirrors many of the techniques that quality social sciences expect to have value. Returning to groups or places many years later and looking at what they did is one way to…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 7


Language-In-Use, Whether it Is Presented

" The article has an official air, as the information is supported by verified facts: the weddings were cancelled, according to a statement belonging to Clijsters, published on her official website. Furthermore, the story is not intended to create more public pressure on the two sportspersons, who intend to keep "distance ... from the malicious gossip which inevitably surfaces in…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Charting Sociolinguistic Variations Linguistics Briefly

The American did not intend this incident to occur; it occurred naturally. The American did not know about how to change language to be more British. The lack of knowledge also did not impede the change to occur. Now let us consider the second half of the statement: it's who you know. People are very valuable resources when it comes to sociolinguistic variation. Certainly, for the study of ancient languages and linguistics, texts are more valuable as most people do not speak ancient languages, though many modern and prolific languages such as English are heavily based on ancient languages such as Latin. Knowledge in applied sociolinguistics comes from knowing people; that knowledge comes from engaging people. The "who you know" adds to the "what you know," so it matters not if one knows nothing (relatively). 4. Sociolinguistic research typically relies on categorisations of speakers based on age, social class, and gender. Briefly discuss how useful these categories are. Categorisations of speakers in sociolinguistics based on age, social, class, and gender are relatively useful. They are not useless, but those categories may not be specific enough or wide ranging enough to yield as candid or precise information about speakers as other categories. Categories are fundamental to survival; thus, the categorisations are useful on a basic level. Age is certainly a strong indicator in the study of sociolinguistics. Levels and patterns of speech in children reflect the rate and level of development socially, cognitively, physically, and otherwise. Teenagers and adolescents speak in very distinctive linguistic patterns and would provide useful data regarding patterns of speech within this group. Class may not be so simple. There are impoverished people who still find ways to thoroughly and effectively educate themselves or find sources of education despite the lack of material wealth. There are those who are materially wealthy and lack considerable education or are so lazy that they do not endeavor to advance their education as far as the wealth permits. Therefore, categorising speakers sociolinguistically based on class requires further modification and specification. With the advent of the Internet, many marketing firms and media outlets have found it exceptionally challenging to accurately identify consumers by gender. This is why marketers changed their perspective and market more so now by choice in products rather than guessing (incorrectly) the gender of a consumer and marketing products to them in which they have no interest. The same…

Pages: 2  |  Assessment  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Theory Behind Second Language Socialisation (Sls) and

Theory behind Second Language Socialisation (SLS) and Some of Its Applications in ESOL Research As English continues to become the lingua franca of choice in the business world, educators are faced with some challenges as well as opportunities to deliver more effective educational services that are tied to the needs of second-language learners in an increasingly multicultural society. Using language…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 12


Linguistics Translation and Linguistics --

The first attempts at trying to use technology as the mechanism for language translation was in the mid-20th century. Scientists who were trying to develop automated translation processes had to be in touch with the concerns of linguists. Without a human directly involved in the process of translation, syntactic ambiguity was difficult to overcome. The machine could not always tell the difference between the subject or the object of the sentence. A sentence like "The turkey is ready to eat," could be interpreted as if the turkey is ready to eat its meal or the turkey is ready to be eaten by the humans. The machine was unable to venture beneath the surface structure of the language to the "internalized set of rules that speakers have about their language," Anderman writes (48). This is where the translator puts his or her knowledge about the linguistics of a particular language into use. Not only can a human translator integrate linguistic knowledge into a translation, they can also use what a machine can't -- intuition about meaning. Regardless of how many rules a linguist develops about how a language works, the translator must bring his or her own sense of meaning to the work of translation. Even the search for meaning can become complicated when one considers the Sapir/Whorf hypothesis that a disparity between world views between speakers of vastly different languages "makes translation a near impossibility." In a weaker interpretation of the hypothesis, however, Anderman points out that languages "differ not so much with respect to what it is possible to say in them as to the degree of difficulty with which it can be said" (47). Other schools chose to focus on the rules and structure of languages. Anderman also touches on the work of Noam Chomsky, whose theories were revolutionary, but in his own view had uncertain implications for translation. As Anderman points out throughout the article, the relationship between linguistics and translation can either express itself as an attempt to formulate a linguistic theory of translation, or it can be "less" ambitious and merely be an ongoing interaction between the two, "each drawing on the findings of the other whenever this is mutually beneficial" (54). Anderman goes on to explain some of the theories of linguistics that did have an effect on translation, including the approach of the Prague School, which developed the approach that syntax was multileveled:…

Pages: 4  |  Assessment  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Thai Culture and TESOL

English in Thailand Teaching English as a foreign language is a difficult task in any culture. The nation of Thailand has a long history of attempting to guarantee that its citizens can speak English. There are many factors that influence the likelihood that individuals will learn English. In Thailand culture and language have greatly affected the ability of the education…

Pages: 17  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Deborah Tannen and Amy Tan Use Language

