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Native Americans a Strong Connection

The only thing that makes sense to them is to find better and faster ways to go about enacting that destruction. #3 While there have been positive initiatives of late regarding Native American rights -- such as the U.S.'s reversal of the Bush administration's position on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous people, which, in dropping its…

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American Indian Studies Native American

It was traditionally used to transmit religious beliefs because it conveys cultural tradition" (Oral Tradition And Origin Myth, n.d). One of the most widespread forms of oral tradition is the story. Storytelling is a skill passed down from one generation to another. Just as with any arrangement of art, practice is the key. The storyteller must be able to gain…

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Natisve Americans Native Americans and

al, 142). Native Americans, who were former allies of the French, were treated by British in a hostile and controlling manner. To this, they reacted in such a way that they launched Pontiac War. The rebellion had been initiated in order to challenge Britain and the Native Americans, had been successful in displacing the British from their forts and forcing…

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Native American Consumers in Counseling and Rehabilitation

Native Americans Health and Alcohol Counseling for Native Americans Native American populations are among the more notoriously disadvantaged demographics in the United States today. Following generations of genocide, Native Americans have largely persisted in the sad state of affairs created by relegation to reservation life. Here, Native Americans often live in isolation from broader society and the socioeconomic, educational and professional opportunities present there within. A byproduct of these conditions is the intersection of negative health indicators, negative mental health indicators and high risk susceptibility to drug and alcohol abuse. As the discussion hereafter reveals, the intersection of conditions such as diabetes, alcoholism, drug dependency and depression demands outreach through both counseling and rehabilitation channels. Before exploring these channels, it is appropriate to acknowledge some of the heightened risk factors facing native populations. Particularly, many of these heightened risks are actually genetic as well as conditional. This is true of diabetes, for instance. As reported by the American Diabetes Association (ADA)(2008), "according to the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the 'thrifty gene' theory proposes that African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Asian-Americans and Native Americans inherited a gene from their ancestors which enabled them to use food more efficiently during 'feast and famine' cycles. Today there are fewer such cycles; this causes certain populations to be more susceptible to obesity and to developing type 2 diabetes." (ADA, 1) Available research also seems to imply that there is some connection between the genetic variations creating this vulnerability to diabetes and the vulnerabilities implicated where alcoholism is concerned. Native Americans tend to experience higher rates of alcoholism per population sample than other demographic subsets. This has been attributed to variances in the blood composition of Native Americans that, an article by Lee et al. (2008) tells, may also be a partial culprit higher than average occurrence of diabetes in Native Americans. According to Lee et al., "significant variables associated with the development of diabetes included triglycerides, obesity, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and degree of American Indian blood among participants with NGT at baseline. For those with IGT at baseline, significant predictors included fasting plasma glucose, 2-h glucose, BMI, degree of American Indian blood, and albuminuria." (Lee et al., 49) In many ways, there is a direct connection between these two problems of diabetes and addiction, not just because they may be inclined by a common genetic disposition. More importantly, these risk factors…

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21st Century Race Gender Class and Ethnicity Issues for Native American Indians

Native Media Stereotypes and the Impossibility of Objective Identity: The Case of the Native American in Popular Media The history of the United States, as most people the world over are well aware, has not exactly been a history of peaceful coexistence between divers groups of people with different perspectives, attitudes, and values. Though the country has been dubbed "the melting pot" and truly does support a very ethnically diverse population, its history has been more concerned with eliminating difference and creating similarities than it has been with preserving the individual cultures that came here to be "melted." Of course, there are certain ethnic strains that remain quite vibrant and noticeable, primarily in their culinary contributions: Italian restaurants, Mediterranean cuisine, Polish sausages and the now All-American hot dog: there is a tendency to celebrate certain aspects of the "foreign" cultures that help to make up this nation. There are two very interesting things to note about these multicultural "celebrations," however. First, they are almost always concerned with European cultures rather than acknowledging the broad array of people that actually make up the citizenry of the United States, and second, the positive aspects of certain cultures are often just as stereotypical and artificial as many of the negative aspects that have been pointed out and/or embellished for centuries. This has had major implications for the group of people that has suffered the longest at the hands of the Europeans' descendants on this continent: the Native Americans. Even their collective grouping and labeling is indicative of the stereotyping these peoples face. For much of the United States' history and indeed the history of Europeans in the Americas, the many indigenous tribes of the continent were seen as savages -- uncivilized people that had no real sense of morality or values, and that still lived in primitive fashions without the luxuries or economic productivity afforded by modernization. In truth, many tribes had flourishing civilizations, some with substantial villages and cities (especially in South America), and there were highly codified rules of behavior, government, and values. The fact that these values and systems of authority were markedly different from the Europeans' led to the labeling of these peoples as savages. Towards the middle of the twentieth century, however, public sentiment began to shift, and certain elements of Native American culture -- their far more symbiotic relationship with nature and elements of their mysticism especially…

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Crime-Native Americans Crime Issues for Native Americans

Crime-Native Americans Crime Issues for Native Americans One problem that exists today between the federal government and the Native Americans is crime. According to a report released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on October 18, 2005, the crime rate against Native Americans has risen during the past five years (Some pp). In 2004, 131,539 Native American were arrested for murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault and burglary, compare to 125,438 in 2003 (Some pp). There is an overwhelming number of arrests of Native Americans, over 72.3% of Native Americans were arrested in cities (Some pp). Another 10.1 arrest occurred in the metropolitan countries the remainder were in non-metropolitan areas assumed to be the reservations, suburban, and communities that surround the reservation (Some pp). The federal government reports that during the past five years, American Indian and Alaska Native people of all ages are victimized at the highest rate in the nation (Some pp). According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Report, hate crimes against Native Americans has also increased (Some pp). In 2004, a total of 100 hate crimes consisting of bias crimes were up from 2003, however fewer Native Americans were involved in these crimes (Some pp). A study released in 1999 by the United States Justice Department reported that American Indians are the victims of violent crime at a rate of more than twice the national average (Violent pp). The study also revealed that Native Americans, compared to other groups, are most likely to be the victims of violent crimes committed by members of a race other than their own (Violent pp). The study reported that over 60% of violent crimes against Native Americans……

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Social Change for American Indian Societies

