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Tenets in Modernism Literature

Tenets Lawrence and Derek Walcott: Tenets of Modernism David Herbert Richards Lawrence (1885-1930) was an English essayist, literary critic, playwright, novelist and poet who published under the name DH Lawrence. Many of Lawrence's writings reflect his ideology regarding the adverse impact and dehumanization that occurs with industrialization and modernity; describing issues such as instinct, spontaneity, vitality and health (Poplawski 1995).…

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British and German Trench Poetry Side by

¶ … British and German trench poetry side by side Teaching British and German trench war poetry side-by-side One of the difficulties in teaching World War I is that the memory of World War II is often much sharper in the minds of students. The more ambiguous causes of the First World War, and the complex feelings of both German and British soldiers can be lost if there is too much focus on the British War Poets alone. Examining both nationalities' poetic response to war enables a compassionate cross-comparison of both traditions. It enables students to identify both similarities and differences in the responses of German and British war poets, who were responding to the same experience of bloodshed, albeit from different sides of the front lines. It also shows the importance of literature and poetry in the culture of both nations to respond to national crisis, in a way that may be surprising to students today. The author makes an interesting point that viewing 'the war' as a kind of common aesthetic culture may be a more fair way to evaluate poets such as Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon, than comparing……

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Death and Dying in "Do

In "Because I Could Not Stop For Death" (1890), Dickinson personifies Death, much like Donne did in his Holy Sonnet, and sees him, not as a slave or subordinate, but rather as a gentleman caller that accompanies her on her final carriage ride. This gentlemanly and chivalrous Death figure does not attempt to hurry the narrator in the poem to…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 6


Defense of Poetry, Mongolian Poet

In Tschinag's poem, though, the love between the narrator and the object of desire is almost secondary to the overarching theme and imagery of nature. The first line reads, "Now I stood behind you within range." The word "range" has a double meaning, signifying mountains as well as "within range" of hearing or vision. Thus, the poet immediately establishes the connection between man and nature; or, as Tschinag puts it, the "interrelation between Nature and Man." The following line in the poem reads, "a load of storm your new hunter." Here, the storm is the natural metaphor and it represents the desire of the narrator for the beloved. "With the first snow I came to you," the narrator then states. As Tschinag states in "Defense of Poetry," snow and other elements of the Mongolian landscape are inextricably entwined with the Mongolian psyche. Thus, imagery of snow is indispensible in poetic verse. The narrator continues, "and in your presence I swore to heaven / to blow away all the traces of foreign winds on you." Ironically, the narrator reverts to the egotistical "I" point-of-view, by does not break the connection between man and nature. After all, the reference to heaven shows that the narrator has developed a sense of animistic power, feeling that heaven is skyward but immanent in all natural objects. This sense echoes Goethe's sentiment in "Wanderers Nachtlied II," in which the narrator uses the second person point-of-view to convey a sense of spiritual wonder at nature. The narrator is present, and yet the poem is not necessarily about the narrator's state of mind but about reconnecting the reader with ancient roots. Works Cited Bly, Robert. "A Meditation on a Poem by Goethe." In News of the Universe. University of California Press, 1995. Hacken, Richard. "Images of Migration and Change in the German-Language Poetry of Galsan Tschinag." Retrieved online: http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu//tschinag/migration.htm Tschinag, Galsan. "Defense of Poetry." Retrieved online: http://www.poetryinternationalweb.net/pi/site/collection/article_item/int_article/363/Defence-of-Poetry-1999-Galsan-Tschinag…

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Thematic Bridges in English Literature: Frost's After

Thematic Bridges in English Literature: Frost's "After Apple-picking" and Shakespeare's the Tempest The passage of time, especially from the perspective of a human life, is one of the most universally resounding and consistent themes in the literature and poetry of any age. Given the symbolism and imagery in many examples of this theme throughout world literature, it is safe to assume that the correlation of other observed changes in nature -- the passing of the seasons and the seasons themselves, especially -- with human mortality is a natural and almost automatic human sentiment. Two very different yet remarkably similar examples of this theme, and the purpose of illuminating the transience of human life, are Robert Frost's poem "After Apple Picking," and the epilogue spoken by Prospero in Shakespeare's The Tempest. Prospero speaks more directly on the theme of mortality and the changes wrought by the passage of time on an individual's life and identity. He approaches the topic from a more pessimistic view then does Frost, as well, seeing in his old age and arguably even in his own mortality a certain sense of freedom and release. His repeated use of words like "confined," "pardon'd," "release," "relieved," and "mercy" all indicate the freedom from earthly troubles that Prospero is seeking. This figurative message of a freedom from imprisonment is also an implicit reference to the literal freedom from the prison of this world, and the salvation found in the next, as evidenced by the use of the words "prayers" and "indulgences later in the poem. The purpose of this epilogue, then, is an instruction to the viewer/reader on what truly matters, which is not so much the passing of the joys of this life, but rather the passing of the ills, the limitations, and the……

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Langston Hughes the Impact of Langston Hughes's

Langston Hughes The Impact of Langston Hughes's Life on His Work: Racism, Jazz and Travel, and Work A man with a famous past, Langston Hughes one could say that Langston Hughes was destined to make a difference in the African-American community. His great-great uncle was John Mercer, the first Black American elected to public office ("Langston Hughes"). At his birth,…

Pages: 6  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 0


Two Books to Film Comparison

¶ … Tie Us Together: Ethnic Literature and Film in America Comparison of Two Novels to M. Night Shyamalan's "The Sixth Sense" The history of ethnic writers in the United States of America is both abundant and diverse. Because of the United States' rich melting pot culture, authors such as Frederick Douglass and Harriett Beecher Stowe have flavored even our…

