Analyzing the Social Essays … Essay
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¶ … SELF-EVALUATIONS, VIEWS OF GOD, AND INTRINSIC or EXTRINSIC RELIGIOUS MOTIVATION
Core self-evaluation talks about a higher-order system that includes four established qualities in personality literature: generalized self-efficacy, self-esteem, low neuroticism, as well as internal locus of control. Researches that have assessed how the different procedures of religiosity are related to each component of major self-evaluation display no distinct model of relationships. This absence of a distinct model may be because most of the previous researches failed with this regard to guide researches with theories. The study, therefore, makes use of both studies and theories that are related to core self-evaluations, views about God and religious motivation to build and examine the four different personality traits.
Researches carried out in the past have not found any distinct style of relationships between the different measures of religiosity and personal traits like locus on control, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. According to Smither and Walker (2015), core self-evaluations as a form of higher-order system includes four established qualities in personality literature: generalized self-efficacy, self-esteem, low neuroticism, as well as internal locus of control. Simply put, core self-evaluations include a major evaluation of your worth and abilities. Positive and favourable self-evaluation has a positive association with both physical and psychological health, life satisfaction, happiness and well-being. Different researches have looked into how religiosity is related to any of the components of these core self-evaluations; locus of control, generalized self-efficacy, self-esteem and neuroticism (Smither & Walker, 2015). Smither and Walker (2011) did not find any reliable pattern of relationships, with some of the studies, submitting a report of positive relationships, some negative relationships, and some no relationship at all.
Core Self-evaluations and Religious Motivation
Religion, since its inception in the 19th century in the United States and Europe, has been very important in the psychology field. The psychology of religion focuses on all the disciplines, issues, and themes that pay attention to how humans experience spirituality and religion. The entire focus is on the individual: relationships, beliefs, experiences, behaviours, as well as consciousness as it relates to both supra- and trans-human entities, dimensions, or beings perceived by individuals, groups, and cultures as important factors. Religious psychologists equally know the impact of these groups, institutions and cultures on how religion and spirituality is constructed (Rambo & Harr, 2012).
Modern forms of the popular saying, All Men By Nature Desire To Know, involve the assertion that one major mechanism that supports religious beliefs is a pure cognitive craving to gain an understanding or the belief that religion, on its own, is a type of knowledge...gives answers to pre-existing and external problems of meaning (Hood, Hill & Spilka, 2009 p.15)
The simple answer religion gives to people is one thing that attracts people to religion: it says the truth, and some believe that no other claim to truth can compete with the one religion speaks. The gaps that exist in what we know and understand about the world and life is filled with religion, and gives a good sense of security. This is mostly when people are faced with disaster and death. Therefore, religion is a normal, functional, and natural development in which people are intellectually and emotionally prepared to positively meet the aspects of existence that cannot be manipulated through the reinterpretation of the entire situation (Hood, Hill & Spilka, 2009).
According to Smither and Walker (2015), religious persons have been intrinsically motivated as people who see their involvement in religion as a goal on its own. Religious orientation has played an important role in the psychology of religion because it looks at major motivational themes that motivate a lot of religious thoughts and behaviours. According to self-concordance theory, there are four reasons why people choose to pursue a goal, and people may choose one or more of them. There are external reasons why a goal may be pursued, for example, to satisfy others or attain results, and to avoid negative feelings such as shame; this is because the individual holds on to the belief that the goal is of utmost importance or due to the enjoyment it provides. When you pursue goals for any of these last two reasons, they show autonomous motives, such as personal values. Contrarily, if the goal is pursued due to the first two reasons, they show controlled motives, such as motives and forces that come from outside the individual. Studies show that people who have positive core self-evaluations are likely to chase self-concordant (intrinsic and autonomous) goals to a higher extent than the people whose core self-evaluations are less favourable. The link between positive self-evaluation and going after goals for both intrinsic and value-congruent reasons should be related positively to intrinsic religious beliefs and related negatively to extrinsic religious beliefs (Smither & Walker, 2015).
Core Self-evaluations and Views of God
According to Davis, Moriarty, and Mauch (2013), the concept of God is a theological set of beliefs held by an individual on any specific divine attachment figure's qualities (p.52). In recent times, making use of concept mapping, and punitive nurturant again materialize as a major fundamental of the images of God. According to Davis, et al. (2013) relationship experiences with friends and caregivers result in contained knowledge on how an individual should relate with other humans, which will in turn lead to a corresponding, implied knowledge on how to see God. In agreement with the argument of Davis, et al. (2013), other researches carried out on young adults showed that the nurturance parents give their children was linked with children believing God to be a kind of nurturing. Contrastingly, when parents administered punishment and judgement, it was linked with judging and punishing images of God in young adults. According to Smither and Walker (2015), the way an individual sees himself has a huge impact on how he sees God. According to Smither and Walker (2015), any theology centred on an affectionate God has a cognitive compatibility for people who have high self-esteem, while it might not be compatible or comfortable for people who have low self-esteem. This shows that people who hold poor views about God might see God in a more negative and punitive light. In conclusion, Stroope, Draper, and Whitehead (2013) discovered a healthy link that exists between affectionate images of God and a deep sense of living a meaningful and purposeful life.
Another important point worthy of note is that people who have positive core self-evaluation tend to approach all life situations with a positive attitude, while people who have negative core self-evaluation tend to approach life situations with a negative attitude. In the words of Smither and Walker (2015), with regards to individuals with more negative core self-evaluations, while people who have positive core self-evaluations were likely to see God as a loving God and unlikely to see God as being punitive. They were equally unlikely to have a fundamental religious motivation. No noteworthy connection between core self-evaluation and fundamental religious motivation. Going by the concept-based arguments contained in the introduction, it seems a bit naive to anticipate a mere relationship connecting core self-evaluations and religiosity. Rather, it seems that core self-evaluation are positively related to a number of religious attitudes (Seeing God as loving) and related negatively to every other religious attitudes ( fundamental religious motivation and seeing God as punitive) (Smither & Walker, 2015).
In the last few decades, an increasing number of studies that focus on religious involvement give significant proof for the vital role it plays in our daily life, health and well-being. Religious involvement can be viewed as a multi-dimensional procedure, which deals with personal beliefs and experiences that have connection with religion and involves public or private overt behaviours, goals, beliefs, values, as well as subjective experiences. Several studies and reviews have concluded that generally, a positive relationship exists between several aspects of religious association and well-being. For example, both attending church activities frequently and fundamental religiosity are associated with practicing better health habits, like eating behaviour, use of alcohol, and sexual practices. The main focus of studying religious involvement in the relationships that exist between it and their general well-being, are affected by age. Future studies show that religious participation in adulthood can foresee both physical and psychological health several years later in life. Additionally, several empirical works recommend that religious anticipation later in life is connected to a longer life, adapting to stress more easily, reduced physical deformity, increased levels of subjective well-being, swift recovery from depressive cases and higher life satisfaction.
CSE-Core Self-Evaluation is a unique form of self-concept, and stands for basic evaluations that people create about themselves, others, and the world at large. It is composed of four different traits that relate to personality: (a) self-esteem, a person's sense of self-worth; (b) general self-efficacy, an assessment of one's ability to perform in different situations; (c) neuroticism, the ability to express negative emotions; and (d) locus of control, the belief that outcomes are dependent upon personal behaviour or external forces. Though the relationship that exists between religious… [END OF PREVIEW]
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