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Analyzing the Earth ScienceChapter Writing

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Earth Science

Erosion is a major issue to regions in the proximity of massive water bodies. A shoreline is purposed to ensure that erosion does not continue unabated. In order to ascertain the most effective move to stabilize shorelines, a number of factors ought to be taken into account, which includes erosion types, erosion amount, erosion kinds and the types of water bodies that are involved. The most popular kind of stabilization methods are seawalls, nevertheless, natural vegetation can also be employed to help abet erosion. In essence, seawalls are barriers created to preclude waves and their energy from colliding onto the shore and taking away the existing soil. Soil erosion is not the sole issue that takes place; the unremitting flow of the water can cause the development of gullies. Natural vegetation stabilization methods feature salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and other native plants to sustain and construct coastal habitats. Natural stabilizers decrease coastal erosion and provide appreciated habitat utilizing native vegetation, sand, and organic material. Natural Vegetation can also help safeguard the toe of existing seawalls from additional erosion, if the conditions are appropriate for plant growth (Florida.us, 2016).

Question 2

Moist, warm air, being lighter than cold air, expands and rises in the atmosphere. The rising water vapor condenses and creates small water precipitations, they aggregate to make up the clouds. When the water vapor cools down, the low temperature of air lowers its ability to accommodate more water vapor. Upward Vertical Motion (UVM), also referred to as lift takes place when the surface of the earth is heated and the air starts to rise. Cold air can also generate or increase lift. A moist adiabatic cover will increase and cool up until it gets to saturation and condenses. The dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) is the rate of temperature decline with altitude for unsaturated air intensifying under adiabatic conditions. Unsaturated air has less than 100% comparative humidity and this implies that its real temperature is greater than its dew point. In particular, the word adiabatic implies that no heat transference takes place into or out of the parcel. Air has low current conductivity, and the bodies of air entangled are considerably huge, and therefore transference of heat by conduction is marginally small. Considering these conditions, when the air rises, for example by convection, it expands, because the pressure is lower at higher altitudes. expansion of the air parcel, pushes the air on its periphery. Taking into consideration that the parcel does work but does not attain any heat, it ends up losing internal energy causing a decrease in its temperature. The rate of temperature reduction is 9.8 °C for every 1,000 m (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 2011).

Question 3

Breakers form when orbital particle motion at the trough of the wave slackens more speedily than at the crest. The water at the crest of the wave will have a frontward movement and outpace the base of the wave. There are dissimilar kinds of breakers, variously accounted for as plungers and spillers. In particular, a distinction is made from each other by the swiftness and extent of commotion with which they disburse their energy. As for plunging breakers, they tend to form on steep beach slopes, break unexpectedly, and then disburse their energy with a crash. On the other hand, spilling breakers are found over beaches with gentle slopes, are embodied by tempestuous water flowing down the face of the wave, exist for a longer duration compared to plunging breakers, and take place more frequently than plunging breakers do. Waves typically approach the coast at an angle so they begin to break at the end closest to shore and the breaking will progress along the length of the wave crest as it continues to move toward the beach. (National Ocean Service, 2016).

Question 4

Weather can be defined as the atmospheric condition on any given day. For instance, it could be 65 degrees and sunny or it could be 10 degrees with snow. On the other hand, climate is the average of that weather over a longer period, say 3-4 months. For instance, one can anticipate snow in the Southeast in December, or for it to be sunny and humid in the Northeast in June. In addition, the climate record takes into account extreme values, for instance amount of rainfall and also peak temperatures. Therefore, the aspect of climate change encompasses changes in long-term averages of everyday weather. Weather can change from one minute to the other, one hour to the other, one day to the other, and one season to the other. On the other hand, climate is the average of weather over time and space. Weather mirrors short-term conditions of the atmosphere whereas climate is the average weather of everyday for a prolonged period at a particular location (National Ocean Service, 2016).

Question 5

Two reasons can elucidate why summer temperatures in coastal locations in Southern California are cooler compared to coastal locations at the same latitude in Georgia. One of the reasons is altitude; as the surface of the earth maintains heat from the sun, becomes warm and thereafter makes the air just above the surface to be warm. California is closer to sea level compared to Georgia and that explains the warmer temperatures. The second reason is that there might be warmer winds coming from the ocean and that is why Georgia is cooler as it is far off from the ocean and California much warmer owing to its proximity to the sea body (Bell, 2003).

Question 6

If the earth were not rotating, this would lead to a convection cell, with warm and moist rising air at the equator, spreading in the direction of the poles along the top of the troposphere. Thereafter it would cool as it shifts poleward and then plunging at the poles. Once back at the earth's surface, the dry and cold air would circulate back in the direction of the equator to turn out being warm once again (National Ocean Service, 2016).

Question 7

In the course of the full moon, one is likely to see crab for the reason that the crab, being a soft shell creature, necessitates to molt. More than two thirds of invertebrates are active at night and the full moon is the brightest period for majority of their waking hours. The relation between the three is that there is a high likelihood of finding more crabs during a full moon for the reason that at this time the tides are unusually high or low. More crabs molt in the course of the full moon owing to higher levels of water and therefore ate seen more in the tidal zones.

Question 8

There is a perceived seasonal difference in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 levels in the atmosphere increase and decrease over the course of different seasons, with plants taking up and consuming more of the greenhouse gas as they grow in the times of spring and summer and expending it as leaves die in times of fall and winter seasons. Another aspect is that as more CO2 is radiated from the burning of fossil fuels and also other human activities, the issue of CO2 in atmosphere has gained more significance (AtmosNews, 2003).

Question 9

Balloons are rising owing to buoyancy that is exerted by the atmosphere on the balloons. This is due to the dislodgment of cool air with hot air inside the balloon. The balloons are filled with hot air. In turn, this hot air dislodges the colder atmospheric air. As a result, this generates buoyancy force, which thus lifts the balloons. It is imperative to note that water has the capacity to absorb heat when it vaporizes. As a result, this decreases the atmospheric temperature, which prompts the temperature gradient in the atmosphere as the altitude rises. This generates atmospheric stability.

Question 10

The greenhouse effect is one of the factors that have a direct effect on the biosphere's conditions. Greenhouse effect has been recognized as a major contributor to the world's environmental problems, but it also has a distinguished constructive influence on the planet. Life on earth would be difficult in the absence of the atmospheric condition caused by the greenhouse gases and their effect. The greenhouse effect is significant on earth because it gives a lot to the survival of life on earth. Devoid of the greenhouse effect, the earth's temperature would be comparable to the conditions experienced on the moon. Without any atmosphere to intervene, fluctuations of temperature on the lunar surface could vary between 134 degrees Celsius in the course of the day and down to -153 degrees Celsius at night. This is what could have been on earth devoid of the greenhouse effect and therefore the environment would have been aggressive and harsh for living conditions. Secondly, the moon is essentially the same distance from the sun as the earth. The earth does not get as cold as the moon at night because the earth has… [END OF PREVIEW]

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