Analysis of Kant S Critique of Judgment … Essay
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Kant's Critique of Judgment, written in 1790, examines the faculty of judgment according to Immanuel Kant. This book summarizes Kant's ideas about philosophy on the beautiful and the sublime, otherwise known as aesthetics. Kant discovered the problem of aesthetic pleasure and contrasted it to the sensual value and the good in a moral sense. He reflects on such aesthetic judgment, as the "judgments of taste." This is based on an individual's subjective feelings, which much have a universal validity. Kant believes that all reliable judgments are disinterested. Disinterestedness means taking pleasure without any purpose, "purposive without purpose," "final without end." Kant defines interest as the delight in which we connect with the representation of the real existence of an object (Kant 132). For instance, people's feelings about beauty are disinterested because people seek to appreciate beauty without a willingness to use it for a certain purpose. Kant believes a disinterested judgment is formed when a decision is provoked by sensation. This means the judgment truly gratifies and not only pleases. This is the key ground for a true judgment of taste. Disinterestedness is a space of freedom, where the pure form of art is shown. We feel it because we have some irrational understanding what the work of art is, so what the beauty is, and follow this understanding when we define the beauty: "Object, this pleasure is judged as bound up with the representation necessarily; and, consequently, not only for the subject which apprehends this form, but for every judging being in general. The object is then called beautiful" (Kant 132), which is the concept known as taste. Kant believes that it is imperative to analyze judgments of taste with aims of discovering what is essential for an object to be beautiful.
This paper argues that there are determinate and reflective judgments. Aesthetic judgments belong to reflective judgments. It is argued that there is a necessity in purposefulness of nature for the purposes of our judgment. Overall, the purposefulness of nature shapes people's faculty of judgment. There are numerous examples which support the view of the stated argument. Without this principle, scientific judgments would not hold. It would not be possible to reach the universality and exhibit the communicability in judgments about beauty. Contrary to determinate judgments, reflective ones are not grounded on rational understanding. Instead, people relate the representation of an object though imagination to the feeling of pleasure. The determining ground of these judgments is subjective because it denotes nothing in the object. However, it is objective because it relates to one's feeling of pleasure or displeasure.
In judging aesthetic judgments, Kant argues that the use of understanding when referring to the presentation of the object to give rise to cognition could be flawed. People perceive things differently, so there are perceptions of tastes, which can be erroneous. "It is an empirical judgment [to say] that I perceive and judge an object with pleasure. But it is an a priori judgment [to say] that I find it beautiful, i.e. I attribute this satisfaction necessarily to everyone" (Kant 134).He clarifies that taste is the ability to determine what is beautiful. He, therefore, warns that using common imagination and the feeling of pleasure to represent an object could be erroneous and so, it is imperative to evaluate our perception on what we refer as beautiful because, without this critical evaluation, our judgments on what is beautiful could be invalid and irrational. Instead, he advocates for the use of imagination in referring the presentation to the subjects and his feeling of displeasure or pleasure. He further argues that cognitive and logical judgments do not form part of a judgment of taste. According to Kant, a judgment of taste is an aesthetic one whose determining basis can only be subjective. However, he argues that any reference of presentations including the sensations can be objective in an empirical presentation: except the pleasurable and displeasurable feelings that do not designate objectivity. In this case, the subject only feels him or herself regarding how the presentation affects him or her. Kant thus acknowledges the use of imagination and feelings of displeasure or pleasure in regards to aesthetics and admits that cognitive and logical judgments do not form part of a judgment of taste. According to Kant, a judgment of taste is ultimately an aesthetic one whose determining basis can only be subjective. But people still feel that such judgments are universal, even if they are subjective. Even when people are speaking of the same object, the pleasurable feelings they have are not objectively the same.
Kant supports his critique by arguing that using one's cognitive power in apprehending a regular purposive building is not the same as being conscious of this presentation with a liking sensation. In this case, Kant states that a reference to the presentation of the subject is necessary, for instance, the person's feeling about life, under the aspect of the feeling of pleasure or displeasure. He adds on that this aspect forms the base of an indispensable judging and discriminating power. He notes that this power does not add up to cognition but just evaluates the given presentation on the subject with the intact presentation power. It is through this presentation power that the mind becomes conscious when feeling its state. Presentations provided in a judgment could be empirical, therefore, aesthetic. A judgment made about presentations is logical if we refer them to the object. On the other hand, rational presentations are still aesthetic if their preferred subject is solely to himself or herself.
Reflective judgments play a crucial role in Kant's explanation of the concept of beauty and how individuals perceive beauty because aesthetic judgments belong to these reflective judgments. The significance of reflective judgments in Kant's work is attributable to the fact that they involve doing something or being active instead of being a sheer coordinator of intuitions and concepts. This implies that reflective judgments are the best place to look for a priori legislating principle in judgment. If this principle exists, Kant argues that it would affirm the suitability of all nature for judgment in general.
According to Kant, aesthetic judgments, which is mostly refers to as judgments of taste are usually based on a person's subjective feelings though they have universal validity. People lings and perceptions about beauty tend to vary from feelings regarding pleasure and moral goodness since they are disinterested. Individuals are involved in pursuits to possess pleasurable objects and promoting moral goodness. While engaging in these pursuits, human beings simply appreciate beauty without feelings driven to identify certain uses for it. Despite being based on a person's subjective feelings, the universal validity of aesthetic judgments is fueled by the fact that they are disinterested. In essence, personal needs and wants always come into play when an individual is appreciating beauty, which implies that aesthetic response and judgments are universally applicable. Moreover, individuals derive aesthetic pleasure from the interface between imagination and understanding with regards to perceiving an object.
Through these explanations, Kant effectively differentiates the beautiful from the transcendent. The appeal and attractiveness of beautiful objects is instantly apparent though the transcendent influences ineffability and obscurity. When differentiation the beautiful from the sublime, Kant further contends that an individual's sense of sublime is strongly linked to his/her faculty of reason or thinking. In this case, the faculty of thinking or reason has concepts of absolute completeness and liberty. Even though some beautiful objects like clouds or magnificent buildings stretch our minds, they are incomparable to the reason's concepts of absolute completeness and liberty or freedom. Consequently, capturing sublime objects enables us to understand these ideas of reason in order to the transcendent to reside in reason itself rather than in sublime objects.
Kant's writings about aesthetics are not only historically very important but they also make sense in the modern world, especially with regards to reasoning and psychology. The significance of Kant's writings and work on aesthetics is because it differs from literary and art criticism that have existed for a long period of time. Moreover, Kant's writings are significant in the modern world in relation to psychology since they effectively explain why things are or not beautiful as well as the concept of beauty in a comprehensive manner. In his writings, Kant not only explains this concept but also proceeds to demonstrate how people develop the perception of beauty.
An analysis of these writings demonstrates that Kant based his explanations and work on subjective feelings and his difficulties with teleology through which he attempts to disprove all metaphysical proofs of God. Since Kant is not an atheist, he does not attempt to force people not to believe in God but primarily focuses on explaining the concept of beauty and individual's perception of beauty based on aesthetic judgments. In this process, Kant postulates the presence of an intelligent designer through his arguments regarding the patterns and formal perfection in nature. Through these arguments, Kant argues that beauty is objective because failure to consider… [END OF PREVIEW]
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