ADHD and Hyperactivity Intervention Class Management … Case Study
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Age: 13 years
Reason for intervention plan
ADHD and LD (learning disability) in reading
Special educator: Mr. Sosa
Summary of Existing Data
The client, Carlos has been taking special education classes from second grade. He was transferred to Special Ed. after failing to pass first grade. He however still lags behind in reading and struggles even to identify words. Though he can handle arithmetic he struggles with comprehension. Lastly, Carlos likes going to gym class and he is very good at it. He also likes playing video games. Seemingly when it is almost gym class time he calms down and gets more attentive and this can help him achieve higher scores in assessments.
General learning environment
Carlos spends his entire day in a fully equipped special education class that is run by Mr. Sosa. He also goes to school from Monday through to Friday. The client seemingly likes going to school on Tuesdays and Thursdays since these are the days that gym class is slotted before lunch time. It is also crucial to note that there is gym class on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays in the first period and he is not as enthusiastic as he usually is on the other two days. Besides gym class, Carlos likes doing arithmetic. He however does not like reading and comprehension.
The primary problematic behavior of this client is hyperactivity or impulsiveness. This causes him to not be able to sit calmly, to lose focus, to start fidgeting and also to have undue physical movement (NHS, 2014). For instance, two minutes into the observation, Carlos requested to use thee washroom and when his teacher, Mr. Sosa, said no he proceeded to stare impassively on the reading passage, and also proceeded to chew his nails and shaking his legs aimlessly. After two minutes passed he requested again to go the washroom, a request which Mr. Sosa denied. At this point the client cursed and threw the book to the floor and proceeded to walk out of class. Another example of hyperactivity displayed by Carlos occurred during the second observation when he went to the pencil sharpener three times within five minutes.
There are two possible explanations or causes of Carlos' impulsiveness, which are: overstimulation and stress. The stress could be due to the fact that he has three other siblings meaning he thinks that he does not get enough attention from his parents. The threats of punishments and punishments themselves from his special educator, Mr. Sosa, could also explain his impulsive behavior.
Threats include the possible withdrawal of gym time for his behavior by his instructor and forms of punishments that he has also undergone include being taken to the ISS. The threats and punishments serve as negative reinforcers for Carlos. Carlos shifts the blame for his behavior to external factors (e.g. his instructor whom he at times complains that he forces him to work hard).
There are occasions where the behavior problem does not express itself, particularly at times when Carlos feels like he is in control and doing what he loves. As Carlos had reported before, he likes video games and thus the problem behavior does not manifest itself and is not likely to, in such a situation. Carlos also loves doing computations and going to gym class and he is highly likely not to be impulsive during such times. Finally, Carlos does not seem to respect or like his instructor, Mr. Sosa, possibly suggesting that assigning him to another instructor could help him change.
Planning Part 1
1. Hypothesis statement
Carlos engages in problem behavior whenever he has to do something repetitive or monotonous and during such occasions he finds it difficult to concentrate. It is hypothesized that Carlos is likely to be thinking that reading class is monotonous because he has to sit calmly and to maintain focus and potentially be asked to read a passage out loud. This monotony or repetitiveness contrasts with his desire to constantly be active or on the move. In the gym class he as much freedom to move and hence he loves the class.
2. The behavior that the client exhibits in class is positively correlated to his struggles in reading class. He has been noted to be attentive during classes before gym class, but when it comes to gym class he avoids the subject by constantly moving around, requesting to use the washrooms and acting out. He acts this way so as to avoid reading class.
3. Carlos exhibits impulsive behavior specifically after gym class, especially when it is in the morning. He also does so during reading class. The impulsive behaviors exhibited include: fidgeting, wiggling of legs and repetitively asking to go to the washrooms within short periods of time. If denied his request he then often proceeds to curse or throw books around before being taken to ISS by school security.
4. Utilizing event recording, the client will be taught to record the number of times he throws tantrums (by cursing or throwing books to the floor) and compare it with the number of times he has requested for assistance. He will be given a checklist to do this.
5. Problem behavior: hyperactivity and difficulty with reading classes thus the cursing and destroying of course material. Assignments not completed before reading class period.
Replacement behavior: properly dealing with impulsiveness/hyperactivity via the following three steps: (a) he should constantly ask for assistant from his teacher whenever he feels the impulse to leave move out of reading class (b) he should also be taught how to use physical control and self-talk to deal with the urge to move around (c) since the underlying problem is reading difficulties, this should be dealt with.
Planning Part 2
1. The client should be explained and if possible discussions should be made by the instructor about any new words or words that seem strange to him.
2. Reading should be modeled in such a way that it is engaging and not monotonous, for instance, the special educator could try pretending that reading class passages are game narratives.
3. The class special educator should be changed or the client moved to another class as the liking of the educator is crucial for the intervention to succeed.
Carlos should also be allowed to respond to questions vocally. He should also not be made to read out passages to the class unless he requests to. He should be given audio-tapes with instructional material and asked to repeat after what is said in the tapes. Reading teams should also be formed where students are allowed to read out passages aloud as a group.
The case manger and Carlos' special educator will have the responsibility of collaboratively monitoring his activities on a day-to-day basis. Each Friday Mr. Sosa should call a meeting of all the teachers and recess supervisors that interact with Carlos and review the implementation of the plan. Any time Carlos has a tantrum; Mr. Sosa should be conducted for a small meeting where it will be assessed whether the supervisor or teacher followed the plan as it was laid out.
Description of Assessment
Personal Philosophy of Behavior Management
It is my opinion that all students have a right to a learning environment that is safe and effective regardless of their ethnic, socio-economic or linguistic background. It is my belief that teachers too have that right. I also believe that the use of threats and punishments ought to be reduced in cases where learners are engaged in non-destructive activities, instead of negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement methods should be used (Hawley, 2015). Based on these beliefs it is my intention to take a positive approach to behavior management. It is crucial to work with the child and to make them feel you are not against them. To address an issue such as Carlos' impulsivity or hyperactivity, it is first important to understand the cause of the behavior. Upon coming to that understanding, one can then start looking for solutions. For the present case there are many different ways to solve it; however of the many ways there are a few that I believe will bring out the best outcomes. The way or approach has been chosen owing to the nature of the problem. It is also my belief that a teacher ought to be proactive and not just reactive. A teacher or educator can do a lot of things to prevent behavior problems. For instance, through the provision of clear rules and procedures students can easily know what to do and when to do it. This can help provide stability in the classroom. When the students have read the rules and know what is expected at a particular time, this provides stability and that is what is needed so as to meet the learning needs… [END OF PREVIEW]
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