¶ … Deborah Tannen and Amy Tan use language as a springboard to discuss gender. In "Marked Women, Unmarked Men," Tannen shows how the English language reflects a patriarchal culture. In "Mother Tongue," Tan demonstrates how her mother's limited English belies her power, strength, and intelligence. Tan is more concerned with ethnicity than Tannen. However, Tannen also understands how "geographical region, ethnicity, class, age and gender" interact. Therefore, Tannen and Tan appreciate the impact of language on gender and the impact of gender on language even while Tan frames her argument in terms of her ethnic identity. Language and linguistics play an important role in Tan's and Tannen's analyses of gender. Tannen deeply delves into the ways women are more "marked" than men, borrowing her metaphor from the field of linguistics. Whereas the men at the table wore relatively nondescript clothing and hairstyles, each of the women had carefully cultivated her own style. Women are expected, Tannen argues, to mark themselves. Another way women mark themselves is by choosing whether or not to keep their surname after getting married. Amy Tan desists from using the linguistic terms that Tannen uses. However, Tan does note that while linguists point……

Pages: 1  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 1


Synchronic and Diachronic Variation

Synchronic and Diachronic Variation This work will discuss the theory of grammaticalization, as it is defined within the current linguistic literature. The work will discuss the aspects of the term grammaticalization that allow it to be defined as an epiphenomenon of the physical neurological changes and language or grammatical changes that are consistent with the development of language, in both…

Pages: 14  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 9


Elt in the Expanding Circle and/or Outer

ELT in the Expanding Circle and/or Outer Circle The 2001 maven conference bore testimony to the growth of interest in EW L' over the past few decades. In the years between ? The first major academic gathering on this subject, the seminal conference on cross-cultural communication held at the University of Illinois in 1978 (Kachru 1992), and MAVEN 2001, much…

Pages: 12  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Sociolinguistic Aspect of Greek Dialects

Greek Sociolinguistics Socilinguistic Aspect Of Greek Dialects Perceptions of dialectical variation in Modern Greek What is a dialect? "Different language communities have certain ways of talking that set them apart from others. Those differences may be thought of as dialects -- not just accents (the way words are pronounced) but also grammar, vocabulary, syntax and common expressions" (Malone n.d.). In the nation of Greece, because of geographic and political divides, many distinct dialects of standard Modern Greek have developed. This paper will explore how different dialects have different emotional and social connotations for modern Greeks, both Greek-Americans who learned Greek in the U.S. And native speakers from Greece. Theoretical framework According to Joseph & Tserdanelis, in Modern Greek, "depending on how one decides the difficult question of distinguishing between dialects of a language as opposed to separate languages, the highly divergent modern form of Greek known as Tsakonian, spoken still in the eastern Peloponnesos (in Greece), could well be considered now a separate language from the rest of Modern Greek, and the Pontic dialects once spoken along the Black Sea coast of Asia Minor…modern Cypriot shows significant differences on all levels (phonological, morphological, and syntactic) that invite classification as a separate language, though this judgment is perhaps a more difficult one than in the case of Tsakonian or Pontic" (Joseph & Tserdanelis). The reason that Cypriot has developed into such a distinct linguistic specimen is very easy to guess, given the physical divisions between itself and the mainland, as well as the political conflicts that have resulted in Turkish influence in the region. Additionally, "the dialects of the Ionian Islands and those of Kydonies and Moschonisia constitute some major examples to this situation since they have been heavily affected by Italian and Turkish, respectively" (Modern Greek dialects, 2013, Laboratory of Modern Greek Dialects). The fact that Greek exhibits so many linguistic distinctions, to the point that new languages have been created in relatively recent years, highlights its dialectical variation. Dialects are very clearly 'coded' in a regional fashion to the ear of Greeks, and these different regions have strong class as well as geographical associations. Perceptions of 'foreignness' can also taint subjective perceptions of Greek dialects. While Modern Greek is traditionally characterized as being either a northern and southern dialect, within this rather crude division is a great deal of linguistic multiplicity. "This categorization is far from covering all the…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Chomsky Noam Chomsky and His

This dissimilarity is due to the application of various transformations, pronunciation, and word insertion rules. Transformational-generative grammar can also be distinguished by the difference between language proficiency and language performance ("Linguistics," 2009). Transformational linguistics has also a strong influence on psycholinguistics. It is particularly influential in the study of language acquisition by children. The "Minimalist Program" formulated by Chomsky in…

Pages: 10  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Mother Tongue by Amy Tan

Mother Tongue AMY TAN: MOTHER TONGUE Amy Tan is one of most imminent Asian-American writers of contemporary times. With a Chinese descent and a mother whose English skills could best be described as 'limited', Tan found herself at a significant disadvantage in school. She was always directed away from English and pushed into more mechanical subjects like mathematics and science. Tan excelled in these subjects primarily because of the fact that her home English was significantly different from what was taught in school and that affected her command over the language. But Tan wanted to be a writer and her rebellious nature finally took her to her destination where she found herself discovering the power of language and power of various Englishes that she had grown up with. These are some of the facts about Amy Tan that you learn from her highly acclaimed essay, 'Mother Tongue'. In Mother tongue, Tan reflects on the linguistic tensions that plagued her childhood and adolescence and made her believe that her parents' broken English was having a negative impact on her performance in school. "I think my mother's English almost had an effect on limiting my possibilities in life as well. Sociologists and linguists probably will tell you that a person's developing language skills are more influenced by peers. But I do think that the language spoken in the family, especially in immigrant families which are more insular, plays a large role in shaping the language of the child. And I believe that it affected my results on achievement tests, I.Q. tests, and the SAT." Tan's command of the language in school could be described as fairly good since she always received respectable grades in the subject but her scores were always overshadowed by her brilliant performance in mathematics and science. Her teachers felt she was more suited for a profession that involved use of mathematics and was even told by her boss once that writing was her worst skill and she should instead concentrate on accounting. Her difficulties with English made her intensely aware of the different versions of the language she had seen, spoken and found acceptable. The Englishes she refers to in the essay are different variations of English that Tan was exposed to as a child and adolescent. While at school, she was taught standardized English, at work and with college audience, she used similar idiomatic English, the versions…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Constructivism in TESOL-1 Abreviations EFL

