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Kant and Nietzsche on Reason

Kant and Nietzsche: "Categorical" or "Chimerical" Imperatives Kant's entire philosophical project is grounded in the primary and universal applicability of reason -- practical and "pure" -- and his moral theory is no exception. From the moment he discards the idea of an innate "moral instinct" or conscience as the basis of moral authority (Kant 10), rationality becomes the only possible…

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My Philosophy Over Different Philosophers Scientists

Philosophy My philosophy over different philosophers/scientists In a book by that title, Paul Kurtz asks, "science and religion: are they compatible?" His answer is that though both may be valid, they are only minimally compatible. Religion, he suggests, is the creative and poetic expression of the human imagination which seeks to create answers to those unexplained aspects of life which…

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Philosophy Field Trip Realism: A

This agreement is necessary because a belief is what one is prepared to act upon, and only actions based on beliefs that agree with the facts promise to head to the desired outcomes. Pragmatists recognize that human beings are within nature rather than looking at nature from the outside in. Human beings interact with nature, and human intelligence is social.…

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Plato and the Apology

Plato and the Apology Philosophy is an intellectual discipline that exercises logic and reason in its quest to comprehend reality. Philosophy always seeks answers to the fundamental questions of life. It also tries to answer the question concerning human nature, morality and knowledge. Every dimension of life, from the composition of democratic governments to computer software, has its origin in…

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Aristotle & Metaphysics Aristotle Calls

Man is naturally capable according to the thought of Aristotle to find upon seeking God and upon man's discovery of God the Creator is bound in worship and adoration. Without the discovery of God, man lives in a state of imperfection and in a state of wandering endlessly without reason or rhyme for living and has no manner of knowing whether he is living in a positive or negative manner. While men will in their first philosophy attain different levels of wisdom and knowing that can in no way be held as universality the ultimate discovery of man in first philosophy is that of a higher or supreme and knowing being referred to in religions as God. Through the discovery of God by man, theology naturally develops thereby enabling the spread of various religions and cultures adhere to specific religious thought. Bibliography Madison, RD. (2008) First Philosophy. Aristotle's Concept of Metaphysics. ProQuest. 2008. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=-HcrX8RoR98C&dq=Aristotle+metaphysics:+first+philosophy+or+theology&source=gbs_navlinks_s Marie-Dominique Phillipe (1983) First Philosophy, Theology, and Wisdom According to Aristotle. Community of Saint John 2007 originally published in Paradigmes de theologie philosophique 1983. Wians, William Robert (1996) Aristotle's Philosophical Development. Rowman & Littlefield. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=wE6zGzX5nfsC&dq=Aristotle+metaphysics:+first+philosophy+or+theology&source=gbs_navlinks_s…

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Hume's Problem of Induction David

However, arguing for the inductive rule on the basis of (unproven) induction is a circular argument which cannot be considered valid. If, as Hume suspects, induction does not work, than how can anything be proved inductively -- let alone the theory of induction itself? The conclusion that induction is valid is only true if the premises that proceed it are…

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Broken Down to the Question of 'What

¶ … broken down to the question of 'what exactly constitutes knowledge?' This is a question that has plagued philosophers since the beginning of time. Although the majority of the great philosophers seem to equate knowledge with belief, in at least its most basic sense, questions remain regarding what is fact and what is only believed to be fact. In…

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Minds and Computers Dennett Explains

It can only act within the parameters of its programming, and cannot think for itself. He says, "Research in artificial intelligence (which has produced, among other things, the chess-playing computer) proceeds by working from an Intentionally characterized problem (how to get the computer to consider the right sorts of information, make the right decision) to a design-stance solution -- an approximation of optimal design" (Dennett 1971, pages 99-100). The major difference between man and machine is the ability to apply experience, logic, and reason to a given situation, which only human beings are capable of doing. The other major difference is the fact that human beings apply emotion to situations, sometimes going so far as to trust the suggestions of the heart rather than those offered by the cognitive function. Machines obviously do not have emotions and therefore their actions will not be tempered by their feelings. Computers and other machines can be programmed with certain characteristics, even with an ability which we could call "thinking." That is to say, a computer can be programmed to behave in a certain way when confronted with certain stimuli. A computer will not be able to refuse an action unless it has program code within it which gives it the ability to do so. Machines do not have sentience or self-awareness. They are not able to overcome their programming and commit an action which they have not been directed to do by some human person. For this reason, machines are very different from people in terms of intentionality. Works Cited Churchland, P.M. (1999). Matter and Consciousness: a Contemporary Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind. Bradford: Cambridge, MA. Dennett, D.C.……

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Toulmin Model and Sherlock Holmes

But even if the great Sherlock Holmes did have feelings for Irene Adler, he still maintained his investigation and tricked her into revealing the location of the photograph. Under the Toulmin model, this would be considered to be a "qualifying statement." Holmes' feelings of infatuation with Irene Adler did not get in the way of him carrying out his duty to the King of Bohemia. Firstly, he infiltrated her household, gathering information, and then concocted a scheme not only to get back inside of her house, but to have her inadvertently reveal the location of the photograph. With Dr. Watson's aid, Holmes faked a fire and a panicked Irene Adler went for the photograph. His seeming fascination for the intelligent and beautiful woman did not limit either his dedication or shrewdness. Holmes may have been experiencing feelings for a woman for the first time, but he did not completely lose his head, only his objectivity. Finally, in a Toulmin argument there must be a "rebuttal" in which a counterargument is made; and in "A Scandal in Bohemia" a counterargument could be made that while Holmes did in fact have feelings for Irene Adler, these feelings did not lead to her outwitting him. Ms. Adler did escape with the photograph, this cannot be denied, but it may have been that Holmes intentionally allowed her to escape. Sherlock Holmes was not greatly impressed by the European monarchies, and his dealing with them often left him with a bad impression. And one should not forget that Holmes is the greatest consulting detective of all time, not easily fooled. Sherlock Holmes discovered the whereabouts of the photograph during the evening, but waited until the following day to attempt to retrieve it. Was he so preoccupied with his success that he did not notice a disguised Irene Adler on the street, or was he even further impressed by her wile? Holmes may have decided that his feelings for Irene Adler outweighed his duty to the King of Bohemia and deliberately appeared to be outwitted; allowing her to escape. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's "A Scandal in Bohemia" is an unusual Sherlock Holmes tale, not only is Holmes asked to perform a robbery, but he fails. The reason for this appears to be the fact that he developed feelings for his suspect, and there is a great deal of evidence to support this. These feelings seem to…

