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Quantum Mechanics Is a Theory

Finally, Schrdinger proposed an equation that explained how electrons could be understood as waves, while still being in agreement with the uncertainty principle. Schrdinger's equation can be seen as the final step in the process that tied together the previous theories. The other steps that led to the development of quantum mechanics were on the right track. Schrdinger's equation was the final step that allowed the theories and ideas of quantum mechanics to be successfully applied. Applying Schrdinger's equation to an atom results in a new method of understanding subatomic particles. This method is based on explaining subatomic particles by mathematical equations and on accepting subatomic particles as wave functions. A definition of quantum mechanics shows the contributions that combined to form the theory. This definition describes quantum mechanics saying, Using the energy quantum as a starting point it incorporates Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the de Broglie wavelength to establish the wave-particle duality on which Schrdinger's equation is based." This shows how quantum mechanics evolved from the various contributions that have been described. Conclusion One author describes quantum mechanics as, remarkably successful tool for calculating the properties of systems on an atomic scale, and also a system whose internal self-consistency is so compelling it has been used successfully to predict that particles of matter have previously unexpected properties and even that particles of matter not previously known must somewhere or somehow exist." look at the development of quantum mechanics has shown that it has developed out of the constant quest to understand matter. This began with the idea of the atom, continued to the idea that the atom was made up of electrons orbiting the nucleus and continued to the theories of electrons as waves that form the basis for quantum mechanics. Currently, quantum mechanics is successful in explaining the properties of matter, a success that leads to the idea that quantum mechanics will be able to explain everything. Recognizing how far quantum mechanics has come, it is also important to recognize that it is far from the end. Quantum mechanics and atomic theory will continue to develop in an attempt to explain matter, atoms and the universe. The future may be advanced quantum mechanics or it may be the development of whole new systems. Only time and continuing scientific advancement will tell. Bibliography Anderson, P. "Quantum Theory." In The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years. Ed. John Brockman.…

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String Theory the Fundamental Forces of Nature

String Theory The fundamental forces of nature include the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and gravity. One or some combination of these forces, applied to matter, is responsible for everything we can observe in the physical world. The story of strings as a plausible theory within the realm of physics stems from attempts to unify…

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Hitchhiker's Guide Douglas Adam's Comic

67), unknowingly forecasting the development of the iPod Touch. Dent and Prefect travel through space by hitchhiking, picked up by spacecraft within the improbable nanosecond during which contact could possibly occur. They travel from planet to planet in a "nothingth of a second," making their travel faster than the speed of light, given the distances over which they traverse. Although this mode of travel has been theoretical supported by the theory of special relativity, it has obviously never been done except within the pages of books such as Adams's. In reality, it seems as improbable as Adams' physics of improbability. Some of the science in Hitchhiker is accurate, or nearly so. Dent's alien friend is from a small planet "six hundred light-years away in the near vicinity of Betelgeuse" (Adams, p. 22); Betelgeuse is, in fact, 640 light-years from Earth. On page 26, the Vogons admonish Earthlings for failure to involve themselves in the "local" affairs of Alpha Centuri, "only" four light years away; Alpha Centuri is 4.4 light years away (Dickinson 1999, Tyson, Liu and Irion 2000). On page 60, Adams refers to "a nice hot cup of tea" as an example of a strong Brownian Motion producer. Brownian motion refers to the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid. Tea could, in fact, serve as an example. Some of the science is deliberately ridiculous, such as the computer called the "Bambleweeny 57 Sub-Meson Brain" (Adams, p. 60). Adams also blends science and satire. On page 33, he lets the alien Vogons debunk the theory of evolution by having them ignore nature and have elective surgery to "rectify the gross anatomical inconveniences" that made…

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Physical Science

Elusive Theory of Everything The Theory of Everything is an elusive hypothesis scientists have been searching for since the early 1900s. It is a theory of physics that fully explains and links all known physical phenomena -- a "General Theory of Everything." Even the Ancient Greeks thought that might be an underlying unity for all of the universe, but after Einstein's general theory of relativity was published in 1915 the search for a unified field theory intensified. In fact, it was something Einstein was obsessed with throughout his life, and particularly during his last years -- however unsuccessfully (Pais, 1982, Chapter 17). In a marvelous example of the way we see our world, authors Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow tell the story of a small town in Italy called Monza, which barred pet owners from keeping goldfish in curved fishbowls. The town council said it was cruel to the fish to give them such a distorted view of reality. This, however, begs the question: "How do we know that the reality we perceive is true? The goldfish is seeing a version of reality that is different from ours, but can we be sure it is any less real?" (Hawking and Mlodinow, 2010). Since Einstein, Hawking and others who have worked on black holes and the origins of the universe have tried to reconcile Einstein's gravitational and quantum physics into one theory. String theory has been the most promising, but there are at least five different permutations with each overing a different range of situations in time and space. Scientists acknowledge that no theory to date is completely accurate about everything- there are simply too many variables that we must allow for "successive approximations" which, over time, evolve into more and more accurate predictions as our general knowledge increases. Because……