However, it is first important to acknowledge that in Thailand the key or main language is known as the standard Thai, which is also known as Siamese or central Thai and it is the official language that is used by the over 20 million citizens of Thailand in their day-to-day activities. This therefore means that English is referred to as…

Pages: 17  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 15


Inquiry of George Orwell's Politics and the English Language

¶ … Language Political or Historically Based? In George Orwell's essay, "All Art is Propaganda" he tells us the English language is intrinsically politically manipulative. 'The English language, " says Orwell, " Is in a bad way" and he goes on to demonstrate how this is so. There are many words and phrases that he uses to make his point. According to Orwell, and this is where all linguistics agree, language is a natural outgrowth of one's culture. It echoes the way we think and objectives our socialization and transmitted values. Language is a semantic instrument fashioned by a specific culture and the values and principles of that specific culture are sewn into the fabrics of the words that make up that specific language. In other words, "language is a natural outgrowth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes" (Orwell, 270). Language is as much a social construct as is race or class. As per example, Orwell points to 'dying metaphors', 'pretentious diction', and 'meaningless words'. All of these are used as tools to assert a certain implied superiority over a class of people that one sees as illiterate, uncouth, and uneducated. Leveraging oneself above that class with seemingly sophisticated and unintelligible language is a way of belligerently asserting one's authority. In other words, a certain class of academics and influential people assert their authority and dominance via inflated semantics. As Orwell sees it, "there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims. One turns, as it were, instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish squirting out ink" (282). Writing is a delicate piece of work. One has to know expressly what to say and ensure that one reaches the mind and attention of the other without boring him and deceiving him in long-winded ambiguous and rambling network of meaningless semantics. To that end, Orwell recommends that the write focus on simplicity, constantly asking him whether he may not have phrased the words in a simpler, more direct manner. Orwell compares the craft of writing with that of painting where both require precision, clarity, effort, and care. "Thought corrupts language and language corrupts thought" (282). To produce clear and effective writing therefore one has to have clear and effective thought. Users of the English language have to be aware of the possible corrupting influences of the language and evaluate those carefully,…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Relationship Between Language in Threatening Communications and the Threatener's Potential Risk for Violence

Threatening Language Threats and Worse Legal systems such as those used in the United States and Europe make a clear distinction in criminal law between what people say and what people do. This is not to say that legal systems are positing that words cannot do harm, but rather that there is a distinction in the harm that is caused by words and other actions. However, while this is a legitimate legal distinction, within linguistics and related fields such as psychology, the distinction is much less clear (or useful): There is no equivalent bright line outside of the legal field. Rather, there is a continuum from threats to other kinds of violence. Individuals who work in situations in which there are commonly overt threats to harm either self or others become skilled at ascertaining the ways in which threats can slide into physical violence. This thus provides a rich field of potential data for linguists, and one that does not seem to have been used to its full capacity. For example, first responders and medical staff who work in emergency rooms have to be able to make accurate assessments of whether an individual's verbal threats are likely to become anything more than that. Their own lives or lives of others may depend upon this. Novak & Hubbell (2002), for example, note that there is generally not a linear progression from verbal threat to physical assault. Rather, there is a highly typical pattern of assault that follows this pattern: Trigger, Escalation, Assault, Recovery, Post-Crisis (p. 98). Being able to assess where an individual is in this cycle is key in being able to understand how threats and physical violence are connected to each other. There tends to be a cycling back and forth between physical and verbal escalations, so that verbal threats are mixed in with increasingly threatening body language, then this is added to another layer of verbal threats, which then feeds into increasingly physical threats, etc. Thus when considering a linguistic analysis of threats and their……

Pages: 2  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Second Language Learning

Language Acquisition First and second language acquisition: Unnecessary differences and encouraging similarities Language acquisition is a complex process that is still not entirely understood. The speed and apparent method by which infants acquire their native language continues to baffle researchers in linguistics, psychology, and neurology; no entirely valid explanation has been put forth that sufficiently explains the phenomenon given what is known about language acquisition later in life (Galasso 2003). This fact alone, though, has led to some interesting hypotheses and research regarding second language acquisition in both children and adults, with increasing evidence that the specific subconscious mechanisms of language acquisition -- whatever they may be, as they are still not fully understood -- can be used to help second-language learners later in life (Freeman & Freeman 2004; Wilson 2000). The human brain seems to have an innate ability to pick up on the rules of grammar, and this fact can be utilized in language learning and instruction to gain fluency faster and more completely (Wilson 2000). The primary external difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition is that the first occurs completely subconsciously, whereas the second is almost always the result of a conscious effort (Freeman & Freeman 2004). That is, second language acquisition in most instances of traditional learning is known to follow established cognitive problem solving mechanisms of thinking and reasoning (Galasso 2003). But attempts to integrate the innate knowledge of grammar that the human brain is capable of and that seems to facilitate first language acquisition with traditional and developing methods of learning a second language show very optimistic results for improving second language acquisition (Freeman & Freeman 2004). There are several essential factors in both first and second language acquisition. Psychological, physical, and social factors all contribute to both children's and adults' acquisition of language. The psychological factors surrounding first language acquisition are still a large part of the mystery surrounding how a native language is absorbed; grammar is understood to be something that human brains innately grasp, but the how of this grasping has yet to be explained (Freeman & Freeman 2004; Wilson 2000). The psychology of second language acquisition is somewhat better understood but still quite complex; using the first language as a monitor for the second almost always happens and can lead to difficulties in the learning process (Galasso 2003). Social immersion in a language -- or isolation from…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Language Acquisition Theories