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Lucy Maude Montgomery

Lucy Maude Montgomery The Life and Works of Lucy Maud Montgomery Since the publication of Lucy Maud Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables in 1908, millions and millions of young readers around the world have been transported to the author's idyllic childhood home of Prince Edward Island where she lived much of her life. The popularity of this first book resulted in several sequels and other books, but Montgomery was also a prolific contributor to other publications as well. This paper provides a review of the peer-reviewed, scholarly and popular literature to develop a biography of the author, an overview of her major works, and what influence she has had on modern Canadian literature. A summary of the research and salient findings are presented in the conclusion. Review and Discussion Lucy Maud Montgomery (born November 30, 1874, died 1942), was a Canadian author who is most popularly known as the author of Anne of Green Gables (1908) (Bloom, 1998; Merriman, 2007). According to this biographer, "Montgomery was born into a long line of Scots-Canadian ancestors who first settled in Prince Edward Island [PEI] in the late 1770s. Among their numbers were successful farmers, businessmen, and politicians. Lucy Maud was born on 30 November 1874 in the village of Clifton (now New London), Prince Edward Island, Canada (Merriman). Her birthplace is now preserved as it was in her time" (Merriman, p. 2). "Maud," as she was called by her friends, was the only daughter of Hugh John Montgomery (1841-1900) and Clara 'Tillie' Woolner Macneill (1853-1876); her mother died of tuberculosis before Maud turned 2 years old (Merriman) and her father traveled west in search of better opportunities (Bloom). These were formative experiences in the author's life and these early years would be influenced primarily by her maternal grandparents. According to Merriman, "The newly orphaned Maud subsequently lived with her maternal grandparents Alexander Marquis Macneill (1820-1898) and Lucy Ann Woolner Macneill (1824-1911), staunch Presbyterians who maintained the Post Office for Cavendish, on PEI's north shore. Their rambling farm was the inspiration for 'Green Gables,' now part of the Prince Edward Island Provincial Park, established in 1937" (Merriman, p. 3). By contrast, according to Bloom (1998), Montgomery was raised on the small seaside settlement of Cavendish on Prince Edward Island. This biographer agrees that when she was less than two years old, her mother, Clara MacNeill Montgomery, died of tuberculosis and notes that her…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 2


Road Not Taken by Robert Frost Natural

Road Not Taken by Robert Frost Natural Realism in the Road Not Taken by Robert Frost As an important cultural artifact of human society, literature -- particularly poetry -- serves both a functional and aesthetic purpose: it demonstrates a mastery of language and self-expression, while at the same time providing a message and/or insight about human life from the point-of-view of the poet. Oftentimes, the insight or message is 'symbolically' expressed; other times, the poet shares his/her insight with the honesty of his/her words, unveiled by symbols and directly expressed as the poet feels it. However, it is a challenge if a poet achieves to utilize both symbolism and direct expression of his/her thoughts and feelings in one poem. While the poem remains literary and poetic, it is realistically expressed in that there is no 'air of pretentiousness' in the usage of words and sentences. This balance between symbolism and realistic, humble expression of one's thoughts and feelings is emulated in the poem The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost. Frost, an American poet who gained popularity and literary influence because of his poems in the early to middle 20th century, developed this delicate balance and succeeded in demonstrating the theme of natural realism in this particular poem. This paper discusses how Frost's work reflected natural realism, which is described to be the "denial of the necessity for and the explanatory value of positing 'internal representations' in thought and perception" (Macarthur, 2004:170). The discussion that follows provides in detail evidence of natural realism in the poem The Road Not Taken, positing that the poem is a symbolic depiction of one's reflection about his life choices, while at the same time, the poem also assumes a realistic, unassuming and down-to-earth view of life and the decisions that people make in their lives. To further understand this representation of natural realism in The Road Not Taken, it is necessary to develop an understanding of natural realism itself as a philosophical approach. Natural realism, as defined earlier, is the "denial of the need to explain or create "internal representations" of thought and perception." Further, this philosophical approach considers that a reality exists outside of an individual's thoughts and perceptions, a reality that is dependent on things -- living and non-living -- and have relationships among each other. Indeed, natural realism is the belief that life is based on experiences that can be proven…

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Poetic Analysis of "Divorces" in

Sensitivity also supports the main character's resolute character as she embarks into marriage life. However, these characteristics evident in the first part of the poem is countered at the end of the poem, where divorce sets in and bitterness after a relationship happens to the individual, resulting to criticisms by her community. This instance is evident in the following line in the poem: "And all of the people laughed / even the brotherly foreign / maitre d'... / and then suddenly / you got scared because his eyes / didn't lie..." Similes are used in order to support imagery in the poem and are found in the line, "when your ears were just / as sure as your silversweet tongue / was sure that the soup was oversalted." Symbolism, on the other hand, is used to represent the concepts of marriage and divorce. The line "when you were SURE__ / I mean when your ears were just / as sure as your silversweet tongue..." describes the nature of the woman when she was just yet contemplating marriage; however, divorce is symbolized at the end of the novel through the line, "because you knew / like the suop WAS oversalted / you knew he lied..." The order or structure of the poem assumes a shift in attitude and character of the main character in the poem as narrated and expressed by the Speaker/poet. At the start of the poem, certainty is illustrated, showing the sign of resoluteness and happiness in the prospect of entering marriage. This characteristics is followed by doubt as the marriage starts to struggle to survive, followed by clarity, wherein the main character realizes that the relationship she has won't work. Lastly, the character of acceptance is evident as the character resorts to divorce, accepting the reality that the marriage did not work out ("You were very, very far away and / could see"). The Speaker of the poem assumes the persona of the poet, and it can be assumed that the main character is the Speaker and poet, too. The tone used in the poem is generally conversational in nature, but the tone in the poem also assumes a sarcastic and stubborn tone as the poem progresses to the main conflict (divorce) and final acceptance of the character. Through the use of sarcastic tones in the poem, the Speaker illustrates how divorce is an unacceptable practice in…

