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Evidence Based Practice Analysis Using Qualitative ResearchResearch Paper

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¶ … Evidence-Based Practice Qualitative Research

Objective of this paper is to evaluate the research titled "The Lived Experience of Men Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer" (Krumwiede, & Krumwiede 2012, p E443) to demonstrate evidence-based nursing practice. The study uses descriptive qualitative technique to collect data from sample population of 10 older men suffering from prostate cancer, and the methodology used to collect data consists of open-ended questions using the semi-structured interview. The qualitative data analysis was carried out and the findings assisted in enhancing a greater understanding on the method the participants live with cancer.

Overview of the research reveals that Krumwiede, & Krumwiede (2012) identify the research problem by pointing out that "prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States." (Krumwiede, & Krumwiede, 2012 p E443). The authors cited that estimated 241,740 cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in 2012 and approximately 28,1270 were likely to die from the disease. The authors also argue that one out of six men die of prostate cancer if not diagnosed on time. Polit, & Beck, (2013) argue that a research study requires formulating research problems that need to be solved since the goal of a research is to solve problems. Despite the effective way that the authors used in identifying the research problems, nevertheless, the study does not describe the theoretical or philosophical basis, which the research is focusing.

However, the study clearly states the research purpose is by investigating the live experience of men living with the prostate cancer, and the research purpose assists in understanding the research focus. However, the authors do not state the research questions or the hypothesis, which has been one of the shortcomings of the study. Polite & Beech (2012) argue that an evidence-based research should state the research questions that the study intends to answer in order to address the research problems. Typically, identification of research assists in guiding the researchers on the type of data to be collected. The significant of the study is to make patients discussing their experience about the prostate cancer to assist nurses delivering appropriate care for patients.

Literature Review

The review of the literature in the study does not adequately summarize the existing body of knowledge with reference to phenomenon of interest. In the contemporary research environment, review of the past studies is very critical in an evidence-based research. Overview of the study reveals that the authors only cite the American Cancer Society's literatures, which are not sufficient to enhance a greater understanding of the phenomenon. Moreover, the literatures reviewed are not peer-reviewed, which has been one of the shortcomings of the study. The benefit of literature review is that it assists in exploring the past studies about the research focus, which helps in identifying the gaps in the research. Moreover, the review of the literature assists in developing an effective research design. Despite the shortcomings identified in the literatures, the literatures have been able to deliver a sound basis for the study. For example, the study is able to reveal the epidemiology of the prostate cancer the United States. Moreover, the authors have implemented a procedure to protect participants. For example, the researchers seek for the approval from the institutional review board before collecting data from the participants. However, the protection of human participants is not sufficient because the authors do not provide a detail procedure about the methods used to protect human participants. Polit, & Beck, (2013) point out a researcher is required to stipulate the ethical procedures that need to be implemented for the study. Part of the ethical procedures is to educate the participants about the importance of the research and assure them their personal information will be held confidential and will not be revealed to the third party without their consents.

Research Design

While the authors do not develop the research questions that assist in solving the research problems, nevertheless, the study has developed a research design to assist in solving the research problems. For example, the authors select participants from men suffering from prostate cancer, and the participants are aged between 62 and 70 because these ages are susceptible to prostate cancer. Despite the method the researchers used in selecting the participants, nevertheless, the participants do not select participants from different ethnic groups in the United States since participants are mainly Caucasian. Selecting participants from different ethnic groups will help in collecting rich data that can be applied to wide range of ethnic groups in the United States. However, overview of the research design reveals that the researchers make decision up front because they seek approval from institutional review board before collecting data from participants. Despite a careful method in employing for the research design, nevertheless, the study ought to have used the combination of qualitative and quantitative method to strengthen the research design. (Creswell, 2009). The strategy would have assisted the researchers to collect data from large number of participants.


The sample population consists of 10 men who are English Speaking Caucasian, and method used in gaining access to the participants is by using the "the snowball technique to obtain a convenience sample of 10 men with prostate cancer." (Krumwiede, & Krumwiede 2012, p E444). The sample size is predetermined because the authors use the semi-structured interview to collect data, which is time consuming. While the number of participants were mentioned, nevertheless, the demographic data of the participants were not discussed in detail. The process of selecting the participants is by focusing mainly on older adult patients suffering from prostate cancer. The strategy assists the researcher to understand their lived experience with prostate cancer. Although, the study stipulates that the approval was granted from board of the Bethel University before collecting data, nevertheless, the authors did not specify whether the location of the study is at Bethel University. The authors ought to have specified the location of the study to remove ambiguity from the research.

Data Collection

The study uses the semi-structured interview technique to collect data

"as a way to gain access to the lived experience of men with prostate cancer. The interview method provided a means for exploring and gathering experiential narrative material that served as a resource to derive meaning of the lived experience." (Krumwiede, & Krumwiede 2012, p E444).

Despite using semi-structured interview to collect data, the type of questions used to collect data were not mention in the study, however, sufficient amount of data was collected based on the themes developed from the research questions.

Data Analysis

Data analysis is the strategy of cleaning the data to remove research bias to enhance validity and credibility of research study. Polit, & Beck, (2013) argue that "the purpose of data analysis, regardless of the type of data or underlying research tradition, is to organize, provide structure to, and elicit meaning from the data." (p 463).

Krumwiede, & Krumwiede, (2012) use qualitative data analysis by transcribing the interview recorded with audio tape recorder. The authors also carry out an analysis using transferability approach from member checks to enhance confirmability. The outcome of the analysis assists the study to develop six themes, and sub-themes which are adequately and clearly defined. The use of bracketing, immersion, and triangulation assist in eliminating bias from the study. Moreover, the authors use "an extensive audit trail was created to ensure confirmability." (Krumwiede, & Krumwiede, 2012 p E444).


The authors have enhanced trustworthiness for the study by limiting bias from the research using extensive audit trail to enhance dependability, credibility, confirmability and transferability of the research. Based on the auditing procedure used for study, there is a confirmability of the research study.


The findings effectively develop six themes that represent narrative stories from the participants, and the themes have summarized the research argument. The themes are:

living with the unknown, feeling comfort while with other people.

yearning to know and understand,

bearing the cancer's diagnosis, struggling with body unreliability, and shifting a priority within the gap. (Krumwiede, & Krumwiede 2012).

The themes capture the meaning of the data because they demonstrate the live experience older men suffering from prostate cancer. The outcome of the research findings has linked the phenomenology theoretical approach in the nursing practice. The phenomenology expresses the lived experience of people living with cancer which helps in informing the nursing practice.


The research findings have enhanced body of knowledge of nursing practitioners on the method in using the lived experience of men suffering from prostate cancer to develop effective nursing care. In essence, the findings have contributed to the evidence-based nursing practice because the study assists in developing method of promoting health education among cancer patients. Moreover, the findings need to be incorporated in the nursing care to guide the nursing actions.


Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Krumwiede, K., & Krumwiede, N. (2012). The lived experience of men… [END OF PREVIEW]

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