Linguistics Language and Culture: An Important Intersection While language acquisition has been a popular theory since Noam Chomsky's emergence into the field of linguistics, understanding the exact ways in which language acquisition occurs is still explored. While the connection between language and culture has long been explored, true believers in language acquisition might dismiss the fact that the two are related. Still, in their article "The Symbolic World of the Bilingual Child: Digressions on Language Acquisition and Process of Thinking," Nowak-Fabrykowski and Shkandrij suggest that culture and language acquisition share an important bond that cannot be broken. Through an explanation of their theories, as well as an application to classroom learning, a better understanding of language acquisition and its facets can be grasped. First, the authors suggest that teachers should use a student's own culture and worldview to help them learn new languages. For instance, ELL students can be taught English not necessarily by immersion into American or British culture, but instead through applying their cultures to the English language and vice versa. The article calls on previous pedagogical study that has remarked upon scaffolding as an important technique in teaching. Applying scaffolding to the teaching of English as a second language might be similarly successful, as the authors' argue making a connection between what a student is familiar with and new tasks is one way to encourage learning. Second, the authors argue that previously held concepts of alienation might actually be hindering a student's ability to learn a second language. They argue that students who are separated from their own cultures and forced to learn new ones are also forced to drop parts of their own language and culture, making them unsure of themselves and their position in society. Because this can not only cause problems with academic learning, but……

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Extinct Languages

Extinct Languages There are two definitions of an extinct language, according to a science forum. The first definition relates to a language that is extinct due to the fact that no more people speak it, even if some may be able to read and even write it. Such examples include Old English and Ancient Chinese. Furthermore, in this group, one can also find scholarly or biblical languages such as Sanskrit and Slavonic, which can be recited, but which have no basis for correct pronunciation or fluency. The second definition relates to a second group. This "stricter" definition of such a language is one that has left so few traces that it cannot even be reconstructed. This is truly an extinct or dead language, as it cannot even give an idea of the most rudimentary of dialogues. These can include many Bronze Age languages, and even some Indo-European languages. A sad fact is that according to this definition, many other languages will be extinct by the year 2100. For instance, recently, it was found that as recently as February of last year, the last speaker of a tribal language, Bo, died in the Andaman Islands. The article mentioned that the death of this member of the tribe broke the 65,000-year-old link to one of the world's oldest cultures. The article adds, "Boa Sr., who lived through the 2004 tsunami, the Japanese occupation and diseases brought by British settlers, was the last native of the island chain who was fluent in Bo. Taking its name from a now-extinct tribe, Bo is one of the 10 Great Andamanese languages, which are thought to date back to pre-Neolithic human settlement of Southeast Asia. Though the language has been closely studied by researchers of linguistic history, Boa Sr. spent the last few years of her life unable to converse with anyone in her mother tongue." The article goes on to say that the language that Boa Sr. was speaking was so extensive, yet so far extinct that nobody else was able to understand her, so she could only communicate to her family and friends in Hindi and another local language. Despite the fact that this language was so obscure, it is important to note just how many other languages like it have gone extinct. In fact, according to some research, languages are becoming extinct more quickly than animals and plants. This further states that "…of…

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Second Language Oral Production in High School Within the Context of CLIL

¶ … SECOND LANGUAGE ORAL PRODUCTION IN HIGHSCHOOL WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF CLIL This study is motivated by theoretical and pedagogical interests: to inform instructional design intended to integrate language and content and to explore how form and meaning intersect in SLA (second language acquisition). Both interests draw on an extensive body of research that encompasses theory and practice underlying…