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Room of One's Own -- Magical Realism

¶ … Room of One's Own -- Magical Realism and the Power of Gender A Room of One's Own is an extended essay based on a series of lectures Virginia Woolf gave at Cambridge University in 1928. It was published in 1929, and explores the way in which women are integrated into fiction and history, and offers an interesting juxtaposition…

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Puritan and Romantic Literary Consciousness and Comparison to Recent Movies

Puritan and Romantic literary consciousness: A comparison to a recent "Dead Poets Society" in modern film Cast away old traditions. Ignore the interpretations of long-ago critics, and seek understanding in your own hearts of literature and poetry. "Our age is retrospective. It builds the sepulchers of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face-to-face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe?" This Romantic and American Transcendentalist ideal is clearly embodied, not only in this excerpt from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "Nature," but also by the life and teaching of the instructor portrayed by Robin Williams in the film "Dead Poet's Society." At the beginning of the film, the teacher portrayed by Williams asks the students to rip out the chapter from the front of their textbooks that tells them how to methodically and systematically graph the excellence of a poem, based upon its position in history. Instead, he tells the students to make their lives extraordinary and to unite their appreciation of poetry to their everyday life in nature. He reminds them that the students who passed through the hallowed halls of their prestigious and expensive preparatory institution are now dead. The living, current students must seize the day and live life to the fullest, much like Emerson urged his readership, to be true to their own unique perspectives upon the world. Emerson's invocation of the American's ability to see his or her vocation in nature, in the common people, and in loving the living moment, rather than just mimicking European tradition, is invoked not just in quotations from Romantic poets during the film such as Walt Whitman, but in inspiring scenes where the boys are seen running around in nature, reciting poetry, and creating their own dead society of poets, where they read the great masters and create their own works. The ideals of Romanticism suggested that the human animal must mature emotionally as well as intellectually, to reach his or her own artistic potential, and the best way to do this was to do so in nature. In nature, Emerson wrote, one is filled with the innocent love of spontaneous experience, much like a child. But this childlike innocence can also catch the eye of the 'powers that be' or the orthodox leadership of opinion in a very negative, as opposed…

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Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe (1749-

This consciousness is reflected in lines that were discovered after his death: "And so my life took its course, amid activity and enjoyment, suffering and resistance, amid the love and approval, the hatred and dislike of others. Let any man whom a like fate has befallen, find himself mirrored in mine." (Willoughby, p. 27). Works Cited Amrine, F. "Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von." The John Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism. Accessed 24 April 1995: http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_guide_to_literary_theory/johann_wolfgang_von_goethe.html Amrine, F. "Goethe's Science in the Twentieth Century." Goethe in the Twentieth Century. Ed. Alexej Ugrinsky. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987. Goethe, John W. "Goethe and Modern Psychiatry." Goethe in the Twentieth Century. Ed. Alexej Ugrinsky. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987. Kaufmann, W. From Shakespeare to Existentialism: Studies in Poetry, Religion, and Philosophy. Boston" Beacon Press, 1959. Neuhaus, R.J. "The Liberated Lost." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life. October 2000, p. 81. Rascoe, B. Titans of Literature: From Homer to the Present. New York G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1932. Smith, P.D. "German Literature and the Scientific World-View in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries." Journal of European Studies. Vol. 27:4, p. 389 ff. Vietor, K. Goethe: The Thinker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950. Vincent, D. "Eugene L. Stelzig, the Romantic Subject in Autobiography: Rousseau and Goethe." Biography. Vol. 26:3, p. 479 ff. Willoughby, L.A. "Goethe -- The Man." Goethe on Human Creativeness, and other Goethe Essays. Ed. Rolf King, Associated Ed. Calvin Brown, & Erich……

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Protagonist in Langston Hughes' Poem

It captures some of the most essential moments of this struggle and it is focused on providing a succinct account concerning the poem's main purposes. To a certain degree, it is very similar to the poem when considering that it is short but entails a great attention to detail and provides readers with the chance to employ a lot of thinking as they also attempt to come up with a series of ideas with regard to the Hughes' work. Hughes was truly similar to Whitman when taking into account that they were both pioneers in the movements they became a part of. The fact that the world was not ready for his work might actually explain why Hughes is reluctant to have his protagonist behave differently. The character does not stand up for his rights the first time when he is asked to leave the room in spite of the fact that he thinks about this. The poet considered that it would have been impossible for African-Americans to experience immediate unrestraint from society's limitations. However, he was also certain that the future held great promise and that African-Americans would be provided with a series of privileges as the world realized the important role they could play. The essay is right in highlighting that it is only up to the divine to judge people, as they, as Hughes says, should be ashamed for judging others when they have no right to……

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Jupiter Hammon the Significance of

