Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Networks … Term Paper
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Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Network
The wireless sensor network is considered to be one of the most significant technologies in this epoch, and has been receiving a great deal of emphasis not only from the industries, but also from the world of academia. In definition, according to Gandham et al. (2003), a sensor network is a motionless ad hoc network that is made up of numerous sensor nodules positioned on the fly for unattended process and action. Every sensor node is fortified and fitted out with a sensing device, a low computational capacity mainframe, a short-range wireless transmitter-receiver and a restricted battery-supplied energy (Gandham et al., 2003). With respect to their function, sensor nodes undertake the monitoring of some immediate environmental occurrence, process the data attained and advance this data in the direction of a base station situated on the outside edge of the sensor network. These base stations undertake the gathering of data from the sensor nodes and thereafter convey this collected data to some distant control station (Gandham et al., 2003). The sensor nodes positioned within the sensor network are of considerable benefit. For instance, they can assist in evading disastrous transporter breakdown, preserve valued natural possessions, increase the output, enhance security, and enable innovative applications, for instance, context-aware systems and smart household equipment. The main purpose of this paper is to research and discuss the different protocols recommended for energy efficiency and utilization and also take into account their intrinsic worth and downsides as well.
A great deal of the nodes within a sensor network function and operate by means of a power source that is power-driven by batteries. These sensor nodes are quite diminutive. However, the efficiency of energy is one of the major topics in the aspect of sensor networks. This paper discusses and elucidates the various protocols that bring about energy efficiency.
Flow-Based Routing Protocol
Gandham et al. (2003) recommend an energy efficient usage of manifold, mobile base stations with the objective of increasing the lifetime or lifespan of wireless sensor networks. In particular, this method employs a numeral linear program to ascertain the positions of the base stations and a flow-based routing protocol. Gandham et al. (2003) indicate that the employment of an aggressive method to enhance energy utilization results in a substantial growth in network lifetime. What is more, the interchange between solution superiority and computing time permits the computation of near-optimal resolutions within a sensible period for the network sizes deliberated. The authors also point out that in order to espouse this protocol to a big sensor field, it may be fitting to fester the fundamental flow network into sub-networks and make the most of energy usage in each sub-network individualistically and autonomously.
Data Centric Protocols
The major benefit to data centric routing is that this approach is much simpler and does not place emphasis of particular nodes and also inclines in the direction of the minimization of energy consumption (Rajon, 2014).
1. Directed Diffusion
Directed diffusion encompasses components, for instance, securities, data messages, ascents and back-ups. The leading requirements, such as energy efficacy, scalability, and forcefulness of wireless sensor networks come across through directed diffusion. In this particular protocol, data transmits messages at a consistent interval. This is referred to as interest message on the whole wireless sensor network. For the purpose of interest cache, every sensor node within the WSN is cognizant of which necessitated message they can convey (Rajon, 2014).
2. Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation (SPIN)
The conception of Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation is largely centered on naming the data using advanced descriptors of meta-data. At any time, in the reception of data, any node broadcasts that message to its neighbors and interested neighbors. In this case, the latter are considered to be those nodes that do not possess the data. On the other hand, interested nodes convey a request message to retrieve the data (Rajon, 2014).
The key benefit to SPIN is that it enables a great deal of attaining energy efficiency for the reason that, the meta-data intercession recommended in SPIN resolves the common difficulties of flooding, for instance, dismissed information passing, overlaying of sensing areas and resource recklessness (Rajon, 2014).
Hierarchical Routing Protocols
The key concept of Hierarchical Routing Protocols are also referred to as cluster centered routing protocols and dwell in aligning the sensor nodes on the foundation of a kind of fitting criteria. This protocol usually selects nodes that have the maximum residual energy as cluster heads, which in turn eases efficient distribution of energy.
1. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH)
This protocol makes application of randomization for the distribution of energy load amidst the sensor nodes in the wireless sensor network. In particular, LEACH makes the supposition that all of the sensor nodes are standardized and they can communicate and convey with sufficient power to get to the base station and also every node possesses sufficient computational power. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy decreases the consumption of energy and attains effectiveness by decreasing the cost of communication between sensors and their cluster heads as well as putting off non-heads as much as possible. The nodes perish arbitrarily and dynamic clustering escalates the lifespan of the system (Rajon, 2014).
2. Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network Protocol (TEEN)
This particular protocol is designed for instanced and occurrences, such as unexpected and impulsive changes in sensed features. In TEEN, the sensor nodes within the wireless sensor network sense setting incessantly. The main feature of this protocol is that it directs a hard threshold and soft threshold value to the different cluster heads. In particular, this protocol is a clustering communication protocol that aims for a reactive network and facilitates cluster heads to enforce and carry out a restraint on when the sensor ought to convey the data that has been sensed.
3. Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS)
This protocol is a design that is expended from LEACH, which generates a series of sensor nodes in order for every node to convey and take delivery of neighbor node, and also one node is chosen from that series to communicate data to the base station. In particular, this protocol only permits one cluster head to provide transmission to the sink in every round of communication. With respect to PEGASIS, the sensors are structured to create a chain. This structure can be whole with a sink or also by the sensor. The main benefit or advantage of Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems is that it has the capability to increase the lifespan of the network in a similar manner in the way the LEACH protocol increases the lifetime of the wireless sensor network.
Location-based protocols are also referred to as position-based protocols. Majority of the routing protocols for wireless sensor networks necessitate location data and information for sensor nodes. In numerous instances, this information is required so as to compute the distance that is there between two distinctive nodes in order to make it possible to project energy consumption. In order to have energy efficiency, location-based protocols necessitate that nodes ought to go to sleep if at all there is no sort of activity. Additional energy savings can be attained by having as many sleeping sensor nodes within the network as conceivable (Hara et al., 2010).
1. Minimum Energy Communication Network (MECN)
Minimum Energy Communication Network is a protocol that works out an energy-efficient sub-network, for a specific sensor network, which makes the most of low power GPS. To be specific, this protocol ascertains a dispatch area for every node within the wireless sensor network. This particular region is made up of nodes in a surrounding area where communicating through those nodes brings about higher energy efficiency in comparison to direct transmission. The key conception of minimum energy communication network is to make an attempt to find a sub-network that will have minimal nodes and necessitates minimal power for transmission between any two certain nodes. One other benefit to this protocol is that it is able to self-configure itself and therefore has the capacity to vigorously become accustomed to any surprising issues, such as node failure or the deployment of new sensors. However, the assumption that is made is that each node within the sensor has the capability to transmit to every other node (Hara et al., 2010).
2. Small Minimum Energy Communication Network (SMECN)
This is a protocol that is recommended to enhance and make better the MECN protocol aforementioned. In SMECN, a marginal graph is categorized with respect to the minimal power energy. Small Minimum Energy Communication Network generates a sub-graph of the sensor network that encompasses the minimum energy path (Hara et al., 2010). This aspect makes the implication that for any two sensors paired up in a graph and linked with a WSN, there is a path of minimal energy efficiency between these two sensors. In essence, this is a path that possesses the least cost with respect to the consumption of… [END OF PREVIEW]
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