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Gene Flow in Horses Across the Silk ROAD2"Literature Review" Chapter

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¶ … Physical

Objective Measure of physical activity and fitness as health risk factors in Geneva

Quantification of Daily Physical Activity in Population Studies

Systematic Review

Proposal for ActiGraph Device

The Services

Mission Statement

Budget

Protocol for Data Collection and Analysis

Quantification of fitness levels in population studies

Proposal for VO2max Device

Services

Budget

A Protocol for Data Collection and Analysis

Quantification of Daily Physical Activity in Population Studies

Most quantification of daily physical activity in population studies research is adults ages 30-70 especially those that used the actigraph. Literature on quantification of daily physical activity in older adults is limited and a lot of studies rely on validity studies completed on younger adults to determine cut points for exercise intensity. This proposal will explore how the Actigraph will be beneficial with the adults age 30-70 population group.

Method

Height, body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist boundary (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-height ratio (WHtR) will be measured in participants. WC will be measured, on bare skin, to the adjoining 0.1 cm central among the lower rib. Overweight and obesity will be acknowledged as a BMI 25 kg, respectively. Central obesity will be defined as WC 80 cm for females and 94 cm for males. A questionnaire will also be used to assess those that used the Actigraph

Systematic Review

Research shows that the Actigraph is an accelerometer that is mainly utilized in research on PA (A.l Al-Othaimeen, 2011) The raw Actigraph information data is transferred to counts per minute (CPM). When this happens, it starts reflecting the acceleration and also the strength of PA. The greater the CPM, the greater the speed of activity measured (Al Qauhiz, 2011). Inceptions utilized for approximation of dissimilar strengths of PA are figured out from confirmation studies and are mainly describes in positions of total strength for example METs (Glewwe, 2014). On the other hand, elderly population possibly, will not be able to reach what is extensively acknowledged as, in expressions of accelerometer starting points, complete vigorous intensity PA because of declining CRF (Al-Qahtani, 2011). In younger adults, temperate intensity PA is characteristically described to span from 4.0-7.0 METs, whereas vigorous intensity physical activity is described to range among 6.0-9.0 METs (Al-Qahtani, 2011). However, in each case ActiGraph are used in order to assess the motor skills.

Research clearly shows that ActiGraph is the leading provider of objective physical activity and sleep/wake measurement solutions for the global scientific community. There is even new technological software that are innovative new platforms that leverages cloud and mobile technologies in order to transform the way real-world actigraphy data. This data is gathered together and then handled in pharmaceutical, clinical, and academic research settings plus daily physical activity in population studies research. There are numerous studies out there that suggest that physical activity patterns that are established all throughout youth and childhood are significant in laying out the foundation for activity trends that take place in the future (Berger, 2011). Simultaneously, there is a slews of recent information that makes the point that physical inactivity is common amongst Swiss adults ages 30-70 particularly in Geneve. The results of the 2000/01 Swiss Community Health Survey (CCHS) point out that above half of Swiss youth (56%) aged ages 30-70 are physically inactive (Al Qauhiz, 2011). The Swiss Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute (CFLRI) estimates that approximately 82% of adults are not active enough to meet international guidelines for optimal growth and development (JAMA, 2011).

Research shows that children is one are that the ActiGraph is used in children a lot as far as population studies. ActiGraph come in handy with the Overweight children are much more likely to incur additional risk factors that may reduce their life expectancy. Risk factors include but are not limited to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, certain types of cancers as well as the associated complications that often accompany these diseases and a higher mortality rate. According to the 2010 Report on Overweight and Obesity, type -2 diabetes, considered previously as an adult disease, has increased dramatically in children and adolescents. Moreover, an estimated 61% of overweight young people have at least one additional risk factor for heart disease, such as high cholesterol or high blood pressure (Khalid, 2011). The World Health Organization (2003) fact sheet has acknowledged there is a great cost of obesity to the health care systems in developed countries where it is as high as 7% of total health costs. The true costs, although predictably higher, are unknown as not all obesity-related conditions are included. The extra burden is putting stress on an already struggling healthcare system compounding the beneficial effect that prevention of obesity would have on the health of the growing global population.