He seemed to believe he was too old to make it on his own. "Hammon has been criticized for stating in his "Address" that he himself did not wish to be free; but as a seventy-year-old slave he could have done little to support himself and would probably have been reduced to poverty" (Bloom 55). His owners always treated him…

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Glass Menagerie: An Uncertain Reality

In the activity, the unicorn is knocked over and loses its horn. Jim is mortified, of course, but Laura forgives him and points out that the unicorn is now only a normal horse. He's so taken by her attitude that he gives her a quick kiss, only to quickly explain that he is involved in a serious relationship. He leaves only moments later, and Laura offers him the broken figure. This illustrates the fragility of fantasies. Just as the ruler of the glass menagerie can be reduced to a simple animal by an accident, Laura understands that she is not a princess within her imaginary any longer but only an ordinary girl. Imaginary worlds are fine for daydreams and periods of reverie, but they are much too insubstantial to actually live within. Conclusion The Glass Menagerie" is Williams' catalogue of three types of denial. Tom rejects his life while longing for the future and something different; Amanda turns away from the harshness of the present while immersing herself in the past; and Laura tries to leave the world altogether and exist inside a glittering reality of her own construction. Finally, all three of them are forced to concede that we may change our lives and circumstances, but we can never replace them with the perfection that can exist only in our dreams. The play is clearly a very personal one for Williams. In addition to sharing a name with his main male character, Williams also spent a short and unsatisfying time working in a shoe factory as well as a long struggle to establish himself as a writer in surroundings that seemed to work against him. The need to lose himself in books and films was also something that he had in common with Tom Wingfield. Unfortunately, the substance abuse that Tom exhibited was also a part of Williams' personality (apparently one that he recognized early in himself). This weakness eventually led to Williams' death. With his genteel Southern upbringing, it's not difficult to believe that there were strong reflections of his own mother in Amanda Wingfield's characterization, and his real sister Rose ("Blue Roses") suffered from a long-lasting emotional instability that culminated in the surgical procedure now known as a lobotomy. It is telling and poignant that in the final scenes of "The Glass Menagerie," Tom Wingfield admits that years after he lost his job and left his family…

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Scholar and Poet Xu Zhimo

In a flood of starlight On a river of silver and diamond I sing to my heart's content. But now, no, I cannot sing With farewell in my heart. Farewells must be quiet, mute, Even the summer insects are silent, Knowing I am leaving. The Cambridge night is soundless. A leave quietly As I came quietly. I am leaving Without taking so much As a piece of cloud. But with a quick jerk of my sleeve I wave goodbye. Xu Zhimo (http://www.oash.com/read/poem/china/xuzhimo.html) Within this work is the mark of the uncertain life of an exile. Xu wishes to return to China but not without the memory of this land which has changed him so much. The reminiscence of the words and places of the romantic English works that so moved and recreated him is found inside the wonder of this work. Though probably not best known of Xu's works the final piece that will be covered her is one that is personally moving. It tells the tale of lost love, unanswered dreams that may have been present in Xu's later years of pessimism. The imagery melds the natural world of the ocean, both at home in China and in the extremes of his London exile and the surety of a love upon the sand. The woman on the beach is sure of herself, she represents brazen love and the youthful love that Xu was never able to fully realize. Sea Rhyme Maiden, solitary maiden, Why do you linger On this darkening seashore? Maiden, go home, maiden!" "Ah no; I will not go home. I love the evening wind blowing," On the beach, in the twilight. There is a maiden with windblown hair, Wandering to and fro. "Maiden with the windblown hair, Why do you wander to and fro On this cold and desolate seashore? Maiden, go home, maiden!" "Ah no; Listen to my song. Great sea, I sing, Come..." Under the starlight, in the cold wind, The sound of the maiden's song, Tones now high, now low. "Maiden, bold maiden, The horizon darkens, And soon will come gale-driven waves. Maiden, go home, maiden!" "Ah no, watch me dance Like a seagull over the waves." In the twilight, on the beach, A slim figure whirls, Dancing, dancing. Listen to the fury of the great sea, Look, the waves are like wild beasts, Maiden, go home, maiden!" "Ah no, the waves will…

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Compare Shahnameh and Turkish Literature Effects of the Shahnameh in the Turkish and Ottoman Literature

Turkish Literature Compare Shahnameh with Turkish Literature and Classical Ottoman Poetry The Shahnmeh, which was written by Ferdowsi in the late tenth century and early eleventh century, is probably the most famous literary work ever written in that region. This is perhaps surprising since the poem was completed over one millenium ago. The fact that the poem took so long…

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Children's Literature the Genre of Children's Literature

Children's Literature The genre of children's literature is not new, in fact, historical records tell us that in the Greek and Roman educational tradition, children were grounded in language and grammar (and one would hope imagination) by reciting poetry and drama. Aesop's Fables have been part of the Western European children's library for at least three hundred years. "And thinkers from Quintilian to John Locke, from St. Augustine to Dr. Seuss, speculated on the ways in which we learn about our langue and our lives from [children"] literature" (Lerer, 2008, 1). There is some scholarly debate, though, on what actually constitutes "Children's Literature." A broad concept holds that the genre includes books intentionally written for children, "excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, and nonfiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference material" (Anderson, 2006, 2). The genre could also include books written by children, chosen for children, or chosen by children (A Series of Unfortunate Events, Snow White, and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland). Famous speculative fiction author Orson Scott Card comments, "one can make a good case for the idea that children are often the guardians of the truly great literature of the world, for in their love of story and unconcern for stylistic fads and literary tricks, children unerringly gravitate toward truth and power" (Card, 2001). In addition, though, literacy has changed -- with varying opinions on the efficacy of such -- but many books thought of as adult books when first published are now widely read in primary and secondary schools (e.g. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn). Certainly, the genre is rich with creativity, ideas, and in the contemporary world of multi-culturalism and globalism, ripe for addressing contemporary issues in a variety of innovative ways, albeit typically defined by adults rather than the intended audience. For the purposes of this essay, though, we will confine ourselves to five major types of children's literature: Realistic, Fantasy, Traditional, Poetry, and Non-Fiction. We will begin with a broad definition of the genre, and then list the appropriate bibliography for that genre organized by grade level. The list is not meant to be comprehensive, but will provide a broad overview and perspective of the individual types of material one might utilize in a classroom. Realistic Fiction -- Realistic fiction, within children's literature as well as adult, attempts…