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Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Are

Plato's other theories include his political theory described in his Republic that is concerned with the question of justice and his theory of the enlightened 'philosopher-king' providing the political leadership. Aristotle (384-322 BC) Aristotle was the third great Greek philosopher and scientist who was a pupil of Plato at his academy. Aristotle's range of intellectual thought is astonishingly vast covering most of the sciences (physics, chemistry, zoology, botany), philosophy (metaphysics, logic, ethics, psychology, political theory) and arts (history, rhetoric, literary theory). Apart from his pioneering work in science, particularly in the study of zoology, Aristotle's most notable work as a philosopher is in the field of 'logic' as he invented the study of formal logic and devised a system known as 'Aristotelean syllogistic' that for centuries was regarded as the sum of logic. In psychology Aristotle made a deep study of the soul and concluded that soul does not exist apart from the body. In this theory he has challenged the Platonic description of the soul. Aristotle's philosophy of Ethics is an analysis of character and intelligence as they relate to happiness. In his study of metaphysics he argues for the existence of a divine being described as the Prime Mover who is responsible for the unity and purpose of nature. Legacy The legacy and influence of the three great Greek philosophers on human thought, society and culture has been all pervasive. Socrates can be credited with setting the wheels of 'rational argument' and importance of 'knowledge' in motion carried forward by his disciple Plato. A 20th century thinker sums up the extent of Plato's influence by describing the history of philosophy as "a series of footnotes to Plato." Aristotle's philosophy helped to shape modern language and common sense, while his doctrine of the Prime mover helped shape theology in the three great religions (Christianity, Judaism and Islam) of the world. Greek Philosophers…

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Individuals and Researchers Should Never

First, individuals and organizations should identify the issue or problems that needs to be addressed. Next, groups and individuals need to identify and outline all possible courses of action in response to the issue or problem. Third, individuals and organizations must outline and evaluate the various advantages and disadvantages associated with each potential option. Fourth, groups and individuals should weigh the severity and urgency of the issue or problem as well as the costs and benefits of the most desirable course of action. Fifth, individuals and organizations need to select one to two options and decide how and when to implement such alternatives in view of their needs. Sixth, upon the selection and implementation of the chosen options, groups and individuals must decide whether to alter their chosen alternatives, eliminate their course of action in favor of another, or to devise new solutions. Seventh, individuals and organizations must react to any unanticipated issues or problems that arise out of the implementation of their chosen course of action. Lastly, groups and individuals need to maintain sight of their original goals as well as their long-term goals and how to balance their needs with the available options. IV. TACTICS INDIVIDUALS USE TO GUIDE THEIR THINKING PROCESS Individuals use various tactics to guide their thinking process. First, groups and individuals base their thinking process on their long-term and short-term needs, both practical as well as wistful. Examples of practical objectives include financial issues (income and expenses), product related issues (i.e., new products, updating or eliminating old or unprofitable goods), personnel issues (i.e., are more or fewer employees needed, is management guiding the company properly), etc. Next, individuals and organizations use their personal beliefs (i.e., ethics, morals, religious principles) to guide their thinking process. By balancing practical goals as well as theoretical principles, groups and individuals will be in a better position to avoid unexpected pitfalls and further trouble. Lastly, groups and organizations use trial and error in order to guide their thinking process, adapting their strategy as their current and future needs dictate. V. CONCLUSION Few things in life are as invaluable as critical thinking. Not only does critical thinking affect individuals and organizations, but it also impacts society in general. Various factors involved in critical thinking include organization, logic, scientific thinking, persuasion, problem solving, evaluation, decision, and action. Each factor impacts the short-term and long run goals and options available to groups…

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Sankhya Religion

Sankhya In the discipline of philosophy, there are hundreds of schools of thought, ranging from Buddhism to Confucianism to Vendanta to many others. Whereas some philosophies lean heavily on theological principles, others borrow from more metaphysics or aesthetic principles. Still others, however, are based on combined principles of logic, calculation, reason, and rationality, combined with concepts of theology. Sankhya, a…

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Aquinas and Descartes the Discourse

The classical argument for dualism is made by Rene Descartes ... In his Meditations (first published in 1641). Descartes was writing during the very first stirrings of what was later to become the Enlightenment. Natural (experimental) science was beginning to emerge and was differentiating itself from magical and religious ideas. Descartes (though a religious man) wanted to contribute to this.…

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Metaphysics and Its Relevancy to Ethics in

Metaphysics and Its Relevancy to Ethics in the 21st Century The first step toward knowing anything is always finding out. -- Louise Ropes Loomis, 1943 Throughout history, mankind has been searching for the secrets of the universe and what part we play in it. Early philosophers used metaphysical analyses to help them discern these mysteries, with varying degrees of success.…