Literature

One particular study showed that the active school travel provides a convenient, day-to-day chance to donate to meeting physical activity rules. ActiGraph -based studies of adults active commuting frequently uses a consistent 60-min assessment process, in which commuting is assumed to occur for an hour before and after school (M.D, 2011). We developed an individualized method in which school and home arrival time was recorded.

This particular study compared to the individualized method, appears that the normal 60-min technique gives a higher complete approximation of children's physical activity all through the school commute. In addition, individual differences among the two approaches are highly variable. If resources permit, the study recommended that the ActiGraph method as a more correct way of figuring out the time of arrival, and thus the commuting time. Using freshly-available technology such as ActiGraph, the price of these recording methods could be condensed thus refining viability and accurateness in large-scale studies of adults ages 30-70.

Proposal for ActiGraph Device

Executive Summary

The purpose of this proposal plan is to raise awareness of implementing a new actimetry sensor tool called the ActiGraph for adults ages 30-70. The ActiGraph is a flagship activity monitor, used by researchers all over the world to record and capture continuous, high resolution physical activity. This device features ActiGraph's validated 3-axis accelerometer and digital filtering technology and includes integrated wear time and ambient light sensors. This device will be beneficial to all ages and gender.

The Services

Commercial translation of ActiGraph device(s) that improve diagnosis and detection of motor skill issues in the 30-70 age population. Because of the many etiologies, the true incidence and prevalence of motor disorders it hard to quantify; nevertheless, several major etiologies considerably expand the risk of life-threatening apneic events, as well as apnea of prematurity.

Mission Statement

This actimetry sensor is to help improve world health by offering the most precise and logically authenticated activity and sleep monitoring hardware and software answers to leading research, pharmaceutical, healthcare and wellness establishments for adults ages 30-70. This actimetry sensor device is committed to innovation, accurateness and first-class customer service to all populations.

Budget

We request a total of $236,868 to launch this product worldwide. The mainstream of funds will go in the direction of personnel expenses for the important but time-consuming activities of piloting and examining the populations targeted to use this actimetry device.

Budget Item

Amount

Sub-Total

Personnel

Target group every year 1000 person adult.

I will meet every week 5 or 4, then, we will take

Checking pressure and sugar and weight

$9,000

Specific data collection, analysis, reporting, and logistics requirements

$30,000

Data analysis for duration of ActiGraph Projects

$17,000

Checking Pressure Sugar and weight

$25,000

envelops, printer, Printer ink, laptop, pens, calculator

$31,000

Telephone system

$21,000

Lithium battery

$23,000

sleep laboratories, wellness providers, $85,00

Total expenses

$190,000

Protocol for Data Collection and Analysis

Collection of Data

Investigating and Combining Data

Sharing the Results of Data and Decision Making

Storage and Destruction of Data

Adults ages 30-70 will be completed and a CAPI interview and collect physical measures consisting of blood pressure (three readings).

Data from patients that were suffering from obesity and those that were elderly will be combined together in order to see the difference.

Information will be shared in the proposal process in order to present the case of being able to market the product to those that are obese and also those that have high-blood pressure and cholesterol.

All of the data will be stored for future references and possibly for future recommendations in order to improve the product.

Part Two: Quantification of fitness levels in population studies

Introduction

When it comes to the quantification of fitness levels in population studies, with special interest for those who use a measure of gas exchange, and also particularly those who utilized devices only measuring oxygen uptake is few. There are many devices that are used to measure the cardivascolulor of fitness such as the VO2 max testing. Research shows that public health initiatives all over the world are recommending increasing physical activity (PA) in order to improve health with the help of VO2 max. Nevertheless, the dose and the intensity of PA producing the most benefit are still debated. Accurate assessment of PA is necessary in… [END OF PREVIEW]

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