NATIVE AMERICAN WORLDVIEW is grounded in historical and cultural changes and traditions. There may not only single way of looking at the world among surviving indigenous populations in the Americas but there are some common characteristics that shape the broader worldview. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Native Americans had had to experience political discrimination including an forceful assimilation policy that often used military power, forced relocation, repression, social and cultural regulation process and ban on use of some cultural ceremonies. Rick Hill (1988) writes about this prejudice: There was also an assumption that Indians would be better off not being Indians, so that all 'pagan' trappings should be removed to liberate the Indian people from their inferior culture. The religion of the Indian people was attacked, Their objects of religion were removed from the communities." The social change that Native Americans were forced to adopt was part of the assimilation policy. There were asked to join agriculture instead of focusing on hunting as means of earning livelihood. Some such changes resulted in gradual displacement of native languages and culture paving way for forced social change. But still, despite all these changes, most Native American children would grow up with a common worldview. The worldview has some interesting characteristics that most Native Americans can identify with as M.A. Jaimes (1995) tells us: In terms of economics, the Native peoples tend to have communal property, subsistence production, barter systems, high-impact technology, and competitive production. In terms of political relations, Native people have consensual processes, direct "participatory" democracy, and laws embedded in oral traditions. On the other hand, modern society has centralized executive authorities, representative democracy, and written laws. In respect to their social relations, they differ, generally, in terms of matrilineality vs. patriarchy, extended vs. nuclear families, and low vs. high population density. Finally, regarding differences in world view, the Native peoples are polytheistic, derive an understanding of the world from the natural order's rhythms and cycles of life, and include animals and plants as well as other natural features in their conceptions of spirituality, which the cultural anthropologists call animism and totemism. (1995, 275) This is an interesting and rather comprehensive picture of Native American worldview. Many would think that it is too generalized but it has characteristics that aboriginals understand and can relate to. In other words, even if all of them do not believe in the same things…

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Memory, a Voyage Into History

With Sherman Alexie and his novel, Reservation Blues the novel centers are characters from the 1990's whose interactions include a talking guitar, the living dead, and other cosmic happenings. Like with Momaday, historic memory as well as tribal and individual memory play prominent roles within the world of the novel and allow the environment to represent those memories. On the surface, Alexie's novel is a story of twentieth-century American Indian bildungsroman. Because the characters in the story are reservation Indians, their passage into adulthood is burdened by the question of what kind of "Indians" they will be and who they will inevitably be. Reservation Blues struggles with major questions of community and identity, with a similar style to Momaday in rapid changes in narrative points-of-view and achronological temporal dimension similar to other Native American literature. The novel interconnects past and present so the reader is both places at once via memory, dreams, and reincarnated spirits like the shape-shifting Coyote the characters name their rock band after. Frederic Jameson explains pn page 304 of his book: "History's competing narrative, memory, is often an embedded critical paradigm in ethnic texts (Stein, and Lehu 40 ). Like with Momaday, Alexie uses his perspective to retell his stories and his focus on the events to shape the way the characters behave. The stories becomes one with the authors. In the opening sentence of Reservation Blues, Alexie explains how memory and history will play amidst each other throughout the novel: "In the one hundred and eleven years since the creation of the Spokane Indian Reservation in 1881, not one person, Indian or otherwise, had ever appeared there by accident" (Alexie 3) . In Thomas-Builds-the-Fire's view (protagonist) nothing is by coincidence and keeping to memory the events assist in making sense of the past making it a significant way to heal the tribe's psychic well-being. "Five generations of Spokanes are buried on Thomas's reservation at Wellpinit, Washington, sixty-five miles from Spokane, and, although the weight of being the tribe's misfit storyteller, or cultural repository, has "bowed his legs and bent his spine" (Alexie 6). Herein lies the main difference between both books. Alexie deals with how a tribe battles tradition and modernization. Unlike with Momaday who sought to preserve through memory the history of the Kiowa culture by integrating it into his own memories, the characters of Alexie's novel attempt to deny and forget who they…

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Native Americans Over the Years, the United

Native Americans Over the years, the United States has exerted oppressive force over the Native American Indians who were in this country long before settlers arrived from Europe. Not only did the white European settlers cheat, rape, and steal from the Natives; they also managed to decimate nearly the entire Native American population. Native American tribes are now forced to live on reservations that are technically separate from the rest of the United States of America, although their sovereignty is still an ongoing matter of debate. The Supreme Court has assumed in recent years that although non-Indians have the right to be free from political control by Indian nations, American Indians can and should be subject to the political sovereignty of non-Indians. This disparate treatment of both property and political rights is not the result of neutral rules being applied in a manner that has a disparate impact. Rather, it is the result of formally unequal rules. Moreover, it can be explained only by reference to perhaps unconscious assumptions about the nature and distribution of both property and power. This fact implies an uncomfortable truth: both property rights and political power in the United States are associated with a system of racial caste. (Singer 4) The constant struggles for Indian sovereignty against the United States government came to a forefront in 1973 at the infamous standoff at Wounded Knee. On February 27, 1973, followers of the American Indian Movement occupied the town of Wounded Knee in South Dakota for seventy-one days while U.S. Marshals laid siege. The event nearly sparked off a civil war, and brought Indians' constant struggle for sovereignty to the public eye. Wounded Knee had been the site……

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Native American's With Alcoholism and

For instance, the rate of diabetic end stage renal disease is as much as six times higher in the Native American population. The number of Native Americans who have had limb amputations due to diabetes is as much as four times higher than in the general population. Among the many possible causes of this situation are poverty, the lack of…

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Constitutional and Civil Rights of Native American Indians

Governor Peter Shumlin 109 State Street, Pavilion Phone [HIDDEN] TTY: [HIDDEN] Fax [HIDDEN] Dear Governor Shumlin I am writing to you in order to express the concern of the people of Vermont on the current Socio-economic, political, legal and cultural issues, Self-determination, land resources, current adoption/foster care programs of Native American Children and Native American people in Vermont and throughout the United States. First of all I must commend you for your effort in upholding the Constitutional and Civil Rights of Native American Indians. Your kind gesture and action of signing legislative bills in April 22nd, 2011 that officially recognized two Abenaki Bands; the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk Abenaki Nation and the El Nu Abenaki Tribe is very commendable. This latter is however meant to bring to your attention the need for regulating the activities in the adoption/foster care programs of Native American Children and Native American people in Vermont and throughout the United States. The aim is to protect the children from abuse and murder as has been the case as noted by Kevin Annett ( The Alex Jones Channel,2011). The unfair and unjust foster care system Governor, it is very clear that they current foster care system is a sham since instead of helping the native children, it steals them from their families as well as culture (ICTMN,2011).This allegation is supported by the investigation conducted by National Public Radio that indicated that close to seven hundred Native American children from South Dakota were forcibly removed from their homes and then subsequently placed in foster homes yearly. In the U.S., the Native Indian children make up about 15% of the total children population and yet they account for close to 50% of the children in American foster homes. Another disturbing reality is that close to 90% of the children in foster homes in the U.S. are placed in homes that are owned by non-Natives as indicated in NPR's state record analysis (Sullivand & Walters,2011). Governor, then Indian Child Welfare Act which was passed by the U.S. congress in 1978 categorically mandated that every state must make efforts of placing Indian children with their relatives or a member of their tribes. The same legislation also mandated that the state first make attempts aimed at keeping a given family together with various programs and services. Clearly this is not the case even in Vermont. The NPR report also indicated that…

