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Analyzing Knowledge Integration and Synthesis of Theory and ResearchResearch Paper

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Stephanie Rose

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Doctoral Comprehensive Examination-Education

Integration and synthesis of relevant theory and conceptual principles

Faculty Use Only

Stephanie- You did a nice job on this overall. Remember, the key is to demonstrate a well-developed focus and organizational pattern that is logical with concepts and ideals. There are times where I think you can provide more focus vs. generalization by providing specific and concrete examples. There are times where you dive into contrast and you did really nice on those areas. Elaboration on key topic areas is critical.

Furthermore, I would like for you to concentrate on APA formatting because there are areas where you can improve. These include in-text citations. Remember, in-text citations must be within the sentence and placed prior to the period. You cited these after the period (see your paper for further comments and examples of this). Additionally, a page number is only needed for direct quotations. I encourage you to paraphrase and avoid direct quotations in most instances. It is recommended to use about one direct quote per every 10 pages, so direct quotes should be used sparingly.

You are on the right path. You should perform well if you can clean up APA with in-text citations and provide more elaboration and focus in the right areas. Contact me if you have questions and best of luck as you continue to prepare.

Referencing at least five peer-reviewed journal articles, respond to the following questions:

How can a theory guide or inform practice?

What are the issues involved in translating theory into practice?

Identify at least an additional five peer-reviewed articles (published in the last 5 years) that address how one of the theories you discussed in question 1 has actually been applied. Critically evaluate the appropriateness of the uses to which the theory has been applied. Consider, for example: Are the applications premised upon an accurate understanding of the theory and its scope? Do the applications "go beyond" what the theory claims? Is the reasoning linking application and theory sound?


With fresh student groups enrolling in education, constant evolutions in student affairs systems are needed for meeting the unique requirements of students. Student affairs practitioners are required to make student transition easier through adoption of programs and policies that aid transition. Students face challenges when moving between educational levels. Recent literature has focused greatly on this topic, as transition is apparently related to 'mental health crises' among students (Eisner, 2011). Students unable to deal with such transition find it hard to complete their degrees/diplomas and achieve educational requirements for enjoying civic and economic security (Bonanni, 2015, p. 1-2; Conley, Kirsch, Dickson, & Bryant, 2014; Mattanah, Ayers, Brand, & Brooks, 2010; Eisner, 2011). Generally, educational institutions' environment, culture, expectations, and structure differ across the nation. But implementation of transition initiatives in school can promote student success. College and high school leaders can collaborate and aid student success. Systems and programs have been developed by educators for assisting students with transitions from secondary school to high school and from high school to college.

Numerous school advisory initiatives have been introduced across America for aiding students with transition. But McClure, Jones and Yonezawa (2010) have described typical program-related issues. Researchers have highlighted, in particular, many reasons for teacher resistance to advisory initiatives and for their eventual failure. They have revealed that a number of administrators might show disinterest; a majority of teachers lack adequate professional development or formal preparation to serve as advisors; and teachers have no time to make advisory plans and preferring devoting their time to preparing for lessons (Tocci, Hochman, & Allen, 2005). Other challenges to program success include: teacher preparation for the advisor role; time block creation for advisories; workload balancing for teachers; advisory program description and notification to parents; cultivation of parent, student and teacher input; and program model construction on the basis of scholarly reports and research (Brown & Anafara, 2001; Johnson, 2009). This paper hence looks at the ways in which programs for school advisory are meant to help, and the actual assistance they offer to students during transfer from one level of education to another, with regard to their careers, independence and leadership. This research will involve evaluation of transition-based notions, and then concentrate one notion, and test it using an example, the way this theory has been used, transition-related issues, and provide recommendations.

Literature Review

Transition theories

i. Validation Theory

For quite a long time there are many transfer students who have been classified differently from other students. Transfer students in community colleges are in most cases racially different, first-generation, low income and older than other students. To generalize the community college students is deemed too reaching, though the report by The College Board (2011) stated that "community colleges tend to enroll more students from minority groups than the four-year universities and colleges." (p. 7). For this reason, it is important that students' need feel validated: Validation experience within and without class are significant, especially with those student groups that are nontraditional, e.g. first generation students, returning adults, low-income students, and many working class minority students and women. Most of the nontraditional students join college without direction, and in need of guidance that is not demeaning.

Educational validation centers on offering help to students, so that they can find ways to achieve academic success, whereas interpersonal validation centers on social and individual growth. However, the difference between involvement and validation is obvious, especially with regard to the students who are nontraditional. The theory of validation is of much significance on the matter regarding transfer students, but it ignores the experience one has during transfer from institution to institution. The process is unaccounted for (Lazarowicz, 2015). In addition, the validation process concentrates more on those external aspects that one cannot control, and leaves out the aspect of self. Transfer students need to know how they are involved with transition. Staff and support play a significant role in transition, but the influencers of transition by transfer students go beyond people.

ii. Bean and Metzner's Attrition Model

This was a model established to explain the reasons for dropping out by students. It was intended to look at college adjustment from a psychological perspective. This notion was established based on commuting, part time and older students. Meta-analysis of the studies conducted earlier showed a model, which incorporated a number of variables like the students' environment, demographic and background, academic, social integration and psychological outcomes, intention to drop out and leave. It is seen as compensatory in that, where some areas lack, other areas can be used to increase the possibility of retaining students. There is a complementary suggestion for this model, that, in a case where there was low academic support but good environment, it would be possible to retain the students (Lazarowicz, 2015).

This model, however, does not acknowledge that in case one of the factors that students access in a situation is changed, whether self, strategies or support, it may change the results completely. It exaggerates the ability for one area to compensate another, but also gives the chance to be able to view each of the students as a single person (Lazarowicz, 2015). It also ignores the transition process that takes place. Acknowledging the possibility of the views of these elements may change with time would influence the final cause of students not persisting.

iii. Smedley, Myers, and Harrell's Stress-Coping Model

This model is meant to create better understanding of the effect of stress on the minority students' adjustment. Though the concept of transition differs from adjustment, it is expected that the transition process requires a certain level of adjustment. It uses 3 aspects; socio cultural, individual and psychological stressors, and approaches towards stress-coping (Lazarowicz, 2015). The theory unfairly concentrates on the demerits of adjustment, suggesting that transition is what brings about stress. It is important not to disregard the importance of this notion. It acknowledges individual characteristics of people, the presence of stress-causing events and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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