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Sappho's Poetry: Implications for Classical Greece and

Sappho's Poetry: Implications for Classical Greece and Modern Times Throughout history, artists have reflected and offered commentary on the society of which they are a part. Because their works become immortal, people can have an understanding of different societies centuries after civilizations have disappeared. The works of poets, musicians, novelists, essayists, and the like allow readers across time to form…

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Middle Eastern Poetry Is Often Peppered With

Middle Eastern Poetry is often peppered with honest assessments of the physical and emotional turmoil of conflict. Poetry in the Middle East tends to be a voice of record, in stylistic descriptions of the conflicts of mind, body and spirit that demonstrate a life (or many lives) in the turmoil of conflict and change. Middle Eastern writers tend to write…

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Confluence of Prose and Poetry

Confluence of Prose and Poetry Women, under the auspices of a system of marriage that left this with very little recourse or power to prosper on their own often felt a sense of powerlessness that encompassed their whole mind and often showed in literature written by them. There are many examples of the kind of powerlessness that brought out within…

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American Literature Despite Their Different Backgrounds and

American Literature Despite their different backgrounds and experiences, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau shared a number of ideas. Compare their views on nature, the individual, and conformity. Ralph Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were both great writers that had very vivid ideas on nature, the individual, and conformity. They were both outstanding leaders in the transcendentalist movement and…

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American Literature Comparing and Contrasting Ideas Ralph

American Literature Comparing and Contrasting Ideas Ralph Waldo Emerson and Fredrick Douglas both express their ideas and philosophies on a person's happiness and self-fulfillment. Both of these authors have very strong opinions on what they believe constitutes true self-satisfaction. In order to be truly satisfied with not only the way one is living one's life, but with how one carries…

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Fiction in Comparison to Poetry

The question of what the life insurance check will be spent on drives the conflict between Walter Lee and Mama and is the center of the plot. This debate represents a fight over materialism and integrity. However, the full implications of Walter's desires must be grasped to perceive the deeper levels of the debate. Wilkerson speaks about a restored scene of the play scene "which is key to this understanding. Inserted at the end of Act 11, Scene 2, the scene shows a brief moment between Walter and his young son, Travis. Walter, who has just been entrusted with the remaining $6,500 by his mother and who sees his dream of economic success within his grasp, speaks in a tender tone not heard before from him (Wilkerson, 1986, 445-446)." In this scene, Walter's son understands the motivations behind the conflict and that Walter's fixation was not just upon the physical, but upon deeper things as well. Like the suicidal man in Summer Solstice, we cannot see specifically what is making him tick. As J. Charles Washington notes, there is a prophetic significance to Walter that drives the play and gives us clues as to the deeper meanings (Washington, 1988, 112). In the opinion of this author, the drama is a stronger genre because it allows a longer and more in-depth examination of the characters. Poetry is very short and can leave the reader grasping for details. However, poetry allows for a more focused "snapshot" of events. A well written poem can convey a lot of information in a short period of time and leaves the reader more room for interpretation. Both genres have narrators and conflict. However, this makes foreshadowing difficult in poetry, although not impossible. The drama allows for much more foreshadowing due to its length and the amount of time that the author can spend on developing the characters. Conclusion To sum up, in this short essay, we have conducted an examination of fiction in comparison to poetry and drama by drawing upon specific examples from the poem- "Summer Solstice in New York" by Sharon Olds and of drama from A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry. We have discussed what are features that define the different genres and also examined their different strengths and weaknesses. References Field, E., & Locklin, G. (1992). New geography of poets. (p. xvii). Little Rock, AR: University of Arkansas Press. Washington,…

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Role and Importance of the Poets Has

¶ … role and importance of the poets has changed throughout the history of mankind. Back in the period, the Romantics believed that the poet represented the spiritual guide of the people, who helped the reader identify their most internal emotions, intuitions and imaginations. Today, the role of the poet is less certain than during those days and this is…

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Victorian Literature Was Remarkably Concerned

" The constant movement of passion is not troped as an imaginative freedom, but rather as its own form of routine -- like the "ebb and flow / of human misery" in Arnold's "Dover Beach," the tidal image here is one of senseless repetitiveness. In "Dover Beach" it is the senselessness that Arnold emphasizes, where Victorian religious doubts render the…