Pages: 30  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 40


Memory and Language Semantic Memory

The primary motor cortex send this message to these muscles and the response is articulated (Poeppel & Hickok, 2004). While the Wernicke -- Geschwind model has been popular for many years, with the advent of neuroimaging it is been discovered that multiple areas of the brain are activated during language production and not just the areas in this particular model. Moreover, patients with certain types of aphasia can have variable damage in the brain not specifically in these language production and language reception areas identified by the model (Poeppel & Hickok, 2004). Nonetheless, this model of language comprehension and language expression remains popular. One interesting proposition regarding the Wernicke-Geschwind model is the notion of mentalese. Psycholinguists have proposed that some form of mentalese, a mental representation system different from language but that is translated into linguistic form in the brain, exists. However, there is little evidence or agreement as to the properties of this form of pre-linguistic mental representation (Dudai, 2007; Poeppel & Hickok, 2004). Certainly some form of neural representation for language must exist. The stages of language production are similar to the serial method theories of the acquisition of declarative memories (especially semantic memory). Because semantic memories must somehow be represented in some formal neural code and since semantic memories are a form of declarative memory (e.g., they can be explicitly stated with language), it would follow that semantic memories are stored in the brain similar to linguistic codes and language representations. According to Dudai (2007) the serial model for semantic memory begins with paying attention to some to -- be -- remembered information (this model also received initial support via the study of patients with bran damage). After attending to it one must encode the information (this is typically considered to be a function of the hippocampus in the left temporal lobe). Consolidation and encoding are often achieved by some form of rehearsal. Following sufficient encoding the information is stored in areas of association cortex in some form of neural code. When one wishes to recall the memory it must be retrieved from its storage site in the brain and then translated into language code. The encoding -- storage/consolidation -- retrieval model parallels the Wernicke -- Geschwind model of language production. Just what the neural code is and how this is represented in the brain remains a mystery. References Bock, J.K. & Levelt, W.J.M. (1994.) Language production:…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Semantic Feature in the English

" ((Ibragimov, 2006, p.1) Homonyms are abundant and connected intimately with the phonetic unit of word and stem or otherwise stated the "predominance of forms among the most frequent roots. It is very obvious that the frequency of words stands in some inverse relationship to length, the monosyllabic words will be the most frequent moreover, as the most frequent words are also highly polysemantic, It is only natural that they develop meanings, which in the course of time may deviate very far from the central one. When the inter-mediate links fall out, some of these new meanings lose all with the rest of the structure and start a separate existence. Phenomenon is known as disintegration or split of polysemy, VII. Different Causes for Homonymy Different causes by which homonymy may be brought about subdivided into two main groups: 1) Homonymy through convergent sound development, when or three words of different origin accidentally coincide in sound; 2) Homonymy developed from polysemy through divergent development. Both may be combined with loss of endings and other morphological processes. ((Ibragimov, 2006, p.1) It is important to understand that a polysemantic word may be long to several synonymic groups in the various meanings for example: E.g. fresh -- 1. A fresh metaphor: original, novel, striking; 2. fresh air: pure, invigorating 3. To be fresh with smb.: impertinent, rude. Synonymous differences may include the following: (1) Stylistic difference: insane and loony are synonymous, but the former is formal and the latter is informal; salt and sodium chloride are synonymous, but the former is everyday and the latter is technical. (2) Collocational difference: rancid and rotten are synonymous, but the former is used only for butter or bacon and the latter for low-fat or vegetarian food products; kingly, royal, and regal are synonymous, but the mail has to be royal in the UK. (3) Difference of emotional coloring or connotation: youth and youngster are synonymous, but youths are less pleasant than youngsters. (4) Difference in distribution: luxurious (about human luxury e.g. luxurious tastes, habits, food, mansions) and luxuriant (characterizing abundance of smth.) E.g. luxuriant hair, leaves, flowers); economic (dealing with economics e.g. economic situation, agreement) and economical (associated with economy e.g. economical stove, bulbs, method)." Stated as the primary etymological sources of current English synonyms are those of native English or (Anglo-Saxon) words, borrower French words, and borrowed Latin (or Greek) words of terminological character which are…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 9


Linguistics Critique of Cross-Cultural Culture

Multilingual or bilingual children speak English as one of their two or more languages that they speak, and mostly one language has a higher status than the other, depending on education, power or wealth. United States majorly speak English, since its recognition in a larger area than the ethnic languages present in various regions. This lowers the status of actual language spoken in different regions, with English dominating all fields involving people with same or different ethnical language. The less spoken language and of lower status associated with low income earners, or people who do not access better education or people who are poor. The pro-efficiency of speaking proper English in America depend on the parents, especially mothers, or guardians, with formal spoken English associated with parents who have achieved higher levels of education. The exposure of a child to certain language also determines the pro-efficiency of the child in knowing the language over the other. Caretakers of the children to play a significant role in determining the language of the child, mainly being the family members, as proven in Hong Kong by Chinese children, who spoke English efficiently than Chinese because of their English speaking caretakers. English is dominant over other languages in the U.S., be it Chinese, Spanish or any other language in State, which covers the efficiency of other ethnic languages. The mode of study in various schools, in the State, affects the language spoken by the child. Analysis proves that Chinese and Malay, as compared to Tamil language, is taught more, though English dominates it all. This mode of study encourages English proficiency of the children and somehow put aside their ethnic language, with Chinese and Malay taught as one subject and less of Tamil taught. Technology also plays a crucial role in determining the language Singaporean children speak. Television English Programs encourage the speaking of English, majorly associated with high SES children, with Chinese children equally speaking two languages efficiently with high in English, Malay showing likeliness of high proficiency in both languages or high in English with Tamil being at the risk of low proficiency in both language. Low SES status, poverty; low education levels and parents have low income due to their low levels of education is associated with the Tamil language of the Singaporean group Exposure to language also determines the proficiency of language of children, with socioeconomic status and level of…

Pages: 4  |  Article Critique  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 0


