Analyzing the Behavioral Consultation … Capstone Project
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Dufrene, B. A., Lestremau, L., & Zoder-Martell, K. (2014). DIRECT BEHAVIORAL CONSULTATION: EFFECTS ON TEACHERS' PRAISE AND STUDENT DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR. Psychology in The Schools, 51(6), 567-580.
Robinson and Watson (1996) have explained the direct form of behavioral consultation in this work. This form concentrates on inculcating skills in educators by means of direct teacher-student interactions all through the course of consultation. I have understood throughout my study and career that the consultation role may prove to be highly useful and satisfying for school-level psychologists and an especially helpful resource for school faculty, including teachers, in dealing with current issues as well as avoiding future ones. Despite consultation's value in the school psychology arena, a majority of graduate programs provide a limited amount of coursework on the field, and staff members in the school psychology division usually have different levels of practical experience when it comes to offering consultation services. Thus, it can be safely stated that training for the consultation role has to encompass a profound insight into the process as well as skills necessary for working in interdisciplinary teams, working in unique school system organizations, intervention implementation in the classroom setting, and development of collaborative relationships (Crawford, 2014).
Mueller, M. M., & Nkosi, A. (2007). State of the Science in the Assessment and Management of Severe Behavior Problems in School Settings: Behavior Analytic Consultation to Schools. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 3(2), 176-202.
Right since my study days, I have understood that kids suffering from developmental disabilities, mental retardation, autism and other pervasive developmental syndromes, and acute cognitive impairments typically demonstrate serious destructive behaviors at school. Such behavior is capable of having harmful impacts on such children, their friends and classmates, and the general classroom (Burke, Hagan-Burke, & Sugai, 2003). It is clear that elimination or reduction of destructive conduct at public schools is imperative.
I also understood that, under the Behavior Analytic Consultation to Schools (BACS) model, a consultant assesses the potential success of the chosen treatment with high level of integrity before providing implementation-related training to faculty. This is essential in order to make sure the treatment doesn't fail on account of inadequacy (Mueller, Piazza, et al.; 2003, Sterling Turner, Watson, & Moore, 2002). Demonstrating efficient treatment coupled with superior level of integrity represents the sole means to comprehend intervention impacts. Treatment implementation without a grasp of the integrity level of implementation will merely enable one to deduce whether or not a given behavior was decreased, and not the reason for its reduction. For instance, my personal experiment in this regard gleaned the following outcome: if an educator expected to commend a student after every five minutes for not exhibiting aggressive behavior does so once in seven minutes instead, intervention effectiveness as planned (praise once in five minutes) is not known irrespective of the success of the seven-minute intervention. Hence, and for having documented effectiveness with a strategy that may fail if improperly implemented, expert consultants adopting the BACS approach carry out preliminary evaluation of treatment.
SHERIDAN, S. M., WARNES, E. D., WOODS, K. E., BLEVINS, C. A., MAGEE, K. L., & ELLIS, C. (2009). An Exploratory Evaluation of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation to Promote Collaboration Among Family, School, and Pediatric Systems: A Role for Pediatric School Psychologists. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 19(2), 106-129.
Of the multiple models using which family members (including parents) can take part in the learning process, those supporting meaningful partnerships and active collaboration between teachers and student families have been backed (Christenson & Sheridan, 2001). CBC or conjoint behavioral consultation denotes a partnership service delivery model in which primary caregivers (e.g., parents), service providers, and teachers team up to satisfy the developmental needs of children, deal with concerns, and attain success by supporting every involved party's capabilities. I discovered that CBC generates opportunities for schools and student families to join hands over a shared interest, and utilize and promote the strengths and skills of school staff and family members. Needs are determined and dealt with through the adoption of a data-based, systematic approach, via cooperative and reciprocal teacher-parent interactions, with a consultant's (for instance, school psychologist's) support and guidance (Sheridan, Clarke, Marti, Burt, & Rohik, 2005).
McDougal, J. L., Nastasi, B. K., & Chafouleas, S. M. (2005). Bringing research into practice to intervene with young behaviorally challenging students in public school settings: Evaluation of the behavior consultation team (BCT) project. Psychology in The Schools, 42(5), 537-551.