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Beowulf One of the Most Interesting Parts

Beowulf one of the most interesting parts of the poem, both in terms of the relationship between the characters and the way the events are interconnected and through the relationship with Einstein's conception, as expressed in "Physics and Reality" is Beowulf's third and final battle, with the dragon. The storyline is simple: Beowulf has returned to his home and has become king and ruler there. A golden cup is stolen from the lair of a dragon by one of the slaves and Beowulf is forced to fight the dragon that threatens his people and kingdom. He benefits only from the help of Wiglaf and succeeds to kill the dragon, only to perish himself because of the wounds received in battle. Before analyzing this specific moment from the perspective of Einstein's idea of a "courageous scientific imagination," it is useful to have a look, first of all, at Einstein's article and better understand the role of this scientific imagination. The elements of physics that Einstein lists throughout his essay are not only clearly and logically interconnected, but are also placed in a historical perspective, so that the reader can better understand both how physics developed and how the new physics that Einstein promotes, including quantum theory, fits in. So, following Einstein's article, physics tries to explain different things. First of all, it places in its center the object, animate or inanimate, and analyzes both how objects interrelate between them and the behavior of objects that are placed in different environments. As Einstein points out in his work, "one of the most primitive concepts is that of an object" (Einstein, 1938). The relationship between the objects (named, from a physics point-of-view, bodies) also needs to be analyzed, something which led, for example, to the discovery of the electromagnetic field, something that could explain how objects interrelated between them in certain conditions. For the physicist of the 19th century, as Einstein shows, "the reality of our outer world consisted of particles with simple forces acting between them and depending only on the distance" (Einstein, 1938). Such observations drove physicist, as creators, to adapt their theories to explain different events. On the other hand, as Einstein shows, and this is another excellent example where the creative imagination intervenes, the new conditions and experimental observations require new theoretical explanations from the scientists. This is how the quantum theory was created: as Einstein mentioned, it both…

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Bleep Do We Know Traveling the Road

¶ … Bleep do we Know Traveling the Road to Divine Inspiration: Enlightenment or Pseudoscience? In this essay, a discussion ensues which involves the book "What the Bleep Do We Know" by William Arntz, Betsy Chasse, and Mark Vicente, published in 2005. First, the essay provides a book review style discussion of the concepts presented in the book. The rest…

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Niels Bohr

Niels Bohr Niels Henrik David Bohr was a prominent 20th century physicist, known widely for the discovery of quantum theory and generally for the physics of the microcosm (Thomsen, 1986). Bohr was born in Copenhagen on October 7, 1885. His father was a professor of physiology at Copenhagen University and his mother was from a family that was prominent in the education field. This environment was conducive to the development of his knowledge and genius. Bohr attended Gammelholm Grammar School in 1903, and later entered Copenhagen University. At this point his interest in physics was promoted and nurtured under the guidance of an original and highly regarded physicist known as Professor Christiansen. Bohr obtained his master's degree in physics in 1909 and completed doctorate studies in 1911. His leap into the world of theoretical studies was instigated by the offer of a prize by the Academy of Sciences in Copenhagen to the individual that could solve a specific problem. Bohr began studying on experimental and theoretical levels the investigation of surface tension through the means of oscillating fuel jets. His studies after this point progressive evolved into works that were increasingly theoretical in nature. Bohr's doctoral dissertation was a purely theoretical project using electron theory to explain the properties of metals, and first came in contact with quantum theory, which influenced much of his subsequent work. Bohr continued to pursue both experimental studies in laboratories under prominent physicists as well as his own theoretical work, including moving onto studying the structure of atoms using conceptions from quantum theory. Through this work, Bohr presented an illustration of atomic structure that underwent some improvements, but still provides an accurate conception of the chemical and physical properties of the elements.……

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Scientific Achievements. Albert Einstein Is Perhaps One

