Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration SpaceflightResearch Proposal

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Aeronautics

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG DURATION SPACEFLIGHT 3

Human and Psychological Factors Associated With Long Duration Spaceflight

The paper seeks to discuss the human physical factors affecting adaptation within long duration spaceflights. The essay opens with an outline of the impacts to spaceflight, which include uptake of between 40% and 50% crewmembers in the initial microgravity experience days. The paper also explains that the space adaptation sickness is a condition expressed through symptoms such as headache, disorientation, and nausea. The subsequent paragraphs shoe the factors are alleviated through pharmacological interventions and exercise. The paper also highlights other significant obstacles to the maintenance of astronauts' health in missions of longer durations. The essay evaluates spaceflight performance and psychological aspects, which are particularly important in the deployment of interventions of the overall operations. The paper concludes with a comparison of the previous attempts and the need to introduce other approaches.

Procedural alarms have a probability of going off within an aircraft's principle operator. An illustration of issues of human factors includes the determination various forms of alarms in place where aircraft cockpits are the basis of distinguishing emergencies from other forms of alarms. Past experience show that female voices have exclusive pitches and are highly noticeable as the salient ones are compared to the low and simple tones. Even with many definitions refereeing to the 'Human Factors' discipline, the astronautic explanations of corps and the discipline include the focus on interfaces between technology and humans.

Engineers and psychologists contribute to other human factors that are applied within the principles that humans are able to operate through hand to eye coordination for psychomotor reflexes. Most of the factors continue to predict and play essential roles in establishing the occurrences of psychiatric disorders or behavioral conditions (Whitmire, Leveton, Shea, & Schmidt, 2005). The elements of consideration include circadian and sleep disruption, negative emotions, personality, and physiological changes occurring through the adaptation to microgravity conditions. In addition, tehre are elements of cognitive, information processing, and memory capabilities that are affected by such ecnounters. The outcomes of components of behavioral health for astronaut selection systems include the identification of individuals who have diagnoses incompatible with the space flight demands during the time of application. Others identified in the process include those believed to have favorable psychological suites in astronomy (The Institute of Medicine. 2014). The promotion of training and development of the intelligent designs used alongside tools and machines allow humans to anticipate working principles in space (The Institute of Medicine. 2014). This differs distinctly with vigorous cycling, which increases bone mineral reabsorption to the human bloodstream (The Institute of Medicine. 2014). The ground reactions applied include the transmission of the legs.

Subsequent elements of the psychological exam include monotony, lack of autonomy, and daily personal irritants. Different physical and psychological effects are been noted between simulated isolated and operational as well as confined environments. Illustration of such components includes fatigue, motivational decline, and somatic complaints like headaches, digestive problems, and insomnia, together with social tensions. Social conflict, strained crew relations, and heightened friction are some of the expectations of confinement and isolation in spaceflights of longer durations (Wickman, 2006).

In extreme conditions fatigue and physical conditions within space life lead to unbearable workloads for cultural and organizational factors. Such flights show increased numbers of errors for the performance of operational tasks that constitute risk factors for functionality of mission success and safety crewmembers (Corwin, 2002). The concept allows for addressing the family and interpersonal issues against the major environmental factors. Monotony is also one of the frequent complaints of astronauts in space flight environments. The complaints range from combinations of monotonous schedules with extensive requirements for high alertness degrees and detailed penalties for any error made. The salutary and positive aspects based on space flight point at behavioral health outcomes. Other cognitive processes include increment in interpersonal conflicts and the undue isolation. The behavior brings to light symptoms such as psycho-physiological and psychosomatic complications (Wickman, 2006). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation is affected by emotions that are inadequately regulated and suppression of the immune system.