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Pascal's View of the Heart

He criticizes reason as something "which would judge all, but not to impugn our certainty, as if only reason were capable of instructing us." Oddly enough, however, if God is the source of our being, even if reason is inferior to the emotions, why is reason, although it can be a source of misapprehension of our own place in the world or truths about God, something to be criticized. Even if reason is secondary, should it not be celebrated as well as human emotion, if the two are used together? Pascal's focus on the 'first' quality of emotions before reasons deny this, in fact, he later says, "Would to God, on the contrary, that we had never need of it [reason], and that we knew everything by instinct and intuition! But nature has refused us this boon. On the contrary, she has given us but very little knowledge of this kind; and all the rest can be acquired only by reasoning." Pascal speaks of God, but he also speaks of 'nature' as a separate entity to the Universal Being, as something that refuses humans the ability to exist by emotional impulses alone, and requires them to use interfering reason to calculate and stay alive in what is, after all, a fallen world. This seems to be contradicting his statement that God is present in all things, including the human heart -- why is God-given human excellence also not present in human reason? Pascal's statement regarding nature and reason may reflect the sense that human beings and sin are intertwined, and the fall from Eden that came from eating the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge now sadly requires human beings to use reason to survive in a fallen……

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Thomas Paine's Enlightenment Views

Paine Thomas Paine's political, religious, and social philosophy burst upon the late eighteenth century scene to great acclaim. He emerged as one of the primary leaders of the Western enlightenment and played a role in both the American and French revolutions, while simultaneously attempting to garner the budding revolutionary movements within England. Altogether, his philosophy has maintained its appeal and…

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Ethnography There Is No Such

Man must make sure that he takes care of his needs above all things. All too often it can become a habit where a man considers the things he desires to be things that are necessity when in reality they are luxuries and have no determination in whether the man lives or dies. The rooster reveals that he was once the great philosopher Pythagoras. For the philosophers, the eating of beans was as much an atrocity as "eating the head of your father." However, as a chicken, beans are the means by which the rooster must sustain himself. Similarly, as a man Pythagoras was not immune to the call of cold and immense ability of mankind to feel greed and yet as a chicken he can see the folly of misplaced ambition. In order to understand the cultures of Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece, scholars must look at the documentary evidence that has been left behind. One of the ways that these historians and other scholars are able to explore this evidence is by the utilization of the techniques of literary ethnography. Of these myriad techniques, some of the most important and effective tools in the scholar's toolkit are looking at documentation through certain lenses. Looking at the ways a culture engages in argumentation and debate allows people in the present to view how people in the past came to conclusions and by which logic and reason these individuals came to these conclusions. Providence is the belief that there is something in the universe that controls everything. In the cultures described, the philosophers were only able to understand the world in the event that there was an all-powerful deity who had already decided what would befall each and every being on the planet. Finally, the philosophers of the culture advocated a simplistic and less materialistic existence than some of their fellow men. This combination of individual concepts allows scholars and historians to have a greater understanding of the ancient cultures under investigation. Works Cited: Aphthonius of Antioch. "Progymnasmata." Diogenes and Crates. "Principal Representatives of Cynic Philosophy." Epictetus. "A Stoic View……

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George Berkeley Nature of Existence

I do not understand how then would he believe in God whom no one has ever seen. Even if he is able to picture him, what evidence can be provided to prove that the God in his mind is the same God we have heard of or read about? This means that even mind cannot be fully trusted. I feel that if a thing exists in matter, then it is there, whether we believe it or not. Our senses do help us in feeling and imagining the properties of that ting or being but we cannot say that just because our minds are unable to picture such a thing means it doesn't exist altogether. Philonous tries to establish the validity of his argument by presenting various examples. He believes that as long senses help us, we can imagine the existence of a person but if our senses fail us, then it means that the thing or person doesn't exist at all. However this is again ridiculous. Suppose you do not posses any of the five senses, but there is someone sitting right in front of you. You cannot see, feel or smell him but yet someone is trying to tell you that a person is sitting in front of you. It is only natural that you would doubt his existence since you cannot sense the person. So far Philonous's ideas appear valid and plausible but what if that person rises and stabs you in the chest. Would you still doubt his presence? Sure you couldn't picture him but now that you are injured, would you still remain in doubt about his presence? In other words, there is definitely such a thing as matter, which exists whether or not our minds can perceive it. Galaxies exist because we have reasons to believe they do and similarly Jesus Christ did exist even though no one today can claim to have seen him. We cannot claim to have an idea of him since ideas are based on senses and none of our senses have ever close to him. We haven't seen, touched or smelled him but still believe that he came to this world. So we can say with certainly matter exists whether perceived or……

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Critical Thinking Process

Critical Thinking Process CRITICAL THINKING Critical Thinking Processes The critical thinking process is a form of thinking that is used to make decisions and to understand the world around us in a questioning way. The essence of critical thought is that it does not presume but investigates and questions an issue from a number of different angles. A definition of critical thinking is; "Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Another way to describe it is reasonable, reflective, responsible, and skillful thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do" (Schafersman, 1991, para.7). It is also important to note that critical thinking can be related to different styles or types of thinking. There are many different styles of thinking and each has certain advantages that can be employed in real life situations. I will discuss three broad categories to types of thinking; these are the logical or rational, the intuitive and the abstract thinking styles and the abstract sequential. 2. Concrete sequential thinking Logical or rational thinking is more formally known as concrete sequential thinking. This form of thinking is characterized by sequential step-by-step linear progression (CS:Concrete SequentialThinking Style, para.2). This type of thinking process is also very logical and methodical and is firmly based in the world of objective facts and verifiable proof. It is also a mode of thought that tends to avoid subjective feelings and emotions that would cloud any objectivity. The emphasis in this type of thinking is on the term 'sequential' in that the thinking process tends to occur in terms of a progression of facts that are ordered according to reason and logic. The concrete sequential thinker is characterized by one commentator as follows; "…reality consists of what they can detect through their physical sense of sight, touch, sound, taste and smell. They notice and recall details easily and remember facts specific information, formulas and rules with ease" ( Learning Styles.'Gregoric Learning Styles', section 5). These are thinkers who tend to use the rational or left brain functions and who solve problems in terms of logic and by using detail. It should also be noted that there are many variations to this category, such as concrete random thinking. A concrete random thinking process is one that takes a more experimental and trial-and-error approach. 3. Abstract thinking While the rational and consequential thinker tends…