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Native Americans and Their Health Issues

Health of Native Americans The Health Issues of Native Americans Native Americans -- as a minority cultural group with many subcultures -- have a bleak history in the United States. They have a history of being ignored, or being persecuted, or indeed relegated to poverty status over the last few hundred years. The data available also shows that Native Americans suffer from poor health in many aspects of their lives. According to Indian Health Services, American Indians and Alaska Natives "have long experienced lower health status" when they are compared with other cultures in the U.S. In fact, Native Americans and Alaska Natives have a life expectancy that is 2.4 years less than all other ethnic groups in the U.S. (74.5 years for Native Peoples vs. 76.9 years for all other groups averaged out) (Indian Health Services data). Tuberculosis is a problem for Native Americans and Alaska Natives, according to the Indian Health Services information; in fact, Native Peoples die at a rate that is 600% higher than other Americans when it comes to tuberculosis; Native Peoples die at a rate 510% higher than other Americans when it comes to alcoholism; as to motor vehicle crashes, Native Peoples rate of death is 229% higher; the rate for Native Peoples is 189% higher for diabetes; Native Peoples have a rate of death from homicide that is 62% higher than others; and as for suicide, the rate for Native Peoples is also 62% higher than for other Americans (Indian Health Services Data). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) lists the population of Native Americans at 3.2 million, with about 60 births per 1,000 women and a percentage of births with low birth weight at 7.4%. Fourteen percent of Native Peoples of all ages are in poor health, the CDCP reports, and fifteen percent of all Native Peoples suffer from a limitation of their normal activities due to "one or more chronic health conditions" (CDCP). The CDCP reports that only thirty nine percent of Native Peoples under the age of 65 have health insurance; and eighteen percent of……

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American Indian History 1895-1995

Native Americans, New Voices: American Indian History, 1895-1995," David Edmunds discusses the fact that Native Americans were largely ignored in scholastic approaches to American history throughout the late 19th and early 20th century, but that this focus changed in the 1960s when the Civil Rights movement encouraged awareness of Native American history. He focuses on several different aspects of the historical portrayal of Native Americans to come to this conclusion. First, he highlights how Native Americans were portrayed in popular media as a group that had been defeated and gives examples of these portrayals. Second, he discusses the fact that Native Americans were largely ignored in historical scholarship, focusing on the fact that Native Americans were largely ignored or marginalized in the American Historical Review for most of the early part of the 20th century. Next, Edmunds discusses the transformation of Native American history in the 1960s, when the Civil Rights movement ushered in an increase in awareness and interest in Native American issues, including Native American history. Since that time period, there has been a growing interest in all aspects of Native American history, expanding it far beyond the white-conflict centered military history that dominated early Native American scholarship and even placing studies of pre-Columbian Native-American society within the context of global development, rather than limiting developmental comparisons to what was occurring in the Western world. What some of this recent scholarship demonstrates is a Holocaust of native populations when Europeans came to the Americas, but also the resilience of native populations in the face of European invasion. The article is well-written. Because it is basically a review of the available historical information, the article could be very dry and boring. However, he uses good examples to highlight the conclusions and points that he is making in the article. Moreover, he strings together the evidence that he uses to paint a broader portrait, not only of the way that Native Americans were portrayed in American history during those time periods, but also of what they may have meant about the overall cultural treatment of Native Americans during those time periods. While I certainly have not studied history to the same extent as Edmunds, what I do know of Native American history certainly seems to support his thesis. My discussions with people in older generations all reinforce the notion that they were taught that Native Americans were a people in…

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Native Americans Dakota and Lakota

The Native Indians also further declined with the arrival of the Europeans. Diseases took the best of every village including pneumonia, cholera, smallpox, and measles. The Indians had no built-in immunity to help them fight these diseases and so they either severely suffered from malnutrition or even died. This also forced them to leave their native villages, farming lands and their traditional hunting (Sutton, 2009). Early historians, explorers, and colonialists considered the Native Americans as godless heathens and barbarians. Evidently, many the missionaries tried their best to convert the religion of the Natives, which they considered it as their divine obligation to save the savaged souls. In many cases, the Native Americans had involved themselves in trade with the English in terms of food supply when harsh winters prevailed. Starvation would have killed many of the English if the Native Americans would not offer their assistance in such times. Sadly, the preconception maintained its dominance within the English consciousness (Brown, 2006). The Indians who had their habitat in the settlement of Jamestown must have experienced mixed reactions with the arrival of the English in the year 1907. They reacted with hostility at first regarding their previous experience they had with the Spanish explorers along the coastline. They made an attack to a British ship before it even arrived. However, the Indians began to assist the newcomers with traditional hospitality and food. The main motive of the leader of the Confederation of tribes, Mr. Powhatan deciding to offer traditional hospitality and food to the newcomers was to facilitate their assimilation in their system. The colonists got so much absorbed with instant wealth that they forgot to venture into planting corn and other activities, which would sustain their colony. Therefore, they had to rely heavily on the Indians for food (Sutton, 2009). As the fortunes of the colonies got even worse in the course of its first two years but the leadership of Captain John Smith came to the rescue of the colony. Part of Captain John Smith's leadership was involved with developing trade with local Indians and exploring the area. It was very unfortunate that Smith wanted the English to offer the same treatment to the Indians similar to that of the Spanish, which was to slavery, drudgery, and work so that the English colonists could live on the sweat of their labor (Nabokov, 2010). Therefore, this made Smith take what…

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Native Americans: Separate and Unequal

3). In a manner that mirrors the attitude of the Quechans, the Cherokee also sought federal protection, but wanted to maintain their sovereignty. In other words, Native Americans were trying to negotiate a place within the expanding European society in North America, but without sacrificing their values, beliefs, and sovereignty. The colonial powers, whether British, Spanish, French, or U.S., responded…