Studies depict that structured consultative models can result in teachers' utilization of more effectual pre-referral interventions. The behavioral approach is one of the empirically researched and most widely accepted consultation models for employment in educational settings. The process incorporates the following four steps: identification of an issue, issue assessment, implementation of strategy, and strategy evaluation. I discovered that educators find it more challenging to maintain positive effects of intervention after consultation, indicating that though the teacher maintained the positive effects of the intervention, this continuance would possibly be less taxing and more effective if consultants carried on providing continuous support to their case and providing greater assistance via intervention generalization, fading, and review (McDougal, et al., 2005).
Hart, K. C., Graziano, P. A., Kent, K. M., Kuriyan, A., Garcia, A., Rodriguez, M., & Pelham, W. E. (2016). Early Intervention for Children with Behavior Problems in Summer Settings. Journal of Early Intervention, 38(2), 92-117 26p. doi:10.1177/1053815116645923
To a majority of young students, the developmental activities of attaining social competence and behavioral and emotional self-regulation proceed easily. But quite a large number of preschoolers and toddlers portray behaviors that are sufficiently serious to make caregivers (parents, educators, etc.) concerned. I discovered that subsequent to the development of a behavior support strategy, children's caregivers implement it in their natural environment. Teachers in early care and academic settings apply the strategy within children's everyday activities (including play), while family members apply the strategy in the home setting (Powell, Dunlap, & Fox, 2006).
Smith, H. M., Evans-McCleon, T. N., Urbanski, B., & Justice, C. (2015). Check-In/Check-Out Intervention with Peer Monitoring for a Student with Emotional-Behavioral Difficulties. Journal of Counseling & Development, 93(4), 451-459.
The Check-In/Check-Out (CICO) intervention necessitates checking-in of students at the start of the school day with the coordinator assigned to them, who hands them their points card on a daily basis, and asks them to display their preparedness for the school day ahead (Sanchez, 2013). From what I have learnt, peer tutor employment in CICO might be a potential direction towards which the intervention could progress. CICO's efficiency as a widespread secondary intervention employed in the three-tier system will improve with added peer-tutor employment. CICO's feasibility will improve, and school faculty time with the intervention will reduce. Furthermore, it will increase student involvement with the Positive Behavior Support framework of the school.
Ruiz, M. I., Smith, T. N., Naquin, G. M., Morgan-D'atrio, C., & Dellinger, A. B. (2014). Assessing the Implementation Fidelity of Check-In Check-Out Behavioral Interventions in Elementary and Middle Schools. Preventing School Failure, 58(1), 42. doi:10.1080/1045988X.2012.755667
One key element of CICO is its data-based approach to decision making, for monitoring and gauging the progress of students, making adjustments to intervention, improving implementation fidelity, and communicating with others. From this work, I discovered that an efficient data-based system for decision making needs to incorporate: Well-defined questions targeting the data that must be gathered; Quantifiable definitions of data to be gathered; Efficient data collection procedures and tools; Efficient techniques for data entry into a system for storing and analyzing it; Sound procedures to summarize and report data for individual questions; and Sound procedures for data employment in guiding decision-making and actions (Everett, Sugai, Fallon, Simonsen, & O'Keeffe, 2011)
McKENNEY, E. W., WALDRON, N., & CONROY, M. (2013). The Effects of Training and Performance Feedback During Behavioral Consultation on General Education Middle School Teachers' Integrity to Functional Analysis Procedures. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 23(1), 63-85.
Academic settings accommodate a number of students suffering from learning disabilities, developmental disabilities, and major behavioral issues, necessitating sound school-based problem interventions. Child response to interventions constitutes the key measure of intervention success and the foundation for scientist practitioners' determination of whether or not to intensify, alter, or cease the intervention. If the result of intervention implementation is an improvement in student behavior, it is assumed by many that the intervention has succeeded. My personal observation is that, at first, feedback on a daily basis might be needed for attaining high treatment integrity levels; however, fading to biweekly and weekly feedback can ensure better treatment integrity maintenance. For maximizing performance feedback effectiveness, it needs to always incorporate data review concentrating on faculty, and not student, behavior, clear correction in case of integrity errors, and praise for proper responses. Lastly, data review must include staff performance graphs (Fiske, 2008).
Crawford, S. (2014). Consultation in Schools. PAA School Psychology Committee.
Everett, S., Sugai, G., Fallon, L., Simonsen, B., & O'Keeffe, B. (2011). SCHOOL-WIDE TIER II INTERVENTIONS: CHECK-IN CHECK-OUT CHECK-IN CHECK-OUT. Center for Behavioral Education and Research.
Fiske, K. E. (2008).… [END OF PREVIEW]
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