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Evaluation of Home Care and Community Care in CanadaResearch Paper

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Home Care and Community Care in Canada

The commitment towards reducing, eliminating and reducing inequities aims at extending the prevention timeline and modalities to victims of any disease. Health promotion promotes good health and sanitation to citizens. It also aims at providing and creating conducive environments that enable the society to be self-reliant in forming a robust community that can offer all aspects of a healthy care (Epp, 1986).

Communities are encouraged to participate in forming a health society through creating good health systems. This can be achieved by the active participation of communities in obtaining the desired community health policies and suggestions. There have been many efforts recently to bring the community on board in health participation. This is seen as the only way to create robust health systems sustaining a healthy society (Petersen, & Lupton, 1996).

Canada has had up and down curve of expenditure on healthcare for her citizens. Between the year 1975 and 1991 there was a growing expenditure in the healthcare investment. It was followed by a non-investment period of between 1992 and 1996 which accompanied by pull out of resources and investments. The Canadian government dealt with the logistical issues and prioritized healthcare leading to an annual growth of 4.0% per year through to the year 2011. This was the greatest breakthrough in health care in Canada. Since 2005, there has been a fairly moderated growth to date (Canadian Institute for Health Information 2013)

Canada is one of the high-income nations in the world, populated by 33 million individuals. In spite of the 2008 recession, Canada's economic performance remained strong. General tax proceeds of the territorial, federal, and provincial governments makes up around 70% of overall Canadian health costs. The nation has a highly decentralized system of health service delivery, governance, and organization, with the territories and provinces in charge of health service planning and Medicare administration. In the past decade, no significant pan-Canadian campaign for health reform has been witnessed; individual territories and provinces, however, have concentrated on perfecting or restructuring their respective regional healthcare structures and bettering timeliness, patient experience, and quality of chronic, primary, and acute care. Medicare has proven successful in providing citizens with financial safety against physician and hospital expenses (Marchildon, 2013).

A more inclusive approach to delivering care to communities is the establishment of community facilities. This model aims at providing24/7 health, community, and social services, as needed. Health professionals hailing from different disciplines provide care through an array of interventions. Health promotion, disease prevention, diagnostic care, palliative care, curative care, homecare, early detection, and rehabilitative services can be availed by patients. A core aspect is emphasis on care continuity and cooperation among care providers (College of Licensed Practical Nurses of Alberta, 2005).

Home care denotes care, which enables special needs patients to remain at home. 'Special needs individuals' include the elderly, the chronically sick, the disabled, or those recuperating from surgery. Home care facilities include the following

Personal care (e.g., assistance with washing hair, bathing, dressing, etc.)

Homemaking (e.g., cleaning, laundry, yard work, etc.)

Cooking or meal delivery

Health care (e.g., provision of health aide coming to assist patients at home)

Virtually all kinds of support are available. Some community and care services are donation- based or free, while others require a fee. Patient's health insurance or government programs help cover specific homecare costs, in some cases (Home Care Services: MedlinePlus, 2015).

Lit Review

In the early years of the Second World War, Canada did not have trained medical practitioners and hence it relied heavily on foreign-trained practitioners who were few to satisfy the needs of the country. In early 1970s, there was an upsurge in the number of medical practitioners most being foreign trained. In late 1980s, Canada prioritized the health care system and training of health care specialists. In Early 1990s, the great health care transformation happened that set the base for the great transformation of health care systems in Canada, which in return paved the way for decentralizing the system to effectively reach the locals (Clarke, & Wright, 2013).

Decentralized Administrative Structure

Decentralization of health systems was the major contributor to the successful health care systems in many regions. It was the biggest contributor to free and good health systems that are beneficial to the society. In mid 1990s, most provincial governance systems focused on creating better and improving the existing health care services that created and improved human value to the citizens. The governance systems invested heavily in research on health care systems and their jurisdictions. Much of the research findings on the health care systems emphasized on:

Decentralization of health care systems facility and equipment including and not limited to the health experts and practitioners

Local participation and input to the long-term health care systems.

Efficient communication and response health systems.

Integration of community health care services in the region (Boychuk, 2009).

The decentralized knowledge and practice appears to be declining over the last five years despite it being advocated for and being in use. This is due to lack of knowledge among the community members. The concerned parties (mostly the policy makers and analysts) have not been able to remove ambiguity in understanding decentralization in health care systems to the affected communities. The variables represented in research of how decentralization works and help communities in the health care systems only serve to confuse the benefactors more without the explanations and real representation. In other words, representations of the data in writing and proposals are not well understood by communities that make it an impediment to their acceptance by the communities. When politics is involved it is not possible for the project to be effectively implemented and hence it is better implemented on a non-political environment that is all inclusive (Black, & Fierlbeck, 2006). The current regionalization persists since it is politically useful in two ways:

It sustains concentration of power which existed in the past in formal healthcare decentralization

It restores representation system that existed before deployment of regionalization.

To understand the way regionalization is implemented in any jurisdiction, an individual needs have keen interest on the political setting around which regionalization strategies have been implemented (Black, & Fierlbeck, 2006).

Progress is, in fact, more restrained in the intergovernmental sphere since 2004, when the first 10-Year healthcare-strengthening plan was formulated. After that ministerial meeting, territorial and provincial administrations employed additional cash transfers from the federal government for investing in waiting time reduction in priority fields, boosting reforms in primary care, and offering more homecare coverage, as a substitute to hospital care. Several territorial and provincial governments commenced catastrophic medication coverage of some form for specific populations within their jurisdiction, but made very little progress in developing a pan-Canadian strategy for prescription drug management and coverage (Marchildon, 2005).

All territories and provinces have their own programs and policies concerning informal caregivers, often forming part of homecare benefits and services package provided by their respective governments. The Canadian federal government, since the year 2002, has provided eligible caregivers with tax credits. Following the outcome of one work by the Palliative and End-of-Life Care Unit (conducted between 2001 and 2007), the Canadian government launched Compassionate Care Benefits, offering 6 weeks of paid leave to employees for supporting terminally ill member of their family who have only about half a year to live. This Benefit comes under Employment Insurance and, hence, is not available to self-employed individuals and non- standard workers (Marchildon, 2005).

Societal Needs

Homecare in more extensively integrated territorial and provincial healthcare structures may be regarded as a more economical substitute to hospital care. Furthermore, rise in publicly financed homecare in the nation have brought about reduction in hospital service usage, decreased informal-caregiver dependence, and enhanced self-perceived health status levels. While there is no significant change in the basic profile and proportion of Canadian citizens receiving public-financed homecare services from mid-90s to mid-2000s, proof of growing needs of homecare receivers can be witnessed. For instance, in 1994-95, incontinent patients comprised 8% of receivers of homecare services; by 2003, however, this percentage increased more than twofold, to 17% (Wilkins, 2006).

A traditional health system is acceptable if it meets certain thresholds. The system should be able to influence health status and welfare in a positive way. The system should primarily target individual care effectively for it to be effective to the community. A good health system will be society-centered and is composed and dominated by practitioners ranging from nurses doctors and other physicians. In order to achieve the desired goal in providing quality health care, systems resources have to be adequately allocated (Lalonde, 1974).

Originally, the Canadian health system aimed at dealing with severe medical issues such as injuries, tuberculosis, diphtheria, measles, and scarlet fever. Chronic illnesses and diseases pose a greater challenge and burden. Such illnesses include diabetes, AIDS, cancer, and heart diseases. Most of these chronic diseases are occurring in old ages and in most cases, they cause cognitive issues to victims. Most hospitals in Canada are overpopulated by victims of such… [END OF PREVIEW]

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