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Keeping Native American Language Alive:

The Aztec-Tanoan language includes tribes in New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California and Utah (Columbia Encyclopedia). Legislation In 1990, Congress passed the "Native American Languages Act (saving a culture, 2002)" and brought to the forefront the importance of saving the indigenous languages of the United States. This act "mandates that the government preserve and promote the right of Indians to use and develop their indigenous languages (saving a culture, 2002)." In 1992, there was additional legislation that provided annual grants for language recovery programs and these grants are still in place today (saving in culture, 2002). This legislation was a big change from the government's normally hostile attitude concerning the language and customs of the Indians. Conclusion There are some Native American languages that have either already disappeared or are on the brink of vanishing. Native American groups and colleges throughout the country have implemented several programs in attempts to preserve the remaining languages. Though the United States government originally tried to eliminate the Indian language, it is now working to revitalize this part of American culture. The Native American language not only offers an insight into the Indian culture, but contains valuable information about plants that can help scientist and the medical community, making it imperative to preserve the few remaining languages. Works Cited Bartholet, Jeffrey, Tony Clifton, Elizabeth Bryant and Scott Johnson. "The Sounds of Silence." Newsweek International. (2000): 19 June. Pp. 62. Harrison, Sheena. "Michigan State U. adopts American Indian Studies Program." University Wire. (2000): 24 August. Indians see preserving language as key move Saving a culture." The Washington Times. (2002): 25 October. James, Michael S. "Tongue-Tied; Linguists and Native Speakers Fight to Preserve Dying Languages." 08 April 2002. (accessed 11-09-2002) www.ABCNEWS.com). Native American Languages." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Seventh Edition. 2002): 01 January. Nijhuis,……

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Native American Cultural Aspects Apply to Psychological

¶ … Native American Cultural Aspects Apply to Psychological Theory According to author Barry M. Pritzker (A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture and Peoples) the early Southwestern tribes (the Navajo, the Athapaskans, the Pima and Hakataya) survived and stayed solvent through trading and exchanging critical goods and services. The passages on this page by Pritzker relate to the "historic and prehistoric periods" long before the Europeans arrived and pushed many Native American tribes off their traditional land. Some of the Indians mentioned above grew corn, beans, squash, cotton, and tobacco -- and those living near rivers ate fish. The point here is those tribes that did not produce food for themselves or who had very little access to food, and did not hunt deer or buffalo, became involved in raiding others, in trading with other tribes -- or those less fortunate tribes may have been the recipients of gifts from more successful tribes. A big part of the culture of Southwestern Indians was the concept of trading. Trading was likely the most common form of obtaining the basic essentials. "Southwestern tribes exchanged goods on a large scale" during this period in American history, Pritzker writes (p. 4). Food, turquoise, shell beads and other minerals were traded. Silver jewelry, baskets, blankets and buckskins were traded. They also traded "spouses," Pritzker explains; they traded medicine people and dancers as well as "ritualists." The Indians figured out and devised very complex systems of exchange, and this helped ensure the independence and "basic egalitarianism" that each Indian community required. Psychological Theory: And so how would this system of trade and exchange relate to traditional psychological theory? Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs fits in interestingly with the trading back and forth between tribes. The first needs on Maslow's hierarchy of needs are human's physiological needs -- the need for food, air, water (http://psychology-about.com) -- came into play in Indian culture. Food was a major need of course and food was at the top of the list of items to be traded from one tribe to another. If the Navajo (nomadic herders of sheep) or Apache (feared……

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European and Native American Cultures

European & Native American Cultures European Voyages, especially the Spanish's, were significantly marked by Cristopher Columbus' exploration of mainland America. Rumors spread that this land has flowing gold and silver which were seen necessary to strengthen Spain and make it the European superpower. Columbus thought that America is India and thus called it the Indies. Apart from the gold and silver, the surprising vast properties and the agricultural crops found in the island had become very historic in Europe especially in their economy. Agricultural products like cacao, corn, potatoes, tomatoes and many other crops were brought in Europe which supported larger European population and contributed much in the growth of it during the 16th century. However this contact had never been as useful for the Native Americans as that of the Native Europeans. Spanish conquistadors had brought with them, unintentionally and intentionally, diseases particularly smallpox and measles that Americans had no immunity. These diseases forced the Native Americans, who were then called as Indians, not merely to acknowledge their existence but to treat their culture as more superior than theirs. They were coerced to live out of their land and those who did not abide suffered from slavery and worse, massive death. The disease brought by the Europeans caused destruction of the Native American population. Some historians, estimated that almost 80% of Native American tribes have died due to the uncurable disease brought by the Europeans. Europeans had introduced some animals in the land of America as well. One of the seen most useful were the horses. Some of this animal had escaped and breeded in the wild of America. However, the last American horses died in the end of the last ice age. After that, the re-initiation of the same in the land of America brought a huge impact on the culture, particularly in the economy of the Native Americans. They began to travel and trade with other Native American tribes and started to spread out their territorial lands. Land conquest brought huge influence in history of countries which have been subjected to it. Distribution and exchange of knowledge and culture occurred as a result. However, it had also been the primary reason of numerous bloody warfares during the ancient times. With the Native Americans, giving was the most respectful act a person can offer. One needs not to stand out and be competitive; cooperation is a word that…