Countermeasures cause dramatic hindrances to the alternative defense forms in the prevention of conditions. Tasks have to be simplified while human interfaces to software and hardware require user-friendly statues. Negative emotions can be linked to decreased motivation and performance while short-term memory disruptions attend to an individual's attention. Behavioral considerations include psychiatric disorders based on occurrences within pre-flight and post-flight stages. The concept leaves such individuals at increased risks for contracting diseases. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal refers to major stress system components that regulate the secretion of different corticosteroids. Activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal in situation of depression is frequent although the activation levels cause and result to depressed moods (Corwin, 2002). The on-flight atmosphere requires psychological support services availed to all crewmembers.

The immediate families should be consulted in stages of a mission. In NASA's experience, Job design and strange environment are other factors that influences and individual's performance. For environments where individuals float by default, making distinctions of the certain position does not make much sense. Environmental habitability and design do not confine the individual to earthly distinctions for walls, ceilings, and floors. Devices for resistance training can be used together with the space-based programs in holding surface and ameliorating on-flight complexities. Circumstances and individuals change while time passes: such tests are administered through selection process prior individuals are assigned to missions. The chosen crew is identified to have limited abilities in predicting behavior for post-flight and in-flight situations. The individuals with a higher likelihood of having behavioral and psychiatric selected-outs in emergencies are those with the best suitability to qualifying as astronauts. The selection aspect is called "select-in" and the existing selection systems are based on suitability as the main aspect of selection.

Equipment used in body-loading have the capacity to impart forces with consequential gravity to human body while stimulating all physiological responses. The results of the engagements are beneficial to fitness in the skeletal, cardiovascular, and muscular sections of the body. Personality tests are used in predicting job performance in various industries and activities. The gradual increase of length and distances of a mission makes selection of astronauts a composite element in managing entire crews, as well as space flight teams through personality traits as critical indicators. Personality evidence for the current features of specific astronauts follows personality comparisons. The major issue hindering the implementation of the scientific gains is inadequate resources necessary in bringing in comfort to travelers and regular use. The comparative features include astronaut applicants within normative groups and prospective astronauts to other occupational groups (Marshall-Bowman, 2011). The last indicator is the astronauts' performance on peer and supervisor ratings in making a selection decision. Further research is required as a way of examining the link between objective job performance and personality (Ad Hoc Committee of Members of the Space, 2008).

Physiological stressors come from various sections of the space environment and impact on longer durations imposing major challenges to appreciating human spaceflight. Changes in behavioral medicine are necessary for taming the astronauts within missions of space flights. The perception of "right stuff" is an adjustment that is required in managing factors such as personality while playing greater roles in providing comfortable and convenient pilot experiences. Interventions in unprecedented circumstances are based on lesser roles as compared to the present ones. Selection systems are, therefore, necessary for the reflection and advancement of such changes (Morphew, 2001). The countermeasures necessary in managing space flights are based on the evolution of longer flights (Marshall-Bowman, 2011). Research shows that the human body anatomy has physical and natural adaptation of the foreign microgravity environments through the de-conditioned elements in muscular and cardiovascular segments. Alternative methods of prevention and treatment for post-flight conditions can be incorporated. For example, annual psychological examination for existing astronauts includes recommendation of providing support for post-flight for flown astronauts. Similar psychological examination is implemented among retired astronauts (Ad Hoc Committee of Members of the Space, 2008). The changes involved in immune and nervous systems can be established through increased exposure to asepcts of radiation. New strategies are critical in developing alternatives to managing behavior and psychological satisfaction among space scientists. Effective countermeasures are appropriate in protection of astronaut performance and behavioral health. In turn, such data helps in the achievement of mission success based on the responses of challenging missions of exploration where humankind dares undertake.

Operational habitability is inclusive of establisment of strategies that address support, design, and integration of mission, environmental, and human components. Treatment and prevention of psychiatric disorders and behavioral conditions in post-flight conditions primarily relies on interviews of behavioral medicine after returning to Earth. They need to establish trust within the individual's conducting an interview and fully believe that the interview contents do not adversely influence their flight status in future prior astronauts engage in candid exchanges (Ad Hoc Committee of Members of the Space, 2008). The promotion of optimal performance alows for physical and psychological health through longer duration spaceflight safeties. Achieving the necessary engineering… [END OF PREVIEW]

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