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Health Consequences of Relationship ViolenceTerm Paper

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Psychology

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Domestic violence is popular as domestic abuse, spousal battering, abuse, intimate partner violence, and family violence. Psychologists define the behavior as a pattern that involves violence or other forms of abuse from one person against others in domestic settings such as cohabitation or marriage. Intimate partner violence refers to domestic violence against spouses or other partners in an intimate relationship. Domestic violence takes place within same-sex or heterosexual relationships. The perception also takes various forms such as physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse. The contents range from subtle and coercive forms and include marital rape and physical abuse resulting in death or disfigurement. Globally, wives or female partners are the common domestic violence victims even though the male partner is increasingly falling prey of the actions. Both partners can engage in violent or abusive behavior where victims act in retaliation for self-defense (Lowe, Humphreys, & Williams, 2007).

Domestic violence occurs in situations where perpetrators believe that the abuses raised against them are acceptable and justifiable. This includes production of intergenerational abuse cycles condoning the violence. Physical abuse is a category of the abusive disposition that involves contact aimed at causing injury, pain, or subsequent forms of bodily harm or physical suffering. The reproach includes burning, punching, hitting, slapping, pushing, choking, throwing objects, and other contact forms were resulting in the victim's physical injury. A number of several perpetrators also abuse the victims at the same time (Ergonen, Salacin, Karademir, & Musal, 2007). For example, one holds down victims while others assault them. Such victims are locked within confinements like rooms or even tied. Acid attacks are emerging trends in domestic violence and happen where acid is poured at the victims in vengeance or anger.

The World Health Organization defines Sexual violence and abuse as all forms of sexual acts, attempts to gain sexual acts, unwanted sexual advances or comments, or acts to traffic, or directed against an individual's sexuality through coercion. The definition maintains that such assaults can be charged against all people irrespective of their relationship with victims. The consideration encompasses obligatory inspections for female genital mutilation and virginity. Further to a sexual act initiation, physical force and sexual abuse happens where people are not in a position of understanding the condition or nature of the act or unable to refuse participation. It also includes their inability to communicate unwillingness to take part in sexual acts. The concept also improves on classifying underage engagement through immaturity, illness, disability, or alcohol or other drugs influence, or due to pressure or intimidation (Lowe, Humphreys, & Williams, 2007).

Emotional abuse is popular as psychological or mental abuse includes verbal abuse. This form of abuse is classified as all behavior that intimidates threatens, undermines the self-esteem or self-worth of a victim, or controls the freedom of the victim. Psychological violence includes intentional conduct that seriously impairs an individual's psychological integrity based on coercion and threats. The components include threatening a victim with harm or injury and telling them that they will die if they discern the relationship. Other categories include isolating them from the public and inducing public humiliation. Controlling their behavior involves monitoring the movements of victims and restricting access to employment, financial resources, medical care, or education. Devaluing statements, name-calling, and constant criticism are emotionally abusive behaviors (Ergonen, Salacin, Karademir, & Musal, 2007).

People were undergoing emotionally abused feel that most of the significant others have absolute control over their development. The isolation damages formulate victim's internal strength and leave them feeling both helpless and incapacitated to escape such situations. Victims suffer from stress and depression that exposes them to increased risks for eating disorders, suicide, and uncontrolled use of drug and alcohol. Verbal abuse develops from various forms of behavior with emotional abuse and involves the application of language that involves ridicule, threats, disrespect, name-calling, criticism, and blaming. The less aggressive verbal abuse forms include utterances that appear vague on the surface and have thin and veiled attempts of humiliating, falsely accusing, or manipulating others into submission to undesirable behavior. The statements make people feel unloved and unwanted, isolation of support systems victims, or threaten others economically.