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Native American Literature

Native American Lit Wise, Bill and Bill Farnsworth (ill.). Louis Sockalexis: Native American Baseball Pioneer. New York: Lee & Low, 2007. ISBN: 1584302690 9781584302698, 31 pages, color illustrations, IRA Children's Book Award, Carter G. Woodson Book Award. Juvenile audience. A biography of professional baseball player Louis Sockalexis. Growing up in the late nineteenth century, Louis' dreams of becoming a baseball player were ridiculed because he was Native American. His success did not end the racism that plague him. Despite this, he managed to achieve his personal dreams and erode the racial barriers in this country to some degree. -Somewhat overly simplistic in language given the subject matter; could be made more challenging -Brevity of presentation allows for a quick yet highly informative read -Illustrations well-matched to the text, yet not entirely necessary Research the treatment of Native Americans in the 1800s and present your findings Write a story about another historical attempt to break down a similar barrier Draw a picture of the crowd you would see at a baseball game today Share a time when you were treated unfairly and what you did to combat this Take turns as different characters acting out a scene from the book Capaldi, Gina. A Boy Named Beckoning. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, 2008. ISBN: 9780822576440 0822576449, 32 pages, illustrations (some color), Independent Publisher Book Awards, other nominations. Juvenile audience. Recounts the story of the man known as Carlos Montezuma, a Native American doctor and advocate. Kidnapped at a young age by another tribe, Wassaja is eventually bought by an Italian man who raises him as Carlos. He attends medical school, becomes a successful doctor, and spends his life advocating for Native American rights. -Very informative and easy to follow with interest. -Illustrations largely unnecessary. -Quick pace without skimping on too much detail. Research what it takes to become a doctor, and report your findings. Write a plan for how you will become what you want to be. Create a campaign poster to obtain Native American rights for a 19th century issue. Debate a current issue facing Native American tribes in the U.S. Write a brief report on another little-known Native American figure. Steptoe, John. The Story of Jumping Mouse. New York: Lothrop, Lee, and Shepard, 1984. ISBN: 0688019021 9780688019020, 40 pages, illustrated, Caldecott nominated. Juvenile literature. Recounts a Native American legend in an illustrated and somewhat modernized version. With the help of an unselfish…

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Native American Issues Background and Historical Overview

¶ … Native American Issues Background and Historical Overview The historical narrative of the United States presents the Native Americans in a tremendously unfair light that is as morally offensive as it is historically inaccurate. The Sioux Indians in particular have been portrayed as savage killers who raided peaceful Settlers from the North and East who tried to cultivate new lives in the unsettled so-called "Indian Country" west of the Mississippi River in the middle and late 19th century (Anderson, 1986). In truth, the Sioux were merely more defiant of the unjust treatment that all of the Native American tribes received from the white man during the immediate periods preceding and following the infamous Indian Removal Act of 1830. In Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux by Gary Clayton Anderson (1986), the author presents a more historically accurate view of the injustices to which the proud Sioux people (and the other Native American tribes) were subjected by the United States government than the perspective generally promoted by contemporary historical texts. In principle, the revisionist history of the way that the American West was "won" is only one example of the many different historical inaccuracies that apply to the contemporary view of the way that the European explorers in general, and later, the white Colonialists of the North American Continent and the Settlers of the Wild West in particular ignored the rights of native peoples and systematically exploited, expelled, and in many cases, exterminated them in the process of "settling" lands that had been the ancestral homelands of those native peoples for millennia before the white man ever "discovered" the so-called "New World." The Experiences of the Sioux as Detailed by Objective Contemporary Historians Before the Indian Removal Act of 1830, most of the Native American tribes living in what was then called "Indian Country" by the white man lived in relative harmony and respected one another's territorial claims and boundaries (Takaki, 2008). One notable exception was the perpetual state of war that existed between the Sioux and the Pawnee tribes (Takaki, 2008). By the time that the U.S. government began to implement the concept of "Indian Removal" certain tribes, such as the Cherokee Nation and the Choctaws, apparently recognized the futility of armed conflict with the U.S. Army in opposition to their unfair treatment and sought to negotiate the most advantageous resettlement terms possible rather than fight against forces that…

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Identification American Indian Movement: Activist Group; Seized

Identification American Indian Movement: Activist group; Seized Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1972; protests sports mascots; concerned with Central America too; committed to Native rights. Wounded Knee: Dec 29, 1890; U.S. government-sponsored massacre; 300 Sioux/Lakota killed; motivated by gold rush; Lakota clung to the Black Hills Ada Deer: Born 1935; Native American activist; head of Bureau of Indian Affairs 1993-1997; Menominee tribe; female; scholar Quanah Parker: last chief of Quahadi Comanche; Texas; European mother and Comanche father; mother was captured by Comanche; founder of Native American Church Sioux Tribe: Native Americans; Lakota; Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Manitoba, Saskatchewan; strong social organization; 3 distinct ethnic groups; half off reservation Indian Citizenship Act: 1924; Snyder Act; granted full citizenship to indigenous people; signed by President Coolidge; 14th Amendment did not apply before Chief Joseph & Nez Perce: Chief of Wallowa; resisted removal to Idaho; born in Oregon; related to Gold Rush; led Nez Pierce to Canada 8. Dawes Allotment Act: 1887; allotted land in Oklahoma to Native Americans; exempted "Five Civilized Tribes"; became Burke Act in 1906;……

Pages: 1  |  Thesis  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 2


Native American Responses to Anglo American

Native Americans and Westward Expansion Although the period in American history known as Westward Expansion brings to mind covered wagons of settlers moving to develop open land in the West, the West had been settled, and explored, far before this era. In fact, during the colonial times, the French, Spanish, and even Russians, joined the British in exploring and colonizing the new world ("American Westward Movement" 2008). For the Americans, Westward expansion meant the furthering of a nation, new business opportunities, and exotic lands. For the Native Americans, it meant tears. The Native American reaction to Westward expansion and nation building was filled with sorrow. This is to be expected, based on what the Americans forced the Native Americans to give up so that they could expand. One of the precious resources that the Americans asked the Native Americans to give up was their land. The story of the Choctaw tribe is a prime example of this. Although their first experience with Europeans resulted in a particularly bloody battle for the tribe, they actually aided the colonists turned Americans in the Creek war of 1813. Thus, they reacted in an accommodating fashion. But the tribe lived on the desired lands……

Pages: 1  |  Essay  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 3


Reasons for Ritual in Native American Traditions

¶ … Ritual in Native American Traditions The Impenetrability of the Native American Mind Donald Lee Fixico, a Native American author intending to introduce and defend the Indian worldview to a nonwhite audience states in his book the American Indian Mind that Native Americans such as himself, even after being socialized into white society, have a cultural worldview that is integrally and profoundly different than whites, a worldview that is anathema to the linearity and scientific rationalism endemic to white society. Viewing Native culture as such, even to defend the beauty and uniqueness a perspective that has been devalued by white society, may seem to run the risk of essentializing Native Americans and reducing native rituals cultures to museum pieces. According to editor and author Calvin Martin of the collection the American Indian and the Problem of History, the ways that Native American religions and cultures have been conceptualized by white culture often have a "fixed and rigid quality" which creates an object of study that is really a storefront Indian "hewn out of a rock" (Martin 211). However, Martin's own analysis in his essay "The Metaphysics of Writing Indian-White History" seems to do exactly that -- to create a rock-like, unchanging conception of Native culture and practices. Martin, like Fixico, tends to essentialize 'the' Native American and see the American Indian as a singular, untouchable entity, impenetrable to white historians (Martin 29). Martin, to defend his point-of-view sent his initial essay to a variety of scholars and asked for a response, as detailed in his introductory comments: "An Introduction Aboard the Fidele." Martin believes that Native American culture and that of the Europeans are "mutually irreconcilable, mutually antagonistic, and mutually unintelligible" and no white history ever has or can illuminate native culture because of its profound difference from white culture (Martin 9). Viewed as such, even the most well-meaning historian or anthropologist engages in an act of colonization when he or she engages with the Native person's mind, and writes white history upon the history of the Indians in an act of "historiographic colonialism" (Martin 11). Martin, along the lines of Fixico believes that Native Americans perceived an integration between past and present, and took a holistic and cyclical view of the earth and its history, as opposed to white approaches to history which tends to view 'man' and 'nature' as inherently divided and more often than not, antagonistic.…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 2