¶ … scientific achievements. Albert Einstein is perhaps one of the most famous physicists of all time. He discovered the Theory of Relativity and is often known as the "father" of the atomic bomb. Einstein's life is a model to scientists and physicists today, and a valuable lesson in what one person can accomplish in their lifetime. Without Einstein's discoveries…

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Albert Einstein: Historical and Scientific Icon Science

Albert Einstein: Historical and Scientific Icon Science and celebrity rarely coexist but somehow, with Albert Einstein, they found a way to live together and make the man just as iconic today as he was in his own day. Rarely do individuals live to see their impact upon society but Einstein lived to see how his theories could literally change the…

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Free Will vs. Determination

Free Will vs. Determinism The same set of questions has plagued mankind since time immemorial. Are people's choices, and therefore destinies, predetermined, or are they subject to their own free will? or, are both forces at play, with some aspects out of their hands, while others completely under their control. Do people truly have autonomy, or are they controlled by determinism? There are those who feel that every aspect of their life is predetermined by some sort of fate. They believe that the world is bursting with external causes and for this reason their actions are significantly limited. It is this limitation that prevents the individual from having any real control of their life. That they are only actors in a pre-scripted play, and have no choice but to follow the direction that has been set before them. However, on the opposite end of the spectrum, there are those who believe that an individual always has and always will have free will. And that their destiny is truly within their control, determined only by the individual and unique choices they make. Determinism is most often defined as a theory involving a higher power or order that guides each and every facet of the universe. This is clearly demonstrated in the case of God's law in Christianity. Every action and reaction in the universe depends upon and is conditioned by their causes. In what is known as 'hard' determinism, every moment of existence is directly a cause by the law (Passantino & Passantino). In hard determinism, every event in life is a direct effect of all the events that preceded it; therefore, these events are set and predetermined ("Determinism"). This incompatibilism is what takes determinism and transforms it into fatalism. With fatalism, a person simply cannot take any action that would alter the already predetermined future. The future is set in stone and human beings are merely along for the ride. In this extreme version of determinism, it is pointless for humans to deliberate or take any action, because events will unfold as they have been pre-destined to unfold ("Fatalism"). In fatalism, a person only has free will if they are the exclusive originative cause of their actions, and that they actually could have made another choice. Fatalism believes, though, that every choice is limited by the past, predetermined by the past, and no other choice could have been made. d'Holback…

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Scientific Models and Religious Myths

For the evolution theory it is almost 3.5 billion years while for the cosmology theory is almost 15 billion years ago, in the other religious theory, the time is not given although it is believed to be a long time ago. They all appear to give the notion that there is no exact time line on when the earth was exactly created. Secondly the theories are such that out of all of them, there is the presence of life at one stage in the postulates. The similarities between the theories are very much ideological similarities where all things appear to be much of the same caliber especially when it comes to the earth. All life is taken to have been from a certain source which in the theories of evolution was in existence while in the bible it was created. The origin of human beings cannot be eliminated from this comparison since it should be the main topic as people create different myths and ideologies about the origin of man. In the similarities it is believed that man was not in the picture of either creation or evolution until at a later stage in the theories. The myths and postulates differences however are some of the things to be reckoned with as although most of the ideologies on the origin of all the different life forms of the earth differ in a very big way. Their biggest difference lies basically in every aspect of the universe, whereby the sun was created in the religious myth while it is presumed to having been present before. All living things and plants including marine life and plants are said to have been created in the Book of Genesis while in the evolution theory they evolved. Finally it all comes down to the ages of both the universe the earth and the earliest life forms where there is a very big difference in terms of the years which differ by many billion years in both cases. Human beings were created by god while in the other theories and models the human being evolved from the apes and chimpanzees. All the three postulates whether scientific models or religious myths serve a specific function and purpose. They try to decipher the little clues about life's origin and the universe we live in. therefore they function as answers to the question of origin of life. Whether the…

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Physical Science Elemental Isotopes and

The set-up of Bell's experiment is given in the diagram: Polkinghorne outlines Bell's explanation of the EPR paradox as follows: He analysed what properties the 1 -- 2 system would have if it were a genuinely separated system (as Einstein had supposed), with properties at 1 depending only on what happened locally at 1 and properties at 2 depending only on what happened locally at 2. Bell showed that if this strict locality were the case, there would be certain relations between measurable quantities (they are now called the Bell inequalities) that quantum mechanics predicted would be violated in certain circumstances. (Polkinghorne 79). It was not until about 20 years later that Bell's theories could be confirmed by experiemental observation, but it was discovered that indeed Bell was right and Einstein was wrong. "Spooky action at a distance" does appear to be the case in quantum entanglement, and leads to the phenomenon known informally as "quantum telepathy." As Marcus Chown says, alluding to this description, "entangled particles behave like a single indivisible entity. At some level, they know each other's deepest secrets." (Chown 57). Works cited Blundell, Stephen. Superconductivity. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print. Chown, Marcus. The Quantum……