Threatening Language & Freedom of Speech

¶ … threatening language and its link to actual acts of violence has helped us reach some conclusions which will be discussed in this section as results of our study. Our extensive literature review shows that threatening language, unless proven to cause harm to someone, is protected by first amendment under freedom of speech clause. However once threatening language leads to psychological or physical harm, it can be sued and seen as a criminal act. Our initial question was about what composes threatening language and later we studied levels of escalation and how it leads to violent actions. We shall now present a brief review of what we have found and see how it relates to some of the theories of linguistics we mentioned earlier in the paper. Threatening language is difficult to ascertain because it can range from shouting at someone in a regular fashion in a regular setting or it can be very detailed and graphic saying what a person would do in case the target doesn't comply with their order. Usually it is not easy even for the law enforcement to pin point what actually is threatening language and what kind of threatening language would lead to violent actions. Courts in the U.S. have thus established their own definitions of what constitutes threatening language but there is no standard definition. However they use the reasonability test which means if a reasonable person sees a certain communication as violent or threatening then it is considered to be a threat. During the course of threatening communication, there are some levels achieved and it is important to see how the communication is escalating or de-escalating. In case of de-escalation, it means there is a milder tone with each new message or communication and aggressor is turning favorable towards the target or due to some factor has decided not to threaten anymore. However it is escalation which is more important to study because this is what can lead to violent actions. Within threatening communication are clear signs of escalation for someone who is looking for them. First comes the point where a threat in made and is called posturing. This is for example when a person says, "if you report this action, I will come and get you." This sounds threatening but is the first step where aggressor is showing intent. The next step is when it gets more graphic like…

Pages: 3  |  "Discussion and Results" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Theory of Second Language Acquisition

Second Language Acquisition Theory of Second Language Acquisition Steven Krashen's (1997) Theory of Second Language Acquisition is made up of five main hypotheses: the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis; the Monitor hypothesis; the Natural Order hypothesis; the Input hypothesis; and the Affective Filter hypothesis (1997). The Acquisition-Learning distinction is the most basic of all the aforementioned hypotheses and the most widespread among linguistics and other professionals of language studies. After using this method in a classroom with high school students, the acquisition-learning theory is quite significant when it comes to acquiring a second language. Acquisition and Learning are, according to Kashen (1997), two distinct systems when it comes to learning a second language. The "acquired" system is the product of a subconscious process that Kashen describes as similar to what happens when a child is learning their first language. "It requires meaningful interaction in the target language -- natural communication -- in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act" (1997). This is one of the reasons that it is so effective to have a classroom where natural communication is allowed. Considering how we learn a first language, by picking up words from our parents and from others, mimicking, and remembering words and phrases, the acquisition theory is obvious. The "learned" system, on the other hand, is the product of formal teaching and it is consists of a "conscious process which results in conscious knowledge 'about' the language, for example, knowledge of grammar rules" (1997). This is important as well, but in order to learn rules there has to be some grasp of the language already. We don't learn grammar rules until we are already in school and have been speaking for a few years already. The Monitor hypothesis can be used to examine the link between……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Language Acquisition

Language Acquisition The procedure of production, perception and use of words among human beings to understand each other and communicate is what is referred to as Language acquisition. The language could be the vocalized language like in speech or by sign language. Both involve the imbibing of the phonetics and phonology, syntax, vocabulary and their meaning. However, language acquisition more…

Pages: 6  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Linguistic History of the Insular Celtic Language Family and Proto-Celtic

Linguistic History Of the Insular Celtic Family and Proto-Celtic The Celts were ancient people in Europe who spoke the Celtic languages forming a branch of the European languages including other languages which are unknown but which have been associated with Celtic cultural traits in archaeological evidence. Celtic is used in contemporary times to describe the languages and cultures of Ireland,…

Pages: 9  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 6


Semantic Memory and Language Production Introduction and

Semantic Memory and Language Production Introduction and overview of semantic memory Semantic memory is referred to as an aspect or part of long-term memory which is "…concerned with ideas, meanings, and concepts which are not related to personal experiences" ( What is Semantic Memory?) In other words, semantic memory is that form of memory that deal with concepts and ideas about things and the way that the meaning of objects and things in the external world are recognized and responded to correctly. Because of the way that semantic memory provides access to shared and common concepts and ideas in a society or culture it is an essential component of language production and necessary for the normal functioning of the individual in society. A distinction however should be made between semantic memory and episodic memory. An example of the difference between these two types of memory also helps to shed light on the nature of semantic memory and the way that it relates to language. If two people are in a discussion about a cat, the word cat is recognized by both people in the conversation because of its semantic definition. The semantic definition of the concept or idea of a cat is learnt and shared by the two people in the process of language production. Each person may have a specific episodic memory of a cat that is derived from personal experience but this would not allow them to communicate and to develop interactive language skills if there was no shared semantic memory of the cat (What is Semantic Memory?). Both semantic and episodic memory constitutes what is known as declarative memory. Long-term memory also includes what is known as procedural memory; which is essentially the knowledge that has been associated in memory about how to accomplish certain tasks. These three different kinds of long-term memory "…all interact with each other to allow people to do everything from reading a book to flying a space shuttle." (What is Semantic Memory?). In essence semantic memory is the collation of all knowledge that an individual experiences -- and this includes language facilities such as vocabulary. In summary, the relationship between semantic memory and forms of language production and creation are fairly simple to discern. As one pundit states, …it is semantic memory which remembers what the different letters mean, and how they link together into words. Semantic memory also allows a reader…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 2