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Subjectivism Is a Result of Someone Making

Subjectivism is a result of someone making a decision based on their feelings, which can affect the outcome of situations. "Simple Subjectivism: What does it mean to say that ethics is subjective? The simplest version of the theory says that if you say "x is wrong" then what you mean is "I disapprove of x." In other words, you are reporting on your own attitude. It is hard to imagine anyone being mistaken about their own attitude (e.g. thinking they are pro-life but really being pro-choice), so if simple subjectivism is true then nobody who says "x is wrong" is likely to be wrong. This sounds strange. If someone says "Courage is bad" aren't they wrong? Well, it depends what you mean by 'wrong'. If you mean morally wrong then subjectivism does not say. Remember that it is not a theory about what is right and what is wrong. According to simple subjectivism people are only infallible in their moral judgments in the sense that people cannot be mistaken about what they feel is right or wrong. Strange as it might sound, this could well be right. After all, a mistake is a kind of accident, and people's beliefs about ethics might be misguided but they are surely never accidents. So perhaps we really cannot be mistaken in our moral judgments" (Subjectivism in Ethics). Therefore, there cannot be a one moral code for everyone, which makes subjectivism valid. Discussion In Jim Holt's essays about Sartre, it is clearly presented that Sartre believes that people create their own world in order to deal with their reality. Within his ideas, "Memories seem unimportant to Pablo now. The woman he loves no longer seems important. Death itself is an aberration, almost impossible to conceive. But psychologically the characters do pass from life to death before the guards come to take them away. However, there is an ironic twist to the ending" (the WALL Jean-Paul Sartre). This completely supports the idea of subjectivism because people create their own world in order to deal with reality, which means their feelings affect their moral judgment. People justify everything by their own psychologically reasons, which are not by society's standards like Sartre's story of the woman with the unfortunate husband. "The Bedroom' begins with a woman suffering from some unnamed illness, lying in bed. She and her husband are concerned for their daughter whose husband is descending…

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Abrahamic Faith True Power: An

This quotation demonstrates one of the primary differences between knights of resignation and knights of faith. The latter keeps their faith even in the most "absurd" of circumstances, such as when they are gripping a weapon in a preordained location to sacrifice their first born. In such a situation the knight of faith completes the final part of this movement by taking the leap of the absurd, which allows him to still believe in a joyous outcome despite the most inauspicious of circumstances. It is because Abraham never once doubted God's will, and the end result of the sacrifice as congruent to God's prophecies for Abraham and Isaac -- despite the glaring incongruence of the situation he found himself in -- that Abraham's faith is highly admirable and beyond the understanding of most people. It is because of this quotation and the delineation of the author of the distinction between the conceptions of the knight of infinite resignation and the knight of faith that no one who read (and understood) Fear and Trembling could mistake this Abraham for anything less than what he was -- a devoutly pious adherent to God who believed in his word and will beyond everything else. The difference between these two types of knights is also evinced in the terming of the action of Abraham. It is highly significant that Abraham was prepared to sacrifice his son, Isaac. The diction is fairly important because sacrifices have religious connotations and allude to the fact that Abraham was willing to take the life of his son for a higher purpose ordained by God. Knights of infinite resignation, on the other hand, would have prepared themselves for the murder or the killing of their child for the simple fact that God had ordained it. Such a murder of course would have conflicted with the law of the land, whereas a sacrifice demanded by God supersedes the law of man and is contingent upon a supreme faith that Abraham was able to muster. The distinction between these two types of knights (of faith and of infinite resignation) is integral to Kierkegaard's praise for Abraham and a testament to the fact that Abraham's faith is largely beyond the comprehension of those less pious, and less devout. It is largely because of the ineffable quality of Abraham's faith that Kierkegaard is successful in proving that any man able to summon such…

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John Dewey (1859-1952) Is Widely Regarded as

John Dewey (1859-1952) is widely regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. Although Dewey's contributions lie along several fronts, he is perhaps best known for the significant impact he made on the development of educational thinking. However, it is important to note that John Dewey was first and foremost a philosopher, whose work resulted in…

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Opposite Attraction: What the World

" We become aware of one cannot exist without the other. Desire and energy require logic or they would cease to exist. Similarly, logic cannot completely control desire and energy. Neither can be seen as absolutely good. As we see, the Angel, who is now become a Devil, is my particular friend; we often read the Bible together in its infernal or diabolical sense, which the world shall have if they behave well" (XXV.16-8). This image represents the complete unity that Blake is reaching for in this text. Because the angel is transformed, We too must undergo a type of transformation to understand the complexity of this issue. It is important to note that the devil did not kill the angel nor did the angel kill the devil. This also illustrates the union that Blake is describing. He wishes to create in this a story an environment where the two opposites can exist peacefully. As we have observed, Blake did not support the notion that good and evil should be seen as separate and opposite entities. Stewart notes that Blake's description of good and evil "puts forth the argument that man is a two-fold being with a capacity for good and evil" (Stewart). In addition, Stewart maintains that Blake does not argue that "good and evil are separate and in constant strife over an individual, and the only way an individual can achieve regeneration is to cast out the evil by the good; but, instead, he argues that because one's capacity for evil is capable of producing good it should be transformed into doing this" (Stewart). Blake was reaching for a world where both good and evil could exist together. In fact, we can believe that "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell" is a plea for such a society. In conclusion, William Blake's "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell" offers us a unique perspective as seen through the eyes of the devil. It is from this perspective that Blake is allowed more freedom to express what he thinks about traditional religious beliefs. The character of the devil also allows Blake to employ satire in ways that only the devil can understand. However, the irony and satire are necessary in this story because of Blake's complex subject matter. Irony softens the blow, so to speak, and it allows Blake to express himself freely. His concept of a reconciliation between good and…