Native American Cultures of North America

Native American Culture Intolerance of native religion is a theme that pervades Native American studies, as the conditions that many Indian nations suffered were guised with a highly religiously motivated idea of manifest destiny. The Cherokee nation was no exception, as many members sought to live a life that was chosen for them, rather than made by choice. One hundred…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 10


Native American Art

Native American Art Post-War Native American Art To evaluate the impact that Native American art has had on the evolution of late Modernism - and vice versa - is not an easy task. It was only in the 1930s that art critics and historians began paying attention to Native American art and that it began to be exhibited in respectable…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Native American Expressive Culture

Native American Expressive Culture The Native American tradition can be seen as an evolving cultural tradition that encompasses countless expressions of creativity, from many varied cultures and expressions of culture. Native American cultural expression has been at various times subverted and reformed. During the 19th century and into the 20th century there was a large movement to force assimilation of…

Pages: 15  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 15


American Indian Culture Before 1763

American Indian Culture Before 1763 Native American society prior to 1763 The Native American society was thriving before its interaction with the Europeans, especially given that natives had a thorough understanding of how they could exploit land without risking remaining without resources. By the eighteenth century many native tribes had relocated in order to avoid clashing with European settlers. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the Six Nations) had taken opportunity of the fact that invading nations needed resources and organized diverse trading businesses meant to assist both their own people and settlers in their struggle to sustain themselves. From a cultural point-of-view, the Indians managed to preserve most of their cultural values, this most probably being a result of the fact that their society was largely based on them. Native American culture dominated the way that Indian-Americans behaved previous to their encounter with the Europeans, as they mainly focused on respecting four concepts: the environment, the Great Spirit, people, and personal freedom. Although modern-day society largely promotes the idea that the American Continent was discovered by Genoese explorer Christopher Columbus, it is absurd to consider that someone is capable to discover something that had already been discovered many millennia before. There were several millions of individuals living in the "New World" at the time when the Spanish came across it. These people were organized in diverse groups that developed cultures and habits characteristic to the areas that they lived in and to their society as a whole. Natives were primarily accustomed to earning a living through farming, hunting, and fishing (fishing was only present in the case of tribes living near coasts) before they could be influenced by their encounter with the Europeans. While men were focused on hunting and fishing, women and children took care of planting and harvesting resources such as corn and beans. Depending on their activity and on the region that they found themselves in, some tribes were nomadic. They followed animals as they traveled through the country and hunted in accordance with their needs. Even with the fact that these communities seemed primitive, they were capable to thrive and to expand their numbers rapidly. Whereas men were recognized as being superior in regard to women because of their strength and because they were responsible for hunting, most tribes were matrilineal in character. This might be a result of the fact that women were in…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Native Americans Are the Indigenous

The Europeans initiated dominance and superiority from the first time they interacted with the Native Americans. After the Europeans had dominated the land which was occupied by the Native Americans, they went ahead to oppress them and suppress their cultures. After the revolutionary war, the new United States government sought to gain land through treaties of which payment offered for the land was from fair. When Native Americans resisted surrendering their homeland, the United States government simply used superior military power to evict them. Racism is the basis for discrimination. It is the systematic practice of denying people access to the most crucial resources and necessities in their lives. In an effort of Native Americans to obtain much of the Northern American land, there was a long series of war, massacre and forced displacements, restriction of food rights and imposition of treaties. Land was taken away and numerous hardships were imposed. Till today Native Americans remain among the economically disadvantaged group in the country. After their territories were incorporated, many surviving Native Americans were ranked low than before and were only given 4% of United States territory and treaties that were signed with them were violated. Politics has impacted positively on the lives of Native Americans since they are able to vote for their people to become leaders. To them getting their people into the office has become a natural step. They have started recruitment campaigns and training seminars for political candidates looking at ways to increase their representatives in state and local posts so that they can deal with the problem s faced by the Native Americans such as discrimination. Patricia Yelavich (2008) says that public policies have opened up the natives minds to new things that will benefit their future and the future of their native people. Public policies have also given the Native Americans students opportunity to learn more about the Native American policy structure and to be able to speak and share with their own tribes. Public policies have taught natives about education legislation, water rights settlements, health care and land reacquisition. References History on the Net, (2010). Native Americans - Tribes/Nations. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from http://www.historyonthenet.com/Native_Americans/tribes.htm Janice C.P. et.al, (2002). Minorities in Rural America: An Overview of Population Characteristics. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from http://rhr.sph.sc.edu/report/minoritiesInRuralAmerica.pdf Lewis and Clark (2011). Native Americans. Retrieved September 24, 2011 from http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native Patricia Yelavich, (2008). Native Americans students explore…

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Native American Culture the Native