Language (Cognitive Psychology) Language Is Considered to

Language (Cognitive Psychology) Language is considered to be an exclusively human mode of communication although other animals make use of quite sophisticated communicative systems, sometimes casually referred to as animal language, none of these are known to make use of all of the properties that linguists use to define language but when discussed more technically as a general phenomenon, "language" always entails a very particular way of human thinking which can be present even when communication is not the result, and this way of thinking is also sometimes treated as indistinguishable from language itself (Language, n. d.). Definition of Language and Lexicon Language is defined in Wikipedia (Language, n. d.) as a form of symbolic communication in which elements are combined to represent something other than themselves; and the term "language" also refers to particular systems of communal communication (Language, n. d.). The Online Etymology Dictionary (2001) stated that the word "Lexicon" came from Greek word, "lexicon" (biblion or book) from the words: "lexikos," means as words and "lexis" came from "legein," which means say or to lecture; lexicon was originally used in Greek, Syrian, Hebrew and Arabic dictionaries because these languages were usually in Latin. In linguistics, the lexicon of a language is its vocabulary, including its words and expressions; and the lexicon includes the lexemes used to actualize words (Lexicon, n. d.). The Key Features of Language Language is a set of generally accepted signs -- indices, icons or symbols, is only one feature of language; for all languages must identify the structural relationships between these signs in a system of grammar, the context wherein the signs are used -- pragmatics and be dependent on their context or its meaning (Language, n. d.). The grammar rules are one of the features at times supposed to differentiate language from other type of communication. They allow a limited set of signs to be influenced to make a possible limitless number of grammatical utterances and another property of language is that its symbols are subjective that whichever concept or grammatical rule can be mapped onto a symbol -- the majority of languages utilizes sound, except the arrangements of sounds employed do not have any essential and inherent meaning - they are just an agreed-upon rule to symbolize a particular thing by users of that language (Language, n. d.). The Four Levels of Language Structure and Processing The four levels of language…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


English as a Global Language

English as the Global Language As the world moves towards becoming a global community, communities within the global community will have to address the problem of language communication. This is actually a sensitive issue, because it goes to the heart cultural identity and heredity. Most everyone is proud of their ethnic origins, the country of their birth, and that is…

Pages: 9  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 6


Human Language Series, Part 1: Is Language

¶ … Human Language Series, Part 1: Is language innate? All day long, from when we get up in the morning to when we go to bed, even when we dream, our minds are producing language in some way or another. We are linguistic beings, whether we are in dialogue with ourselves, listening and speaking with others, or even receiving electronic or print media. But given that most of us cannot remember a time when our consciousness was not organized by language, how can we determine if the ability and/or need to use language is innate to the human brain? Starting in 1957, Noam Chomsky reframed the traditional study of language in his book Syntactic Structures, which shifted the focus of linguistics away from language as it existed to the question of why it exists. Chomsky believed the biologically-wired nature of the human mind enabled humans to produce language under the correct environmental (learning and cultural) conditions. Key to language is the production of new meanings within a sent of governed 'rules' or acceptable grammatical structures and sounds. Different languages have different rules for word production, calling somewhat into question the idea that all languages are infinitely flexible in their creativity. For example, languages may have words with meanings not shared by other languages. In other words, English and Eskimo may not just have different words for 'snow,' but will have words not present in the other linguistic system. There is a single Eskimo word that means "Don't you want to go window shopping with me" with no corresponding single word in English. Thus although all languages may be uniquely creative, and in English we daily create sentences that have never existed before, but grammatically and conceptually all languages are not all creative in the same way. At the core of language is the notion of syntax, or linking sounds to meaning. In language, words can occur in any order (boy, kick, ball) but to make meaning, the words must occur within a particular order within a particular fashion……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Foreign Language Teaching Methods

Foreign Language Teaching Methods Globalization and the concept of the "global village," has brought about interesting developments in language teaching. It is currently recognized, for example, that contact with one or more natives from foreign countries during an average lifetime is more likely than not. Furthermore, the information age entails that knowledge from across the globe is integrated in the…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Love Languages: Applications to Counseling and Life

¶ … Love Languages: Applications to Counseling and Life Communication has a major impact on all aspects of a relationship. Without such, a relationship has no chance of lasting past its prime. Talking things over with one's spouse is the easiest and most efficient way to keep a long lasting, healthy relationship. However, even though communication is the foundation, unless…

Pages: 7  |  Book Report  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Interwined With Other Writers Language and Class