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Role in Any Process of

For this reason, this type of logical fallacy is also considered a Red Herring, as it attempts to divert attention from the main issue. It is important to note, here, that the "two wrongs make a right" fallacy must be distinguished from cases of retaliation, punishment or self-defense, as these are not logically wrong though they may, at times, still constitute immoral actions (Curtis, 2001-2004). Thus, when an organization is accused of wrongdoing, if it justifies its actions by pointing to similar or other acts of wrongdoing by other firms, the argument is based on a "two wrongs make a right" fallacy. Indeed, this was precisely the case with the Arthur Anderson argument, when it tried to defend its involvement with Enron's unethical accounting practices by stating that its approach was in line with industry wide practices. In such a situation, it is vital that critical thinking skills are applied in order that judgment is exercised purely on the individual merits or demerits of the case. The red herring fallacy, which is also known as ignorance of refutation, shares a great deal of similarity with the two fallacies discussed earlier. This is because all three fallacies attempt to digress from the main argument. However, the red herring fallacy refers to an argument that is based on premises, which are logically irrelevant to its conclusion (Curtis, 2001-2004). For example, if a business that is accused of creating unacceptable levels of pollution argues that it is generating employment for thousands of people and that it pays millions of dollars in taxes, it is using premises that are irrelevant to the conclusion. As such, decisions in such cases must take place only after all such irrelevant reasons are weeded out. The three fallacies discussed in this paper belong to the broader category of informal fallacies, which rely on ambiguity and emotional appeal instead of logic and reason. As such, critical thinking tends to be more vulnerable to these types of fallacies. It is, therefore, important that critical thinkers develop the necessary skills to ensure that reasoning is based on verifiable facts and relevant premises, and not on fallacies of logic. References Blair, J.A., Grootendorst, R.F., Henkemans, F.S., Johnson, R.H., Krabbe, E.C.W., Plantin, C.H., Van Eemeren, F.H., Walton, D.N., Willard, C.A., Woods, J.A., Zarefsky, D.F. (1996). Fundamentals of Argumentation Theory: A Handbook of Historical Backgrounds and Contemporary Developments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Curtis,…

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Logic Paraphrase: "There Are Reasons to Be

Logic Paraphrase: "There are reasons to be upset at the existence of the wealth gap: it creates political instability, violent crime, shortened life spans, and is simply unfair." The only major change made I turning the rhetorical question ("Why decry the wealth gap?") into a statement that clearly expresses the author's intent and meaning. The paraphrase more clearly lays out the argument largely because of this starting point, however it was already fairly explicit and arguably more rhetorically effective in its original form. An editorial in the April 13 New York Times argues that greater federal regulation of the mining industry is needed in order to prevent mine disasters and limit the deaths caused by future accidents through greater safety procedures. The basic premise is that there is are no effective means for ensuring compliance with current safety standards, as evidenced by the repeated violations at the Upper Big Branch mine in West Virginia where an explosion killed twenty-nine men. The conclusion is that greater federal oversight and regulation will ensure greater safety by preventing similar accidents and loss of life. 3) The three basic functions of language are informational ("The door is open."), expressive ("Open doors seem vulnerable.") and directive ("Close the door."). 4) The anthropogenic cause of global warming is a source of real disagreement in the political and scientific spheres -- though the Earth is warming, it could be due to natural causes. All arguments amongst politicians concerning "what the American people want" are merely verbal, as the American people clearly do not think with a unified mind but rather want many different and often mutually exclusive things. The argument over gun……

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Hellenistic Philosophy the Skeptics View

According to Plotinus anxiety is experienced by the separation of like and like. As the individual transcends from the material world through the Soul to the One, he comes closer to the ideal of purity, unity and eternity. This enables him to eliminate the anxiety by attaining the highest state of goodness. 10. The Hellenistic concept of tranquility is termed as ataraxia, which is a freedom from anxiety and disturbance. It signifies a state of content with one's fortune and fate. Various schools of philosophers have attempted to discover the path to the Hellenistic ideal of mental tranquility and have presented conflicting theories. According to the Hellenistic philosophers the pursuit of Hellenistic tranquility requires the pursuit of knowledge that is attainable and that helps in relieving mental anxieties. The Skeptics advocate a suspension of judgment and moderation in affect to avoid anxiety about the truth of things. The Stoics on the other hand adopt a dogmatic approach. The Epicureans focus on the pursuit of pleasurable experiences to avoid anxiety. The price to be paid for tranquility varies under each philosophy varying from avoiding the search for the truth to relying on established principles to undertaking the search on the strength of free will. Depending on which philosophy one subscribes to, the attainment of a state of inner peace and contentment……

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Philosophy Kuhn's Rationale on the

The more troubling comparison, however, is to coercion.[footnoteRef:5] [5: J. Rouse. 'Kuhn's Philosophy of Science Practice.' Division I Faculty Publications. Paper 18, , 2002 . ] Other authors agree with Kuhn and can see the rationale of his argument for the irrational nature of science and the irrationality part of the nature of scientific revolutions. Rouse recognizes as Kuhn did…

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Philosophy Ideology and Theory