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New African by Andrea Lee

Human nature Shows how many behave in specific circumstances Reading everything but the Bible. Exercise 5.6C: Evaluative Essay Directions: Now that you've finished the reading in your textbook, you'll write an evaluative essay offering your well-considered judgment on a piece of literature. Your focus work can be anything you've read during this course or outside. This essay is not just an opinion though; you offer your evaluation and then support it with reasons and evidence to support your reasons. It should be at least (5) five paragraphs long. Calculating the value of literature is much like calculating the value of a work of art -- it's mostly personal taste with some somewhat objective criteria (golden ratios and such). So what makes a good book? Mostly, that's up to you. Did you enjoy reading it? Did it meet your objective in reading? Why you read has as much to do with the quality of the work as the work itself. However, in order to equitably evaluate literature, we need to look at why a writer writes, and not just why readers read. If Socrates is to be believed, only the examined life is worth living. Considering how enduring that thought has been, it probably has some merit, and we can apply that to why writers write -- to examine life. A piece of prose or poetry that somehow makes us see -- as writers and readers -- the truth of who we are, good and bad. That's the literature worth reading. James Baldwin's Autobiographical Notes are an enduring piece of literature because they are an examination of his life that teaches us something about our own. From the outset of the Notes, Baldwin states that, "The story of [his] childhood is the usual bleak fantasy, and we can dismiss it with the restrained observation that [he] would certainly not consider living it again." Maybe we don't all come from homes with a plethora of babies, but it's safe to say that we are all disappointed with our childhoods in some way, and the perplexity is why we all feel like we're the only ones. The understated tone with which Baldwin says his childhood sucked makes you examine your own attitudes and see just how silly it is to dwell on the fact that life wasn't sunshine and daisies growing up. Life is how it is -- get over it. Just moments…

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Element of Literature Theme or Conflict

¶ … Conflict The Theme of Freedom in Three Works What is freedom and how does it arrive? This challenging question has been answered in various ways through literature as well as philosophy. It remains a stable concern for every new generation of thinkers and for each new situation tackled in literary works. Narratives and poems have suggested alternative arrangements…

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Assessment on Poetry

¶ … poetry? Why or not? An absolute YES, and for various reasons. From a practical standpoint, poetry allows students to experience the language, to make connections that are otherwise not apparent, and to entertain, get children to talk about language (and not just children), and to make intellectual discoveries that are not necessarily easy. Party of being a teach is motivating children to learn -- what better way to teach reading than to use poetry? Poetry helps in other ways, too: memorization, public speaking, the ability to explain abstract thoughts, and a way to translate words into art. What better way to translate prose into images, and have the students understand and explain such (Paschen, et.al. 2005)? What has been your response to poetry and/or the students in your charge, and what do you think influenced such responses? Clearly, it depends on the poem, and the way it is presented. If poetry is used in regularly to help children understand the emotional response to literature, it can be an enlightening and empowering experience. For instance, using holiday poems, or poems that express a particular sense of the emotion the child is feeling, an event, etc. makes it all the more viable and robust. The real power of poetry, though, is not just reading, but actually allowing the children to write and participate in the learning experience. There are so many different types of poems that children can use to express themselves, and frankly, once they are able to visualize that they can indeed express themselves in ways that are nonsensical, deep, meaningful, emotional, etc., they are often quite comfortable using this medium to help them understand and interact/react with their world (See also: Moore, 1999). Poetry is meant to be seen on the page AND read aloud. Choose a poem from the anthology you read for this class. First, analyze how its look on the page - its font, the layout, the illustrations that accompany it. Then read it aloud, first to yourself and then to someone else, and analyze the effect of the poem? " your response to it - according to how it sounds. (Consider the items authors choose from on the "Lit Techniques and Elements" posted earlier in the term). Source: Always Surprised -- Owl Started This. From Cowing, S. (1996) Fire in the Sea. 1. Page layout -- Childlike drawing of owl in brown tones…

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Poetry Anthology Project

Power of Imagery Explored in Poetry David Ignatow William Wordsworth Maurice Kenny Denis Levertov Robert Frost Joy Harjo Elizabeth Bishop Komunyakaa William Shakespeare Louise Gluck Poetry's best friend is the imagination. Without the ability to imagine, poets and readers would cease to exist. Poets utilize many elements to ignite imagination, with imagery being one of their most popular devices. From…

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Children's Literature Author Study

Children's Literature: Author Study Most children are well acquainted today with the series the Narnia Chronicles, written by CS Lewis. Born on November 29, 1898, in Belfast Ireland, Clive Staples Lewis is a world renowned writer whose fame goes well beyond the aforementioned series. For his contemporaries, especially for the American and British public, as well as for his students,…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Postcolonial Literature How Do Factors of Race and Gender Further Complicate the Relations of Class

Postcolonial Literature "Everytime I think I have forgotten, / I think I have lost the mother tongue, / it blossoms out of my mouth. / Days I try to think English: / I look up, / paylo kallo kagdo / oodto jai, huhvay jzaday pohchay / ainee chanchma kaeek chay / the crow has something in its beak." -- Sujata Bhatt The immigrant is defined by his language; it is entangled with the "very roots" of his being (Kumar 17). As an immigrant struggles to find his identity in the world, there is one element that will always define him -- his language. "Those of us who do use English do so in spite of our ambiguity towards it…To conquer English may be to complete the process of making ourselves free" (17). This is clearly illustrated in A.K. Ramanujan's poem entitled "Self-Portrait," in which we meet a person who is writing in English thus obviously influenced by Western culture, however, when he sees himself in a shop window, his "self-portrait," he sees himself as the product of his racial ethos and nation. "I resemble everyone / but myself," he says. Here we seen an obsession with private ancestral memories, leading to a search for racial roots (Rukhaiyar & Prasad 125). Likewise, China Achebe's Things Fall Apart was written in English, suggesting that he wrote it not for his Nigerian people, but he wrote it for the West. In the work, he critiques and attempts to correct the vision of Africa that was created by other writers of the colonial period. Achebe tackles the problem with communication between the Igbo and the missionaries. "Among the Igbo the art of conversation is regarded very highly, and proverbs are the palm-oil with which words are eaten" (5). This sentence shows the reader how the formality in the Igbo language caused confusion when dealing with the Europeans. The Europeans are direct and efficient in their dealings, but the Igbo value the art of rhetoric and incorporate metaphors and imagery, which, to the missionaries, seems highly inefficient. Achebe writes Things Falls Apart from a peacemaking position. He is desperately trying to understand his past as a way of finding his identity. Rather than coming from a place of absolute pessimism, Achebe, in fact, is able to make the search for his identity in a postcolonial world a positive quest. He is using education, incorporating the…