Interwined With Other Writers Language and Class Upon initial examination, there are a variety of similarities to be found within the text of James Baldwin's "If Black Language Isn't a Language, Then Tell What Is?" And Gloria Arizaldua's "How To Tame A Wild Tongue." Both of these essays largely demonstrate the necessity for the creation of a language that is not indigenous to a respective pair of ethnic groups, one of which is African-American, the other of which is Latinos and Latinas living within the United States. The social isolation of both of these groups of people inherently influences the language (or in some cases, the languages) which they speak, and more importantly, how they speak that language. The relationship between these essays and Jean Anyon's "Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work" is decidedly more equivocal, for the simple fact that Anyon is primarily addressing the disparities in the ways in which children of different socio-economic backgrounds are taught at the fifth grade level, as well as the ways in which these differentiated modes of instruction are aligned with the preparation for varying jobs at different classifications of laborers (from executives all the way to blue-collared employees). Yet if one is able to take into account the ethnic make-up of the different socio-economic classes that Anyon studies, as well as to consider the implications inherent in the ways that various lessons are presented to examples from the student population group, a number of analogous situations can be found within the all three texts. Liberty is one concept that is central to all of the author's written works, and can be found most clearly in Anyon's detailing of the method for teaching fifth graders who belong to the ultra elite, executive school system -- students who parents routinely earn over $100,000 by heading up major corporations. The following quotation indicates the degree of liberty which the students have in their education. "While strict attention to the lesson at hand is required, the teachers make relatively little attempt to regulate the movement of the children at other times." Such liberty of movement is not to be found in Anyon's discussion of the school life of the working class students, nearly a third of which come from families that hover around the poverty line and which have their every move -- in school -- regulated into a series of precise steps.…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Applying Language Universal in the

They can endeavor to practice in real life, or in mock skits amongst each other. They can extend written invitations to one another or to other individuals. Teacher and students can criticize scenarios of real life situations where speech acts are preformed and analyze how students can imitate them and/or correct them. Speech acts may be difficult fro ESL students due to the fact that idiomatic expressions and mannerisms differ from one culture to another and which is appropriate in one may be inappropriate in another. One of the best recommendations, therefore, is to closely watch, analyze and model. Applying registers in the ESL format 'Register' is where a person talks differently to different people. There are, for instances, differences in speech between formal and informal situations. ESL students can be taught differences by playing games around diverse situations identifying, for instance, the differences between a 'formal' and an 'informal' context. The teacher, too, can employ media in this context selecting different TV programs where she can help students analyze the different speech acts and mannerisms performed in the various disparate situations. Students can compare and see how many differences they can come up with. As with all situations, students can also practice their learning in both mock and real-life applications. Applying dialects to ESL teaching Teacher can explain to students that many different dialects occur in the English langue. She can contrast it to their own, so that they understand. To further teach the point, teacher can have students listen to recording of the same sentence uttered in different dialects or to English spoken, for instance in America and the same language spoken in England. Teacher can point out the main distinctions. Applying Corpus linguistics to ESL teaching A corpus consists of a databank of texts that are compiled from writing and/or transcription of recorded speech. The prime focus of corpus linguistics is to discover patterns of language usage thoguh analysis of the actual usage. Corpus analysis (i.e. analysis of the different texts) shows that language is used differently in various contexts, e.g. In poetry, fiction, non-fiction, newspaper articles, academic articles etc. The teacher can go with the student through each text and together they can analyze the different patterns and rules. This can be done in various ways: via themes organized according to each lesson; via students doing their own research and teacher acting as research facilitator; or…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Test Taking Strategies and Language Test Validity

Test Taking Strategies and Language Test Validity One of the many effects of globalization is the increasing need for workers in all countries and at all levels of the socioeconomic scale to become multilingual, and English is still far and away the preferred language of international business throughout the developed and developing worlds (Cheng, 2008). English proficiency is thus a highly desired trait in many non-English-speaking countries, and performance on language tests can often determine occupational opportunities an, prior to that, educational opportunities that could truly determine the course of an individual's life (Cheng, 2008; Mohamaddi & Abidin, 2012). Language test validity has thus become a topic of intense scrutiny in research and in practice, as determining the ability of these tests to truly measure language proficiency is a question not only of extreme practical importance given the employment demands of the modern world, but also of extreme ethical importance given the tests' impact on people's lives. Test taking strategies present barriers to language test validity, and thus these must also be examined to derive truly valid and meaningful results from such testing. Defining test taking strategies can be more difficult than it might initially seem, given the number of parameters involved in these strategies. Different theoretical constructs have been applied to the identification and definition of test taking strategies by different researchers and in different perspectives. While these different frameworks are not necessarily mutually exclusive they do present radically different means of assessing and analyzing test taking strategies (Cohen, 2006; Amer, 2007; Mohamaddi & Abidin, 2012). These different approaches can make the implications of test taking strategies on the validity of language tests also quite varied and difficult to measure. The pressures to achieve, as noted, are quite high, and instructors can also contribute to the knowledge and use by students of test taking strategies which also affects not only the rate of test taking strategy use but also the effectiveness and the degree to which it can tamper with language test validity (Amer, 2007; Cheng, 2008; Lee, 2011). Some general test-taking strategies, such as skipping over more difficult answers and completing easier answers first and taking the time to review answers to ensure they are correct, can actually be seen in some ways as increasing test validity in that this leads to more accurate assessments of actual knowledge held by the test taker (Amer, 2007; Mohamaddi & Abidin,…

Pages: 3  |  Peer Reviewed Journal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Linguistic Analysis of Word Order in Zulu Applied Linguistics

Linguistic Analysis of Word Order in Zulu Language Linguistics in most cases deals with the scientific studies relating to languages. Most of the undergraduates are not conversant with linguistics because it is hardly taught in high schools. Most of those who discover about linguistics do it in their college levels. This paper, however, focuses on the linguistic analysis of word…

Pages: 16  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 16

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