Educational Ideology, Philosophy, And Theory Differentiating Ideology, Philosophy, and Theory The concepts of ideology, philosophy, and theory are interrelated in ways that account for difficulty in understanding their distinctions (Rosenstand, 2008). The fact, for example, that all ideologies incorporate (or are based on) one or more philosophy is one source of potential confusion; the fact that the converse is sometimes but not necessarily always true is another source of potential confusion (Rosenstand, 2008; Wiley, 1995). In principle, ideology refers to a set of beliefs and often to a larger view (or a worldview); philosophy represents a systematic intellectual inquiry intended to help understand the nature of reality; and theory is a methodological approach to interpreting reality accurately and in a manner consistent with the available empirical data (Rosenstand, 2008; Wiley, 1995). Within the realm of education, for example, the belief that modern education is deficient for specific reasons would be an ideology; the position that the key to improving education lies in better meeting the needs of all students through recognition of the differences in their learning styles and preferences would be a philosophy; and a testable hypothesis about the efficacy of various teaching methods in relation to different learning styles would be an example of a theory. Ideology and Philosophy Differentiated In general, ideologies are beliefs or sets of beliefs about the world or about a subset of the world of particular interest (Taylor, 2002). In contemporary American society, both political conservatism and political liberalism would constitute ideologies, as would Communism, Marxism, and Socialism. All of those ideologies encompass underlying philosophies consistent with the overall worldview shaped by the ideology. To a certain extent, different (meaning mutually inconsistent) philosophies can fit within the same ideology, provided only that they do not conflict with the more general principles or set of beliefs that define the ideology. For example, Republican conservatives may differ substantially in their particular philosophies in many areas without deviating from the core ideology of Republican conservatism. That is particularly evident today in the political extremism voiced by segments of the Republican Party whose members refer to themselves as "Tea Partiers." Likewise, every Democratic primary election campaign demonstrates the wide range of political and social (and other) philosophies among political liberals, most of whom share the worldview and ideological perspective of the Democratic Party. Ideologically, most politically conservative republicans share the worldview that government should exercise only minimal…

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Philosophy Is a One of

Philosophy is a broad science and it is normally used as an umbrella term for comprehensive body of studies. It is usually used for the study of inordinate concepts such as ethics, logic and aesthetics. But it also goes beyond these to study religion, social values, political theories etc. For many decades even psychology was considered a part of philosophy but not anymore. Every science involves philosophical problems, but the above-mentioned subjects all raise, in one form or another, the problem of values and thus start metaphysical questions of central import. Thus metaphysics is the clearing house for all fundamental philosophical problems. It is the comprehensive discipline in which all philosophical issues and theories converge. Indeed, inasmuch as the special sciences, such as physics, biology, psychology, and sociology, set out from unexamined dogmatic assumptions and issue, severally, in various uncoordinated results which require synthesis, in order to yield a consistent world view, to metaphysics belongs the twofold task of critically examining the primary assumptions of the sciences and of synthesizing their conclusions into a harmonious whole. As a critical inquiry into the validity, scope and interrelations of the respective fundamental assumptions and conclusions of the special sciences, metaphysics is the criticism of the categories, that is, of the chief concepts which man uses in the ordering and mastering of experience. But as widely accepted this branch might have been, it has also faced criticism from famous names such as Kant and Voltaire. Many felt that metaphysics was not to be given the kind of attention that it had come to garner. (Walsh, 1963, p 13) However metaphysics remains an important branch of study and continues to occupy a significant place in the world of philosophy. Philosophy is a vast field which also means that there will be as many differing views about what philosophical thought is and what is not. Stephen Stich has introduced a new dimension to the philosophical discourse by focusing on the reasons why there is low representation of women in the club exclusively catering to philosophers. He believes that there is a possibility that women do not have the same intuitions about certain philosophical queries as men and while this needs further experiments for it to become a fact, it is an interesting way of expanding on 'what is philosophy' discussion. Some of the biggest names in the world of philosophy have given us useful fodder…

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Understanding Educational Philosophies

¶ … Education Philosophies Understanding Educational Philosophies The notion of education refers to the learning process that continues from the time a person is born till the time of his death. Individuals engage themselves in the learning process in order to gain knowledge that can shape and contour their learning styles. Teachers and trainers in this regard play a significant role for the students that aid them in their learning process during their formal education in elementary, middle, high school and beyond (Vang, 2010). In this regard, educational philosophy is an academic field of applied philosophy that bolsters and supports a specific vision and idea of education. The definition, objectives and significance of teaching and learning process is evaluated in the process of applied philosophy. This philosophical study of education is more like guiding principles that help the students learn about education and its related issues (Vang, 2010). However, different educational philosophies have been developed over the course of years. Metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic are the areas of philosophy that is extensively connected to the field of education (Vang, 2010). Metaphysics is one of the branches of philosophy that focuses on the study of existence and deep nature of reality. Physically living and non-living things are learned though metaphysics that incorporates the earth, humans, space, time, cause & effect and change. Nonetheless, it has been observed that a number of diverse fields of interest are being elucidated by the concept of metaphysics that include religion, spirituality, parapsychology, astrology, meditation, reincarnation and so forth (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010). This means that it has immense connectivity to the field of education as it facilitates in the process of understanding of various concepts regarding the society, civilization, nation and the world on a broad spectrum. In addition, it also enhances the ability to realize the developments in religions and communities that would lead to critical and abstract thinking, thus resulting in coherent and lucid expression of perceptions in both verbal and written communication (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010). Epistemology is also a field of philosophy that concentrates on the theoretical study of knowledge that particularly highlights the nature, scope and downsides of knowledge. Additionally, this branch of philosophy is hypothetically related to the study of intellect science. The examination of nature of knowledge has been the aspect of arguments. Indeed, this field has remained a debatable and controversial arena…

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Philosophy Structures Structure One: In