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Children's Literature Picture Books Allard,

One evening she transforms her parents and her little sister for a life on the town. The book is designed for a primary level audience. Swanson, Susan. The House in the Night. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 2008. Print. A young girl is offered a golden key to a house. A giant bird leads her on a fantastic journey that begins small and is confined within the house but grows and takes on celestial proportions as the repetitive story continues. This book will most appeal to preschoolers and early primary level children. Weisner, David. Flotsam. New York: Clarion Books. 2006. Print. A young beachcomber is searching the beach for anything that has washed up when he finds a rare treasure, a Melville underwater camera. He develops the film and as he looks at the pictures, he finds amazing fantastic shots of underwater mechanical fish, civilizations living on the backs of starfish, and most amazingly, a picture of a girl holding a picture of a boy holding a picture, and so on. As he looks through the magnifying class, he discovers that the pictures continue back to the very first pictures ever taken. After taking a picture of himself with the amazing camera, he tosses it back into the water for the next beachcomber to find. This book is designed for a primary audience. Willems, Mo. Don't Let the Pigeon Drive the Bus! New York: Hyperion Books for Children. 2003. Print. The bus driver has to leave his post for a moment, and as he leaves, he instructs the readers not to let the pigeon drive the bus. The pigeon starts out sweetly requesting to drive, and he becomes more and more demanding as the readers tell him no, until finally he begins screaming. The bus driver returns and the pigeon leaves, only to find a tractor trailer where he begins the whole process over again. The book is geared towards preschoolers. Zelinsky, Paul. Rapunzel. New York: Dutton Children's Books. 1997. Print. This picture book is a retelling of the story of Rapunzel. Richly illustrated in Renaissance-like artwork, the Caldecott Award book adds a new twist: in this version, Rapunzel is pregnant with the Prince's baby and celebrates a hasty wedding in the tower after he manages the long climb up to the window via her reddish-gold locks. The book is appropriate for early readers and up. Fiction for Middle-Elementary Grades Clements,…

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Family:' Familial Love in Literature While Romantic,

¶ … family:' Familial love in literature While romantic, erotic, and even platonic (friendly) love may vary in their significance across cultures, it is difficult to name a society that does not give great significance to familial love. The genetic bond between family members is completely involuntary, and chosen by biology and circumstance, rather than the individual human will. However, despite the fact that it is almost impossible to survive without some sort of family ties, the subject of family love is almost invariably linked to violence, as in the case of Theodore Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz," "A Good Man is Hard to Find" by Flannery O'Connor, and Hamlet by William Shakespeare. The uncomfortable closeness of family love -- sometimes wonderful, sometimes terrible -- brings discord, tension, and even death in these tales. "My Papa's Waltz" by Roethke depicts an intense, almost violent scene: the speaker's father arrives home after drinking, and begins to dance with the boy. The boy evidently admires his father despite the smell of whisky on the father's breath. And despite the fact the father beats the time of the waltz on the boy's head, the boy is still "clinging" to his father's shirt as the child is waltzed off to bed. The father is powerful yet undisciplined and the boy his absolutely no control over the relationship: "But I hung on like death:/Such waltzing was not easy." To experience his father's love, the boy must go along with his father's moods and whims. Yet the child loves his father enough that he allows himself to be swept up by the joy of the experience. The father is slightly dangerous, as is evidenced by the alcohol he has been drinking and the dizziness of the boy. The father is not tender, or orderly, like the mother who is frowning at the father for being out drinking so late. The mother is obviously the everyday caretaker and discipliner, relegated to a world of pots and pans that rattle and slide from the shelves, rather than the subject of the boy's filial loyalty. The boy cannot resist feeling love for his father, and ignoring his mother even though: "The hand that held my wrist / Was battered on one knuckle; / At every step you missed / My right ear scraped a buckle." In contrast, the family of "A Good Man is Hard to Find" by Flannery O'Connor…

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Postmodernism in American Literature Death of a

Postmodernism in American Literature Death of a Salesman is, a play written by Arthur Miller, can be loosely considered as postmodern literature by virtue of its being written in 1949, after World War II when most critics supposed the postmodern era began. Looking at Miller's play on a deeper level and analyzing its elements, one can see that it indeed adheres to the postmodern movement. The play is told from the perspective of the main character, Willy Loman who is a 63-year-old salesman. Willy Loman is a rather unsuccessful salesman, only receiving small commission. He is obsessed with achieving the American Dream of being materially successful and in the process, he loses his mind. There are a few times when the play focuses on the other characters such as Biff, Happy, Linda, and Charley and the perspective shifts from Willy's point-of-view to these characters' points-of-view. These shifts in perspective are characteristic of postmodern works as Tamara Ponzo Brattoli pointed out in her article about postmodernism. In Death of a Salesman, when the perspective shifts from Willy Loman to the other characters, time, as well as place, does not change. This is in contrast to Willy Loman's perspective where the story is discontinuous and fragmented. This is illustrated in the breaks in continuity characterized by Willy Loman's daydreams. There are shifts in time when these breaks occur. A scene starts with the present time and as the scene is disrupted by Willy Loman's daydreams wherein shifts in time occur. The present day drifts to memories from the past or to imagined conversations with other characters. Take one scene for example, when Willy comes home from an unsuccessful sales trip and he complains to his older son, Biff. When Biff and his younger brother, Happy, reminisce their adolescence, Willy engages in a daydream where he commends his sons for washing his car. In this scene, Willy's sons are shown to be young.……