In 1968 the first tribal college opened on the Navajo reservation and by 1995, there were twenty-nine such college (Natives Pp). There are numerous radio stations, as well a newspapers and periodicals (Natives Pp). A common concept among the majority of Native tribes is that of a dual divinity: "a Creator who is responsible for the creation of the world and is recognized in religious ritual and prayers, and a mythical individual, a hero or trickster, who teaches culture, proper behavior and provides sustenance to the tribe" (Native pp). Totems are a part of the spiritual path and represent the understanding cultural heritage as well as personality types (Meeks pp). Animal totems embody not only spiritual beings, messengers and guides, but also "embody some very firm principles in facing internal psychological conflicts that can have a bearing on many aspects of life including the spiritual aspect" (Meeks pp). Even today the dances at Powwows have a strong personal and spiritual dimension as each dance involves different stories and interpretation, depending on tribal and family background (Dances pp). The arrival of Europeans marked a major change in Native society as tens of millions died from sickness, and programs of slavery and extermination (Native pp). Moreover, Europeans viewed Native American spirituality as worthless superstition and many survivors were forced to convert to Christianity (Native pp). During the mid-20th century both the United States and Canadian governments forced entire generations of native children into residential church operated schools (Native pp). The current system of tribal government is a governing system imposed by the federal government that is a paternal system that replaces what was previously, in many cases, a matriarchal society, and is viewed by many as no more than an arm of the federal government (Line pp). During recent decades there has begun a movement among Native American tribes to reconnect and restore much of their cultural heritage. The First Peoples' Cultural Foundation is a non-profit charitable public organization that generates support to raise awareness and funding for Aboriginal language revitalization (First pp). Native Nations Network, NNN, is a Native American and Canadian First Nations global, "online tribal village featuring news, editorials, essays, internet sources, events, action alerts, and specialty sections focusing on issues of sovereignty, treaty rights and activism," with the objective to provide an interactive gathering of Indigenous peoples to share ideas, information, and celebrate all Native cultures (Nations pp).…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Native American Children's Literature

Folklore Teaching Native American Folklore to Children This paper will examine Donna Norton's typology of Native American folklore and examine how this typology can be a useful pedagogical tool when approaching a diverse student body and when teaching a multicultural curriculum. Classifying Native American folklore into different types of tales, such as "Setting-the-World-in-Order Tales," "Family Drama Tales," "Trickster Tales," "Threshold Tales" and "Combination Tales," is not simply an effective way to introduce aspects of native culture to young children in a diverse classroom (Norton 2005: 82-87). It can also be a powerful method to draw connections between the children's own cultures and Native American mythology. For example, "Trickster Tales" are "common in folklore all over the world," perhaps the most culturally pervasive kind of tale (Norton 2005: 84). The Trickster of the Pacific North American Indians is called the Raven; another common trickster is the Coyote, and also the Rabbit. Children can read tales of these animals, and compare them with other tricksters from other cultures, such as Anasi the Spider from West Africa. Children can also examine the presence of trickster mythology in modern American media, in films and television, where vulnerable people (like animals and children) trick stronger authority figures with clever and underhanded methods. Also, a teacher might ask why certain animals, like rabbits and coyotes, have common 'trickster' appeal, as opposed to other animals. "Trickster tales are almost always placed in the 'animal tales' genre, with the trickster... identified with a particular animal. These include the mouse deer in Southeast Asia, the fox in Japan, the coyote and the spider among the North American Indians, the tortoise, rabbit (or hare) and spider in West Africa, and the mantis in Southern Africa" (Starr 1999). Setting-the-World-in-Order" or origin tales are another likely point of connection between many different tales from different cultures (Norton 2005: 82). Encouraging children……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Blues the Title of Sherman

That the novel presents the crossroads of Wellpinit as a potentially hopeful point in space that offer a chance at redemption instead of damnation is important, because for the most part, life on the reservation is neither hopeful nor redemptive. The space of the reservation is a space where "death, alcohol, poverty, book-burning, and child abuse find their place," and…

Pages: 9  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Puritans and Native Americans What

These were people whose idea of God had justified the beheading of the King of England, Charles the First, who could hardly be accused of being a godless heathen; in fact, he was beheaded because his Christian God was insufficiently Puritan. In some sense, the Native Americans were hardly the only victims of Puritan self-righteousness: before going to war with Native Americans, the Puritans had treated the King of England and the population of Ireland with the same lofty contempt. For that reason, Rowlandson's story of her captivity is more full of Biblical quotations than any attempt to understand the social structure or mores of the Native Americans that abducted her: they were "heathens" and that was enough understanding as far as the Puritans were concerned. But at the same time, the way Rowlandson's story is told is meant to reinforce the cultural narrative of the Puritans at the same time that it denies the cultural narrative of the Native Americans: Downing (1981) reports, concerning the conflict in which Rowlandson's kidnapping occurred (known as King Philip's War or the "First Indian War") that "Increase Mather and other Puritan divines explained the Indian uprising as a sign of God's displeasure, exhorting their congregations about the dangers of 'backsliding'." (Downing 254). In other words, the clash of cultures that we see in Mary Rowlandson's kidnapping is used to strengthen the Puritans self-definition. It is used to reinforce the sense of community among hostile alien presences that do not believe in their Christian God, but it is also used to force the Puritan community itself to examine its own conscience and try to appease that Christian God through righteous behavior. The only irony is that the Puritans might as well have been looking in a mirror: from the standpoint of an anthropologist, the angry god of this hubristic Protestant sect was just as much a bloodthirsty tribal cult as anything that would be found among the Native Americans. Mary Rowlandson may thank her God that she was only kidnapped by Narragansetts rather than by Aztecs, and that she was ransomed after 11 weeks rather than being slaughtered and eaten on a ziggurat, but at the end of the day the Puritan God seems rather similar to the Aztec version, at least when it comes to the clash of civilizations. Aggressive expansionism and disregard for peaceful coexistence with the lives of those outside the…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Wounded Knee II Describe the

All remaining land would be opened up for sale to white settlers, timber companies, mines and railroads. By 1934 when the allotment process ended, over two-thirds of the reservation land held by Native Americans in 1887 had been lost, and 90,000 had become completely landless. No matter whether it was the original intention of Dawes or not, the effect was to increase the poverty of the Indians. In addition, the Indian trust funds created by Dawes to manage royalties for oil, timber and mineral rights, which still exist today, have turned out to by monumentally corrupt and incompetent. In many cases, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) simply lost the records and was unable to account for billions of dollars in payments that were owed to Native Americans. In the history of the U.S. government, there has never been a worse-managed problem, or one that cheated some of the poorest people in the country to such an extreme degree. In addition to this truly shabby and corrupt treatment meted out by the BIA in its fraudulent mismanagement of Native assets, the Dawes Act also had the effect of undermining the culture and religion of the Indians. For Dawes, total assimilation was the goal, which meant that the Indians would leave in nuclear families and own their own private property as individuals, while tribal governments, communal landholdings and traditional religions would be abolished. Indian Agents appointed to manage the reservations even ensured that Native Americans changed their hairstyles and clothing, while many of their children were adopted by white families or sent to boarding schools where English was the language of instruction. Only in recent years has it become clear that these schools were infamous for high levels of physical and sexual abuse, and that their activities were a form of cultural genocide. All of this was Dawes' intention, since he openly said that he would save the Indians only by killing their culture. Up until the New Deal and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, tribal governments and Native religions and customs were outlawed, although Congress granted all Indians citizenship for the……