He is too lazy to do this and too afraid of making the wrong choice. Reasons: "Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed nonage. Nonage is the inability to use one's own understanding without another's guidance" (Kant 1). "This nonage is self-imposed if its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in indecision and lack of courage to use one's own mind without another's guidance" (Kant 1). "Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why such a large part of mankind gladly remain minors all their lives, long after nature has freed them from external guidance. They are the reasons why it is so easy for others to set themselves up as guardians" (Kant 1). Conclusion: "Thus it is very difficult for the individual to work himself out of the nonage which has become almost second nature to him. He has even grown to like it, and is at first really incapable of using his own understanding because he has never been permitted to try it" (Kant 2). I think the argument that Kant considers has this form: Enlightenment is escape from nonage, which is the inability to decide for the self without influence from others. Men do not want to take this responsibility because they are too lazy or too afraid. Therefore most men do not strive for enlightenment but remain burdened by requiring guidance. However, I think Kant's objection to this argument fails, for this reason: Kant assumes that guidance is a bad thing and that a person is either lazy or afraid for making their own choices. It is necessary to think about one's actions before a course is chosen and seeking guidance or wisdom from others is not a form of weakness, but rather the ability to understand that a person does not necessarily see a situation from all perspectives. Making a choice with blinders on is not making a good decision. Works Cited Darwin, Charles. "Natural Selection; or the Survival of the Fittest." The Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection. Cambridge: Cambridge Library Collection.……

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Moral Philosophy Can Desires and

Which type of foundation for such duties do you find more convincing? Why? Kant deems that certain forms of actions such as theft, lying and murder are extremely prohibited even in situations where such actions would lead to happiness. The wrongness or rightness of activities neither does nor rely on their upshots, but rather on the duty they fulfill. According…

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Naturalists and Materialists Philosophy Is

For example, he argued that earthquakes were caused by waves within the water that the earth sets on (33). Without having seismographs and plate tectonics to counter this assumption, it was a perfectly logical conclusion for the man to reach and he used it as proof of the water on earth hypothesis. As he employed all of these in his theory, Thales has to be credited with perhaps the first established scientific theory about the workings of the universe. Besides this "Grand Unified Theory," Thales was also involved in the burgeoning of several philosophical ideologies. He is credited with the first uses of monism in philosophical thought. At the core of all human existence, he argued was a sense of shared community. Even more, this unity somehow impacted every living things that existed on the planet. Humans, animals, plants all shared this unity which was unseen and even largely unfelt except in the cases of close kinships such as family or friends. Those we hate even are part of this universal united entity within. Everything was somehow connected with everything else on the planet by a soul or some kind of a life force. The world itself, he believed, was a living entity and so what was life and what was matter were inseparable concepts. More than just humanity and nature, Thales was interested in knowing to define what it was which made up all material objects. He wanted to know what it was within an object or a living thing which gave it the properties and characteristic normal to that item. In this too he eventually determined that the basis of all matter was in water. Humanity has taken this philosophy and expanded it. For example, scientists have agreed that in interplanetary exploration looking for sources of water will indicate life on these distant planets. A theory that was discovered millennia ago still has merit within a far more technologically advanced age. This is just one example of how both pre- and post-Socratic philosophers impacted the rest of humanity. These early ideas of Thales encouraged other early pre-Socratic philosophers to try to figure out what that life force might be. If it was agreed upon that all things in the world were connected then it was the job of philosophers to identify it and explain it in the best way possible. This was the burgeoning of the naturalist philosophical…

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Philosophy the Roots of Modern

Hegel's views are similar to Kant's, as Hegel holds that philosophy should become self-critical and aware of its own limitations. On the other hand, Hegel argues that such self-critical reflection demands that philosophy be aware of the genesis, context, and development of itself. Hegel presented a modern, subjective point-of-view, saying that the existence of objects in space around us is doubtful and it is not possible to gain knowledge of the world through rational thought alone. Locke criticized the common rationalistic belief in knowledge without experience. Locke took modern philosophy in a new direction, from the analysis of the physical world to the study of the mind. This made epistemology, which studies the nature of knowledge, the main concern of modern philosophy. Locke's philosophy tried to reduce all ideas to simple elements of experience, yet he distinguished sensation and reflection as sources of experience. While contemporary Western culture constantly changes and evolves, it is still modern in many ways. Still, this culture had changed from being mainly modern to post-modern. For example, modern philosophy centered on universal, absolute truth, while post-modern thought is centered on pluralistic, personal truths and personal statements. One problem with modern thinkers is that they assume that viewpoints are more homogeneous than they are. Our current awareness of diversity forces us to change these modern arguments to fit into a society with multiple cultures, religions, and value systems. For example, in the Grounding, Kant argues that all rational creatures have a duty to keep their promises. Treating other rational creatures as ends rather than means best supports Kant's moral theory. However, relying on universal applicability does not logically convince me to accept his arguments. Modern philosophers believed that human reasoning could find absolute truth and tried to prove the existence of God. Post-modern thinkers believe that, since flaws and biases exist, truth can never be found. Who knows what the absolute truth is? In my post-modern thoughts, no one does. Maybe there is an existing complete truth but we will never understand it perfectly, as only God has that power.……

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Philosophy of Education Create an Outline Communicating

