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Literature Review on PartnershipsResearch Paper

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Cross Sector Partnerships -- Lit Review

In the modern world of business and society, it is being increasingly expected that business should take a larger role in solving social and environmental problems. While companies and business organizations are taking up the challenge of not only solving the problems of society and environment but also improve their operational and financial performance. For this reason business as well as organizations and government are looking towards development of more partnerships and critical associations to work jointly to solve social problems.

According to Marco Albani and Kimberly Henderson (2014) there are several challenges that are presented by sectional boundaries of different subjects by many ecosystems and it thus becomes necessary that importance be accorded to cross jurisdictional partnerships that can transcend the boundaries through the systemic changes beyond that are often beyond the capabilities of individual companies and even for an entire industry (Albani and Henderson, 2014).

The forging of these cross sectional partnerships can lead to the elimination of the challenges posed by individual social problem that are beyond the scope of a particular company or business. Partnerships can effectively forged with governments, investors, local communities and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) across sections and boundaries. Companies can also partner up with other companies that are from outside the industry and work together to solve the issues and problems beyond their reach more efficiently.

Very often these partnerships are viewed as joint ventures that are distinctive and complicated and forged between multiple parties. There are many examples of such cross sectional partnerships that are forged to solve problems that are complex and often not beyond the reach of a single organization. Agranoff and McGuire (2003) claim that such cross sectional collaborations are becoming increasingly essential for solving of the most difficult public challenges in society (Acar and Robertson, 2004). Goldsmith and Eggers (2004) says some of the pressing global social problems like combating AIDS pandemic, terrorism, domestic problems like universal education, increasing gap between income classes and races require effective partnerships that cut across boundaries of expertise and reach of different organizations (Googins and Rochlin, 2000).

Such cross sector partnerships are based on common understanding of the problem, mutual agreements and efficient and close collaboration between the partnering agencies and organizations. For example, in the bid to reduce the pandemic of AIDS, there are numerous examples where the business has partnered with NGOs and government organizations (Shenkar and Reuer, 2006). Mandell (2001) and Rethemeyer (2005) claim that it is nearly impossible to imagine solutions to certain social problems of a global nature without cross sector partnerships (Lawrence and Weber, n.d.).

Goldsmith and Eggers (2004) says that it has been assumed that cross sector collaboration has become increasingly necessary and desirable for the purposes of formulating strategies for addressing the a large number of societal problems that are most among the difficult of public challenges. Researchers define cross sectional collaboration and partnerships as association that include the governments, the business organizations, philanthropies and not for profit organizations, the local communities and the public as a whole or part. It is also evident from the nature and number of possible elements of cross sectional partnership that it is not an easy task to bring together these some or all of these elements and drive them with a single agenda and create effective collaboration. Crosby and Bryson (2005) say that such cross sectional partnerships resides the midrange of the spectrum of how organizations from various backgrounds work on public problems. While on one end of the spectrum, lies those elements that are non-related to each other and the problem and there is hardly any possibility of coordination between them while dealing with a public problem. It is often observed that the social problems are way beyond the capabilities of such elements (Selsky, 2005).

At the other extreme of the spectrum are those organizations that have merged their authority and capabilities to forge new entities all together in order to handle the complex social problems.

The middle range that Crosby and Bryson talks about comprises of organizations and association that share information with each other and coordinate their initiatives to tackle the problems. Such partnerships are developed through a concept of shared-power arrangements that take the shape of collaborations that can often a separate and distinct organizational form. The organizations also share a common aim - to pool their… [END OF PREVIEW]

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