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Emergency Response"Literature Review" Chapter

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TERMS AND DEFINTION

Disasters

Emergency management / disaster management

Emergency Preparedness

Resilience

Community resilience

Vulnerability

EFFECTIVE EMERGENCY MManagement

CHALLENGES IN EFFECTIVE EMERGENCY READINESS

Business CONTINUITY AND EMERGENCY Management

THE ROLE OF EMERGENCY IN OMAN

RESILIENSE AND THE EDUCATION INDUSTRY

ADD THE OTHER ELEMENTS WHICH FITS IN THE STUDY FROM THE LIST I SENT (LAST ONE)

THERE WILL BE NEED FOR PARAPHRASE LATER

TOTAL WORDS ( 5000 ) WORDS

THERE IS A NOTE FOR FRAMWORK

MAKE THE LIST OF REFERENCES

This chapter is comprisesd of the literature review regarding community resilience and emergency preparedness in the context of emergency/disaster management. Additionally It will additionally discuss the general terms and definitinons that includes all aspects related to emergency management and preparedness specifying the terms is coveredutilised within this study. Furthermore, the definitions will further include all the measures taken when approaching the onset of the devastating events, including preparatory and long-term measures, to reduce the devastating impacts. It also includes the planning and implementation of measures to reduce losses from the anticipatedexpected natural and industrial disasters. Finally it discusses the concept of emergency management in Oman, and overlook examinesinto the measures taken as a result of recent natural disasters that devestated the country and awakend policymakers to the importance of integrating emergency management into community development. In- conclusion, it will heighlight the higher education sector community and resiliensce. Comment by lsx934: Here do you mean it will highlight the resilience of the higher education sector and the community or just the Higher education sector?

2.2 TERMS AND DEFINITION

In order for the success of community resilience and their emergency prepardeness, it is important that realevant terminology is clearly understood by all and that applied all consistently in both theory and practice. According to Quarantelli (1995:224) "a:A main reason why we need clarification is becauase otherwise scholars who think they are communicating with one other are really talking of somewhat different phenonmena." Comment by lsx934: A direct quote will need " around it

2.2.1 Disasters

The Center of Research and Epidemiology of Disasters (2006 ), is defininges disaster as, it is an unforeseen event, which causes huge destruction, damage and human suffering. It overwhelms local capability and capacity, and necessitating an international and national level assistance (CRED, 2010). Disasters are divided into three categories., sSuch as manmade disasters, technological disasters and natural disasters (CERD, 2010).Across the world people face different and a wide variety of disasters, which are arising due to health issues, policy and weather related shocks (Fafchamps, 2001; Dercon,2005). Almost each year, a natural or men human made disaster affects human beings across the world. Earthquakes, Tornadostornados, heavy rains, and hHurricanes resulted in millions of population's deaths and many more people become disabled for their whole life (Glaser et.al, 2007 pp. 93). These types of disasters not only affect an individual's physiology as well as but theythese disasters have an eaffect on the psychology of an individual. Millions of people become homeless due to these disasters, tand thushey also become economically impacted due to these natural disaster. These disasters would not be so distracteddeveasting if these disastersthey were not affecting at-risk populations. International disaster Databases provide appropriate data about the aftermathevidences of these disasters, and showed show an apparent increase apparent ofin the frequency of natural disasters (Kimberely, 2000).Table 1 shows some of the notable disasters throughout history. Comment by lsx934: Need to clarify this sentence and reword it if you want to keep it in, I don't really know what it is trying to say?

Event

Year

Mediterranean earthquake (Egypt and Syria)

1,100,000

Shaanzi earthquake (China)

830,000

Calcutta typhoon (India)

300,000

Caribbean hurricane (Martinique, St. Eustatius, Barbados)

22,000

Tamboro volcano (Indonesia)

80,000

Influenza epidemic (world)

1917

20,000,000

Yangtze River flood (China)

1931

3,000,000

Famine (Russia)

1932

5,000,000

Bangladesh cyclone (Bangladesh)

1970

300,000

Tangshan earthquake (China)

1976

655,000

Tsunami (Asia)

2004

300,000

Cyclone Nargis in (Burma)

2008

146,000

Sichuan Earthquake

2008

87,150

Source: St. Louis University, 1997; NBC News, 2004.