Philosophy of Education Create an outline communicating your educational philosophy using the following guidelines. Consider the historical development as it impacts educational philosophy. The modern classroom is nothing like the classroom of even two decades ago. In most areas of the country, 40% of the class is of non-Anglo descent, many do not speak English as their first language, and, according to the National Center for Educational Statistics, this trend is rapidly growing to where it is projected by 2020 there will be less than 30% Caucasians in the modern classroom (IES, 2010). What does this mean for the contemporary teacher? Certainly, no teacher can be expected to know every language, or be familiar with every culture from every student. However, is that what is meant by diversity in education or necessary to be effective as a modern teacher? In essence, the idea of diversity in the classroom is to operate with the idea of a global village and overlap in cultures within the microcosm of the classroom. This means simply that the modern educator be sensitive about culture, gender, sexuality, and individual differences within the classroom. History, for instance, has been incredibly Eurocentric and male oriented for generations. What this has meant in the classroom is that white males of European descent have been emphasized as those who were important to the human race opposed to others. Successful diversity within the classroom simply encourages a change in curriculum and focus: look at history from alternative points-of-view; look at innovation cross-culturally; look at the contributions women and minorities made towards technology and historical development; ask questions about a student's own cultural development and heritage and allow them to celebrate that (Rosebery, et.al., eds., 2001). ii) Reflect on your belief statements in Module 1 and create your mission statement as an educator. Mission Statement: My classroom will reflect the highest standards of intellectual and social development, bringing relevant and multidisciplinary subject matter to the student in order to show that the world is a synergistic organism. Using the inquiry method, I will strive to move students from rote knowledge acquisition, to higher levels of analysis, synthesis, and actualization via Bloom's hierarchy ("Bloom's Taxonomy, 2005). iii) Describe your own educational philosophy in terms of its metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic. Metaphysics: Metaphysics is often difficult to define when focusing on tangible outcomes, but is essentially concerned with explaining the nature of being.…

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Philosophy of Descartes and Its Rational Transition

¶ … Philosophy of Descartes and its rational transition through the stages of senses, self (Cogito) and God (Innate Idea). Find two criticisms on Descartes approach to philosophy. While considering the argument over dreams, Descartes was guided to his position by a set of personal experiences. His test sample of one individual yielded the case that his mind was the…

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History of Western Philosophy: John Locke Was

History of Western Philosophy: John Locke was a little confused at first by the way this section started with Filmer's arguments in favor of the monarchy, but once Russell started speaking about Locke I realized the benefit of first setting up the theories Locke was reacting to when developing his more democratic theory of government. It is amazing to me -- as Russell said it would be to the modern mind -- that someone could have reasoned the way Filmer does. His use of the Bible -- or actually, his very selective interpretation of the Bible -- reminds me of the current ongoing debate about teaching evolution vs. creationism or "intelligent design" in public schools. In both cases, arguments are built using what looks like sound logic, but at the bottom is a premise that is inherently illogical because it derives from faith -- that kings derive their authority via hereditary inheritance from Adam, on the one hand, and that God created everything -- including fossils -- just as they are today on the other. Once I fully understood Filmer's argument, I also understood why Russell needed to start with this explanation of what the thinking was before John Locke wrote his treatises on government. Locke's ideas have become so ingrained in our modern consciousness that they often appear as self-evident facts, and an explanation of his philosophy would have seemed needlessly elementary and even obvious had it not first been explained that thinking had previously developed along radically different lines. This section also made it very clear to me in an almost tangible way that thought and philosophy des not happen in a vacuum -- it is always a product of the history that creates it. Often when studying philosophy, it feels as if the ideas helped to shape the world. To a very large degree, this is true, and Locke's ideas were used a century later in the founding of America and even to an extent in the French Revolution. This makes it abundantly clear that philosophical thought can have very real and practical applications and consequences. Russell makes it just as……

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John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism

John Stuart Mill's philosophy of utilitarianism were a popular moral guidepost for leadership today, it would be interesting to see how many leaders embrace the idea that actions are correct so long as they lead to the promotion of contemporary definitions of happiness. It would be fascinating indeed to witness the justifications for actions by leaders on moral grounds made…

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Philosophy Plato Lived a Century After Pythagoras,

Philosophy Plato lived a century after Pythagoras, though he also studied the idea of the Pythagoreans and accepted some, notably in terms of their ideas on mathematics. Plato has been considered a disciple of Pythagoras, but he should not be seen as a Pythagorean because he followed his own thought processes and developed his own view of the nature of the world. Plato learned about logic and ethics from his direct teacher, Socrates, who would also question much of what the Pythagoreans accepted. The idea of the eternal forms is one of those concepts Plato either developed himself or adapted from Socrates, for it is not always possible to tell where Socrates ends and Plato begins in the dialogues. In examining the world and the relationship of the human mind to the world, Plato found that ideas, as he used the term, are not only something in human consciousness but something outside it as well. Platonic Ideas are objective and do not depend on human thought but exist entirely in their own right. They are perfect patterns that exist in the very nature of things. Such an idea is not just a human idea but the idea of the universe itself. It is an ideal that can be expressed externally in concrete form or internally as a concept in the mind. The Idea is the foundation of reality. Plato is classified as an idealist in his philosophy, basing his view of the world on the idea that there are forms embodying this world in a state of perfection and that what we perceive in this world are only shadows of the ideal. Central to Plato's thought is the power of reason to reveal the intelligibility and order governing the changing world of appearance, with the purpose of creating, at both the political and the individual level, a harmonious and happy life. The way Plato adopted Pythagorean ideas for his eternal forms came in the idea of numerology, with the number Two represented the world of the eternal forms, a world of duality in which there is an Ideal world and a world of the sense, only the latter of which can be accessed directly, while the former is only accessed through philosophy. The ancient Greeks considered the nature of the universe and whether it was permanent or not. Heraclitus stated that it was not possible to step into the same…

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Philosophy Socrates to Sartre and Beyond: A

Philosophy Socrates to Sartre and Beyond: A History of Philosophy In Socrates to Sartre and Beyond: A History of Philosophy Samuel Enoch Stumpf and his co-author James Fieser might seem to be taking upon themselves an impossible and unwieldy task. As the title of their work proclaims, they strive to show a line of intellectual continuity between the earliest ancient…

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