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Native American History in the

The purpose of Tracks was to tell its audience about the history, which lay behind the American Natives. Albert Hurtado and Peter Inverson in their novel Major Problems in American Indian History focus this similar theme. The book intends to relate the Indian history by revealing extensive, dissension and pedagogic diversity. The novel once again points out the many problems…

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Native American Gaming in February,

It is believed that this continued onslaught of casino talk is more than a mere ploy to gain revenue for Minnesota, a state that has shown large deficits (Melmer Pp). According to William Hardaker, attorney for Shakopee Sioux, it is an attack on American Indian tribal government in that the legislators are asking the tribes to set aside sovereignty, which…

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Career Developmental Needs of Native Americans

Career Developmental Needs of Native Americans The objective of this work is to examine the career developmental needs of Native Americans and primarily those residing in urban areas and reservations and specifically those in the Southwestern portion of the United States. Historically, and as noted in the work of Delcruz (1978) social reality and historical relationships are much slower to…

Pages: 11  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Define the Treaty of Fort Laramie and What Did it Guarantee the Native Americans

¶ … Treaty of Fort Laramie and what it guaranteed the Native Americans. The Treaty of Fort Laramie is also called the Sioux Treat of 1868. It was a treaty between the United States Government and several Native American nations, which gave land ownership to them. The Treaty was an agreement between the United States and several Indian nations, including the Lakota nation, Santee Sioux, Yanktonai Sioux, and Arapaho. It was signed in 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, hence the name. It guaranteed Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and other hunting and land rights in Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. It closed the Powder River Country to whites, and ended Red Cloud's War. The treaty was very unusual at the time because it granted rights to Natives over whites. A historian notes, "The Treaty of Fort Laramie was a rare instance in which the United States negotiated a peace in which it gave the Indians everything they asked, and asked no quid pro quo in return." Later, gold was discovered in the Black Hills, and the U.S. wanted the land back. Another historian notes, "The allure of gold led the U.S. government to reconsider its commitment to the Treaty of 1868, and Indian agents were dispatched to the Black Hills to convince the Sioux to sell their land." The Sioux refused, but the U.S. took the land back in 1877 with an act of Congress. The Struggle for the Black Hills occurred as the Sioux attempted to regain ownership of the lands Congress took back. It began shortly before the 1877 land grab, and consisted of Sioux resistance to white cavalry members who were in the Black Hills supposedly to "protect" the Natives from white gold miners trespassing in the Sioux territory. However, ultimately, they attacked the Sioux for being "hostile," and two battles, the Battle of Rosebud and the Battle of the Little Bighorn were a result. The Natives won those, but eventually lost the war, and the Struggle for the Black Hills continued. It came up again in 1946, when the government formed the Indian Claims Commission and the Sioux appealed to them for Black Hills……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 3


Native Americans Earned Respect From the British

Native Americans Earned Respect From the British Were early Native Americans truly as one people with the British? Idealistically, that might be pleasant to believe. However, there is at least some truth to the notion that the British admired the Native Americans in many ways, and indeed, shared "one heart" with the settlers, at least early in the relationship. When the British first came to America, they found much to admire in the Native Americans. One historian notes, "The noble savage image was born in the first encounter with the white man and dwindled proportionately as the colonists' desire and ability to dominate the land escalated." One of the main goals of many British colonials was to befriend the Native and Christianize them, as Eliot notes in his piece on Piumbukhou. Piumbukhou is thankful for his Christianization, and attempts to bring his relatives into the fold, to share his "special" relationship with God and the English. By the late 1700s, the relationship was beginning to change, however. Colonists continually sought new land and moved westward, pushing back the Native Americans from their tribal lands. Many visitors still saw them as noble people who were becoming trouble by British influence, such as alcohol and firearms. Another writer notes, "Yet while she [a British visitor] is critical of European influence in America, especially concerning the corruption of the Native Americans with alcohol,……

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Native American Trickster Tales "Coyote,

Coyote is often cunning and shrewd, but in this tale, Skunk outwits him, and Coyote becomes the fool. The entire story takes place in nature, with no interaction by man. The Native Americans knew enough not to interfere with nature, they lived most harmoniously with it, and allowed the natural world to shape their own. In this, the Native Americans were far different from even Thoreau. He enjoyed and appreciated the natural beauty surrounding him, but he did not live "in" it, he was outside, looking in. He still walked the mile to town to visit friends and get a hot meal occasionally. The Native Americans lived on the land, and with the land. They were a part of their natural surroundings, and did not need to leave to live. This is equally apparent in "Owlwoman and Coyote." Americans today could learn some valuable lessons from the Native Americans, and even Thoreau. As a society, most of us rarely take time to really enjoy nature around us, and we certainly do not live as a part of nature. The natural world is not only diminishing, it is becoming less and less a part of our lives. We no longer have the time to sit and "smell the roses," and because of it, there is a great void in our lives. Reading these stories helps modern Americans glimpse just a little bit of the natural world, and get an idea of how much more important it used to be in the day-to-day lives of people. It is important to read and remember to get more of an appreciation of the natural world around us, and what……

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Native American and African

Native American and African Tribal Discussing with regard to Native American and African religious expression is somewhat problematic when considering the numerous religious ideas present in these two cultures. Even with this, one can easily find a series of parallels and differences when going in-depth and gaining a more complex understanding of how African tribes and Native American tribes perceive the concept of religion. The fact that religious ideas promoted by Native American tribes and African tribes are tightly connected to concepts like spirituality and a person's relationship with the natural world makes it possible for someone to comprehend why particular aspects of these two cultures might seem alike. It would be wrong to associate particular religions to either of these two communities, as one can only reach a conclusion concerning religious customs in each of the two by discovering similarities between the many cultural values that shaped religious concepts both in Native American and in African tribal communities. As a consequence, when considering religious customs in Native American history and in African tribal history, one needs to keep in mind that it is only by generalizing that he or she can come up with a certain set of principles characteristic to each culture. Animism is an important idea both in Native American religious culture and in tribal African religious culture. Native Americans and African tribes expressed particular interest in the significance of spirituality and of souls. Individuals in both cultures appeared to consider that a person needs to respect the spiritual aspect of life and concentrate on living in agreement with a set of rules in order for him or her to avoid coming across significant problems. One of the principal things emphasizing the……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0

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