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Quantum Tunneling

Quantum tunneling is a function of quantum-mechanical activity in the instance where a particle moves against potential energy and appears on the other side of the energy barrier. At least the wave function describing the particle is extended to the other side. These wave functions are the means by which the particle is found, so it is assumed that the…

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Physics Concepts in Physics Matter Can Be

Physics Concepts in Physics Matter Matter can be identified as anything that occupies space, has mass, and possess inertia (Weisstein 2009). Inertia relates to one of Newton's first law of motion, which states that in order ofr an object to obtain motion or momentum, a force has to act upon it (Zimmerman-Jones 2009). That is, an object that is in…

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1962 Nobel Prize in Physics

1962 Nobel Prize in Physics The Nobel Prize There are many Nobel prizes. They are awarded in Chemistry, Peace, Literature, Physiology, Economics, and Physics. The economics prize was not one of the original prizes. The other five were created through the will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish scientist (Dorozynski, 1965). These were created in 1895, but they were not given…

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Physics of Magnetism an Overview

The Laplace equation, "2" = 0, defines the field's potential strength and direction at any point as shown in the example in the Excel spreadsheet in Table 1 and Figure 4 below. Table 1. Excel Spreadsheet for Solving Laplace's Equation [Source: Denker, 2004]. Figure 4. Contour Intervals of Fields [Source: Denker, 2004]. According to Denker, in this spreadsheet (active copies…

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Physics -- History of Ultrasound

d.). Ultrasound continued to be refined and gradually used widely in the medical profession; for example, in 1989, French physician Daniel Lichtenstein began using lung ultrasound at the point of care in ICU units (Tsung, 2011, p. 22). The technology developed and was refined continually until point-of-care ultrasound became possible with portable equipment in circumstances far from any laboratory or…

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Philosophy of Science

Philosophy of Science: Hempel vs. Holism It is a shame that in scientific debate philosophies of holism and reductionism have been considered mutually exclusive, when a combined approach is plausible and even logical. Hempel himself admits to subjectivity concerns with his treatment of hypothesis, but no one would argue that an approach to holism is possible without a thorough understanding of the elements of a holistic system. The virtue of reductionism is in its elementary utility, it is a paradigm easily applicable with clear-cut causal definitions: if H. then I; not I; not H. Through reductionism modern science has been built, brick by brick, from the ancient Greeks, to Copernicus and Galileo who melded into Newton, and finally to relativity, quantum mechanics and string theory. However, utility and tradition are not synonymous with truth. From a positivist viewpoint, it is necessary to accept holism -- and has been at least since Heisenberg proposed his Uncertainty Principle. Like Newtonian mechanics, Hempel's theories suffer from generalized application: on the level of barometers and mountain-tops there is causal continuity, but in more complex systems the approach breaks down. Simple, reducible hypothesis elude many fields to this day -- notably economics, where no two experts yet agree on the precise phenomena leading to this past decade's recession. While understanding the reduced elements -- sub-prime mortgages and credit swaps -- contribute to understanding of the whole, there is an interaction still un-described occurring in the interstitial spaces; a ghost in the machine. Hempel's argument for radicalism in the selection of hypothesis is too narrow to encompass a universe of phenomena. The Pascal experiment is simple enough to be dominated by reductionist conclusions, just as the motion of planets is simple enough to be dominated by Newtonian mechanics. However, many experiments in physics cannot explain their results as simple summations of the work of individual elements. The collapse of wave functions in quantum mechanics is one example. The interaction of the observer with the whole system in observing it informs and manipulates the destinies of individual particles -- electrons say -- which are collapsed from a pre-observation, indeterminate state into a single observable state. In order to describe the famous double-slit experiment it was not necessary to radically change the central hypothesis of wave-particle duality but was correct to re-examine, from a holistic viewpoint, the system and make a conservative change to the corollary, un-expressed hypothesis…

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Hawking, Stephen William. The Universe