Pressuring or forcing family members to attach a signature to documents, sell things, or change their wills amount to economic abuse forms. The abuser can put such victims on allowance and close monitoring of how victim spend such monies or even spend the victim's money without consent while creating debt. Other aspects include complete expenditure of the victim's savings while limiting available resources (Meltzer, Doos, Vostanis & Goodman, 2009). The link between domestic violence and gender is one of the controversial topics. There is debate on the levels of subjection to domestic violence for each gender. The reasons for having mixed findings are limitations of current survey tools (such as conflict tactics scale) in measuring relevant domestic violence aspects.

Traditionally, domestic violence is perceived as heterosexual family issues with minimal little interest directed towards same-sex relationships' violence. However, domestic violence occurs within same-sex relationships. Due to different methodological reasons, non-random sampling methods as well as self-selection factors make it impossible to evaluate the levels of violence in same-sex domestic settings (Henriksen, Nelson & Watts, 2010). On the other hand, various researchers hold that most lesbian couples have more exposure to domestic violence at similar rates as the heterosexual couples. The couples are also very cautious in reporting domestic violence as compared to the gay male couples.

Domestic violence participants require attentive medical treatment including examination from family physicians and primary care providers as well as emergency room physicians. On the other hand, law enforcement should be held responsible in facilitating healthy intimate partnerships. Counseling is also a viable way of addressing domestic violence. Victim of abuse considers counseling as assessment of the extent, types, and presence of violence and abuse. Lethality assessment tools assist in the determination of best treatment courses for clients. It also includes helping such clients recognize the dangerous behaviors, as well as subtle relationship abuses. Studies about victims from attempted homicide related to domestic violence recognized that perpetrators had a capability of killing (Ergonen, Salacin, Karademir, & Musal, 2007). Most domestic violence victims focus on minimizing true severity of the situation. The other essential component in the equation is safety planning that allows victims to prepare for situations of danger as well as encounters of violence. The effectiveness scale depends on the decisions and the components diversely included in their perpetrators' decisions. Offenders use counseling as a way of minimizing future domestic violence risks.

Intervention and prevention include diversity in the ways of preventing domestic violence. The basic approaches include offering crisis intervention, safe shelter, advocacy, and prevention and education programs. Community domestic violence screening may include systematic cases for physical abuse, emergency departments, healthcare settings, court systems, and behavioral health settings. Tools that are developed towards facilitating screening of domestic violence allows for inclusion of mobile apps (Meltzer, Doos, Vostanis & Goodman, 2009). The intervention projects of domestic abuse are programs that are developed towards the reduction of domestic violence affecting women. This component allows multi-disciplinary programs to take the design of addressing domestic violence issues and coordination of actions from various agencies that deal with domestic conflict.

Some behavioral and emotional problems resulting from domestic violence include increased anxiety, aggressiveness, and changes in the socialization skills of children with family, authorities, and friends. Emotional insecurity, mental health disorders, and depression come up because of traumatic experiences. Attitude and cognition problems within schools start developing together with absence skills like problem solving. The correlation is found across experiences of abuse as well as neglect among childhood. It also involves perpetration of sexual abuse and domestic violence in adulthood.

In conclusion, domestic violence triggers different reactions from victims. All of them are relevant to the professionals working among the victims. The critical domestic violence consequences include victimization and psychological or mental health complications leading to chronic problems of physical health. Some of them have long-range effects on children coming from abusive household and are abused translating to reactions of guilt, shyness, irritability, anger, depression, anxiety, disruptiveness, nightmares, and problems in socializing with others. Although people may not have been abused directly, the discomfort in homes affects them. This is because children experience or witness loved ones under abuse. With time, the impacts take a toll in their development. Domestic violence passes onto children strained family structures. Children who grow up under abuse think that it is a way of family functioning. In the end, the children grow up repeating the cycle, as they know. Some of the other effects in the end include poor health, isolation, low self-esteem, abuse risks of drug and alcohol, suicidal thoughts, difficulty sleeping, and extreme fear and loneliness. The victims' have an overwhelming insufficiency of resources leading to poverty and homelessness. People suffering from abuse are at high risks of facing negative consequences and put on destructive paths of their lives.

Annotated Bibliography

Ergonen, T.A., Salacin, S., Karademir, S., Gursel,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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