There is Ananother significant type of disaster also existsing across the world and this disaster is known as manmade human made disaster. Although it is somay seem surprising that, how a human being can create a disaster for other human beings, this is indeed a reality and researches can shows evidences this of these disasters (Graham et.al, 2007 pp. 821). A manmade disaster could arise due to transportations collisions and accidents, chemicals spills and due to some other conditions. Both tThese manmade disasters or and other natural disasters, both type of disasters are so extremely hazardous not only for human life, but as well as for all biological systems (Hoda et.al, 2012 pp. 609). The Oother examples of manmade disasters are financial criseis, civil conflicts, wars, credit crunch which have been reported continuously. History also gives evidence of manmade disasters, such as world war one and world war twoTwo. Related to disasters involving economic crisis disasters, the frequency of this type of disaster showed an increase, and it peakspeaking in the period betweenaround 1980-2000 (Yasuyuki, 2011). Comment by lsx934: Manmade, hmm I prefer human made but granted it is a little clumsy. However it is the feminist in me! Equality, even in the cause of disasters

2. 2. 2 Emergency management / disaster management

The private sector has been instrumental in developing emergency management plans to mitigate potential risks from many sources. Enterprise Risk management is a process vital to enterprise governance, which has gained tremendous momentum in modern business due to the dynamic nature of threats, vulnerability and stringent regulatory requirements; as a consequence organisations have realised that, risk creates opportunity, which in turn creates value in addition to the mitigation of risk (Shivashankarappa, Ramalingam, Smalov, and Anbazhanga,2011) . Identifying and mitigating risk proactively across the enterprise is the purview of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM). However, this field is still developing and key errors in the ERM process such as is the interpretation of statistical data, overlooking? change management, inadequate attention to supply chain interdependencies, excessive trust of insiders and business partners, ambiguous grouping of risks and poor documentation has contributed significantly to the failure of ERM (Shivashankarappa, Ramalingam, Smalov, and Anbazhanga,2011). Comment by lsx934: Why begin this with ERM? If it entitled EM/DM you should start there Comment by lsx934: If this is taken directly from a source it needs to have a page number and " around it

Oman has the need to incorporate ERM planning at many levels. Individual organizations have the need for to address various risk management practices to ensure their organizations are sustainable. Beyond systemic risks, risks to individual organizations include items elements such as business risks, technical risks and regulatory risks. Organizations can use ERM approaches to perform due diligence, probabilistic risk analysis, scenario-based analysis and system analysis which offer a wide range decision support tools to the management to mitigate and even profit from external threats that possible. Despite the ERM approach being directed at specific organizations, many of the technics principles apply to communities and disaster preparedness in general.

There are three main types of disasters (Quaranteli, 2012). The first is man-made and can be considered an act of aggression. This has a multitude of different manifestations through crime, acts of war, or even terrorism. Although the Government is ultimately responsible for such defenses the responses can include many sectors in society. For example, the military is tasked with defending the country; however terrorism acts could know out?

critical infrastructure in the oil and gas industry for example and would require a comprehensive response. Comment by lsx934: Yes so this is more general and thus needs to start the whole section, to give a context

Other risks can manifest as social vulnerabilities in which communities can no longer support the needs of their members. The occurrence of such a risk can be illustrated by the incidence of natural disasters. These disasters can disrupt the flow of goods, or damage needed infrastructure to support the needs of the local population. This also requires a coordinated effort to meet the needs of the people after a critical incident. There are many institutions that must coordinate their activities to return critical services to the population.

The third paradigm involves a "catch-all" concept that deals with the general uncertainty about the future. This factor deals with the unknown and developing response systems that are comprehensive enough to account for all possible disasters that could be conceived. All three theoretical approaches relate to disasters in different ways, however they also have a considerable amount of overlap. For example, during a natural disaster, the social vulnerabilities of a community can be exposed by lacking the lack of resources needed for sustenance which can result in conflict. Comment by lsx934: The lack of?

Uncertainty is important as a factor because it can also be a source of community conflict. Generally different members of the community or different groups will have different ideas about how to handle periods of uncertainty. Leadership in the area of disaster preparedness… [END OF PREVIEW]

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