(41) Professor Hawking also attempts to add levity and an added literary flair to what could be dry, technical matters. These also serve to show his erudition as a man with an interest in subjects beyond the purely scientific realm. For instance, the title of the book comes not from science but from Shakespeare's Hamlet, who says, "I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself king of infinite space." Hawking even talks about his appearance on the television show "Star Trek: Next Generation" where he won at poker with Einstein, an example of his challenging the old masters with some of his theories that build upon the dimensionality of the universe and Einstein's theories of relativity. Hawking also tries to make his theories funny and relevant to every day life today, as well as introduce speculations of what will happen to the universe, long after his text's first readership has passed into eternity. Hawking even mentions the effect of airline food on human life expectancy, a sobering thing to reflect upon for one who engages in as much air travel as Hawking! But there are also more serious, vital references to how understanding physics can impact human life on earth in the relative short-term as well as in space and far into the future. Hawking describes how statistical evidence points to the physical limits of population growth and electricity being reached on earth by the year 2600. But by applying the same statistical principles to knowledge as to population growth, to take a more comforting view of things, predicted human knowledge of how to preserve energy reserves could potentially carry the human race forward, faster to possibly attain solutions to this problem of geometric physical expansion. There is, however, no question that having some background in physics helpful in understanding the text, even while Hawking tries to simplify basic quantum principles. For instance, as the author attempts to explain the rational behind an early and inaccurate Michelson-Morley experiment, when humans imagined that space was filled by a continuous medium called the "ether," he must go into a lengthy explanation how early physics saw "light rays and radio signals were waves in this ether, just as sound is pressure waves in air." (2) In this experiment, because no difference was found in the speed of the two perpendicular light beams, the experiment's observers concluded that ether was non-existent. Still,…

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AC Theory

AC Theory Which connection gives better power factor and efficiency on light loads for a three-phase Cage motor "Star" or "Delta"? Star connection refers to one end of the coils being connected to one single point and the other ends of the coils are connected directly to three phase power phases. However, in delta connection, coils are directly wired between…

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Noble Prize in Physics in 1956

Noble Prize in Physics in 1956 The subject of physics is closely related to engineering and development of new technology. This is the basis for many developments in the world. It was recognized by Alfred Nobel as one of the important subjects and the Nobel Committee decided to reward with the Nobel Prize. It was said in the order of…

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Properties of Light Is One

If the refractive index of the medium being hit is lower than the medium from which the light is coming and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, the light is reflected. However, the presence of a boundary between materials means that the light will be partially refracted and partially reflected. When the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle, then the light is reflected back internally. Total internal reflection is used in fiber optics. An additional property of light is diffraction. Like refraction, diffraction is concerned with the bending of light. However, diffraction specifically focuses on how light bends when it goes through an opening. The obstacle in front of the light causes the light to bend and change. This makes the light appear to spread out once it gets through a small opening. The angle at which the light bends when it hits the obstacle is proportional to the wavelength of the light, so that red light will bend more than blue light. This can cause diffracted light to have a blurry edge with color shading that looks blue towards the inside and red on the outside, even when the light hitting the obstacle was a white light. A final property of light is interference. While it is easy to think of light as a single phenomenon, the reality is that light comes from multiple sources to travel through the same medium. When different sources of light encounter one another, they interact. This is referred to as interference. There are two basic types of interference: constructive interference and destructive interference. With constructive interference, the two beams of light enhance one another. This means that the amplitude of the wave is increased. Constructive interference occurs when the waves are in phase, which means that the crests (highs) and the troughs (lows) of the waves of the light coincide with one another. Destructive interference happens when the waves are out of phase and the crest of one wave coincides with the trough of another wave. This results in a smaller amplitude. What is interesting is that while the light is amplified as the beams cross one another, once the light passes through the area of interference, it returns to its normal amplitude. Although light is only one small part of the electromagnetic spectrum, it plays a critical role in how people perceive the world. In fact,…

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Earth Revolves Around the Sun