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Elizabethan Love Poetry Is Laden With Themes

Elizabethan love poetry is laden with themes related to morality, such as in relation to sexual relations. Many Elizabethan poems also address morality in the general context of ethics and social grace. Morality is sometimes referred to in a political context as well. William Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 is one such poem that addresses morality within the context of politics and social norms. Sonnet #29 displays the poet's remarkable ability to convey moral meaning without being pedantic. Moreover, the sonnet reveals a secular set of morals. Alternatively, a set of religious Christian morals is addressed in Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke's Psalm 51. Simply calling her poems psalms reveals Herbert's religiosity. The poem also reads like a guilt-ridden confessional and therefore has a different tone than Shakespeare's Sonnet #29. Shakespeare and Herbert demonstrate the distinction between secular and religious moral attitudes that emerged in Elizabethan England. One of the differences between secular and religious morality is that secular morality refers simply to being in conflict with mundane social norms, whereas religious morality refers to a state of sin. In other words, Herbert suggests that following social norms is insufficient; a person must be in tune with God. Shakespeare, on the other hand, implies that social norms define morality. For example, the narrator of Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 begins by stating he or she is "in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes," (l 1). Shakespeare's sonnet completely lacks any reference to God in the context of moral righteousness. The narrator is concerned about his or her social standing and of being an outcast but not necessarily about angering God or facing spiritual perdition. Mary Sidney Herbert, on the other hand, describes moral virtue only within the context of a relationship with God. The narrator of Herbert's Psalm 51 places moral transgression squarely within the framework of spiritual sin and implores, "wipe, O Lord, my sins from sinful me," (l 4). Another difference between secular and religious morality is the preferred method of absolution. When the narrator of Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 seeks absolution he or she does not petition the Lord. In fact, the narrator does not seem remorseful at all. The last line of the sonnet reads, "I scorn to change my state with kings," which suggests that the narrator feels morally justified for whatever action led to his being a pariah (l 14). On the other hand, Herbert's narrator in Pslam…

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Romantic Modern Post Modern Literature

Romantic, Modern and Postmodern Literature There is a great deal of debate about the demarcation points or the areas of transition between romanticism, modernism and postmodernism. On the one hand, many see the modernist movement in art and literature as being, in some senses, an extension of the themes and the intentions of the late romantics like W.B. Yeats; and…

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Explication of Poetry

¶ … Art Elizabeth Bishop's poem, "One Art," is a study on the ironies we encounter when as we move through life. While many of us strive to be masters of our art, or talent, we rarely desire to become a master at losing things. While this may be true, the poet demonstrates how this art can be easily achieved almost on a daily basis. Bishop illustrates how the art of losing is not difficult to mater through examples in her own life. She moves from seemingly unimportant things to perhaps extremely significant things and then to extremely important personal things that she lost to prove her point. In the fist lines of the poem, the poet introduces us to her theory, that the art of loss "isn't hard to master / so many things seem filled with the intent / to be lost that their loss is no disaster" (Bishop 1-3). These first few lines are painfully honest and ironic in that no one sets out to be a master at the art of loss - it just happens in out lives. With this notion, the poet continues in the same vein by focusing on some things that she has lost without meaning to have lost them. For example, she points out that many of us lose something every day - from keys to time when we waste an hour doing something worthless. In this respect, we can see how losing can become an art without much effort at all. The second stanza, the poet elaborates on her theory by focusing on "places, names, and where it was you meant / to travel" (8-9). By doing these things, the poet points out, one is not actually involved in so much of a disaster as the art of losing. In the fourth stanza, the poet turns to more personal losses, as she begins speaking in first person. She begins with seemingly small items of not much interest, including her "mother's watch" (10) and moves quickly to larger more significant items, such as her "next-to-last" (11) house. It is interesting to note that the poet draws attention to things that are lost and things that simply do……

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Responding to Literature

¶ … people view metaphysical poetry as contrived, but I tend to find this view flawed. The poetry is not a plot to confuse the audience, but it is more of a deeper meaning of a connection between two previously unrelated objects that the poet sees himself. Just because the reader might not understand that connection, does not mean that it is not there. I personally believe that there are some connections in metaphysical poetry which truly do work. A more obvious example of the conceits of this type of poetry as successful is in the work of George Herbert's "Easter Wings." Not only does Herbert make metaphysical connections with the words of the poem, he does so with the visual structure as well. The actual stanzas look like wings, and the rise and fall of the action coincides with the angles of the wing shape. This is a connection which brings the religious ideals into the visual frame of the reader. John Donne's famous work "Death Be Not Proud," personifies death in a much different way than the normal idea of death as scary and fearful. In fact, Donne does the exact opposite, and strips death of all its fearful images saying that the act of taking life is not up to him, and that he is a……

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