Put more simply: "Parallax is the apparent difference in the position (line of sight to) an object, when the object is viewed from different locations. So, when we observe that a star has apparently moved (not to be confused with it actually having moved -- proper motion), when we look at it from two different locations on the Earth's orbit around the Sun (i.e. On different dates), that's stellar parallax! (And if the star does not seem to have moved? Well, its parallax is zero)" (Cain, 2009). The Doppler effect offers further subsequent evidence that the Earth moves around the sun. A wavelength of light that comes to us via an object becomes shorter (or bluer) when the source is approached and also becomes longer (redder) when we move away from the source (Motz, 2002. Thus, when an Earth moves in forward momentum to a star, the star will only look somewhat bluer, when measured by high-tech instruments; also, it will seem redder when the Earth is on the reverse end of the orbit, moving in the other directions: thus, this dynamic demonstrates clearly that the Earth possesses a velocity in conjunction to the stars, comparable to aberration (Motz, 2002). Fundamentally, we know that the universe is filled with billions of galaxies and that the sun is at the center of our galaxy. The moves around the center of our galaxy and the planets tag along. It's important to remember that the gravity of the sun is so large, that the planets revolve around it just like the way the moon revolves around the earth; however, all of these motions are simultaneous, so in actuality, the earth is going around the sun while the sun moves around the center of the galaxy, while the galaxy moves apart from other galaxies, as a result of the expansion originating from the big bang (ucsb.edu). Ideally, the scientific validity of all of these pieces of evidence could ultimately be improved by visual evidence -- such as the type that satellites could have provided and other tracking devices. However, in the 1800s there were discoveries and forms of proof found, through mathematics and observation. Kepler was one of the major thinkers in this arena who was able to disprove so much of the work of earlier thinkers like Copernicus and Ptolemy and Aristotle. For instance, for 2,000 years philosophers had believed that the planets…

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Chemistry and Physics (A) When

(b) (iv) A strong base is a material that has a very low pH level. (c) Question 4: (a) (i) The estimate for kinetic energy comes in the form of the equation: Ek = 1/2mv2 so Ek = (1/2) x (3.3 x103 kg m-3) x (8 cm y-1) then Ek = 132 kg m-2 (a) (ii) Despite the small plate being more active, the large plate contains the most kinetic energy, making Student A correct. Smaller does not always necessarily indicate that something, in this case a plate, will have an increased kinetic energy; therefore, one of the most important factors to take into consideration when evaluating the kinetic energy was the mass of the plate in question and since Plate A weighs significantly more then, in this case, it seemed to the be deciding variable that made this one have an increased kinetic energy. (b) (i) The quark model is a model that outlines a classification for the valence quarks of hadrons, at it's essence the quarks and antiquarks that determined the quantum numbers of the hadrons. The Boson model of weak nuclear interaction explains how the radioactive decay of subatomic particles. Since quarks and leptons are considered the "building blocks" of matter or the "elementary particles," it also means that they constitute all mesons and baryons. These elementary particles can rise out of the lambda decay, as these mesons and baryons can be released since there is energy expended in the radioactive decay of subatomic particles. (b) (ii) The energy time uncertainty principle explains the fundament limit on accuracy with certain pairs of physical properties that a particle has, like position and momentum or volume and speed. The range of the weak nuclear interaction at low energies is very high because it will be slowly decaying, which means that the nuclear interactions are very weak and thus less energy is expanded. This range, in comparison to a typical nucleon, would be almost on the opposite ends of the spectrum, since with a weak nuclear interaction then there would……

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Psychology Concepts of Psychology Theories of Learning

Psychology Concepts of Psychology Theories of Learning There are different theories to how people learn and interpret the world around them. According to Gestalt psychologists, "people see patterns in stimuli before them and conjoin isolated events into meaningful structures" (Gilbert, 1998, p. 67). In order to learn, we use proximity and equality. Proximity involves using "location information to infer relation"…

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Multiverse Is a Line of

M-Theory suggests that the extra-spatial dimensions are capable of forming small loops that are as small as ten to thirty three centimeter (Planck length).The loops that result are very complex. Bubble universes The theory of an Inflationary Universe as evolved by Alan Guth can also be used to explain the multiverse hypothesis. This Inflationary universe rapidly arose from the Big bang. This was due to the rapid changes in the magnitude of the false vacuum. The result was the bubbling out of several universes out of the vacuum. All the vacuums that were formed as a result of this process float around a superspace.Our universe is one of them. Conclusion The multiverse hypothesis is one of the greatest concepts ever discovered in the history of mankind. Its applicability is also in almost all spheres of life. It is evident from its potential that one day a unified theory shall be coined that would define the basic multiuniverse law that would define everything through the consideration of all elements of the universe, finite and otherwise. Bibliography Aurelien Barrau. "Physics in the Multiverse" David Deutsch. "The Structure of the Multiverse." Hawkin, Stephen. "The universe in a Nutshell."…

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Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Was a Brilliant Scientist

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was a brilliant scientist who changed the way we understand the world. He was not a great student but he had a tremendous imagination since childhood. He used to think about what it would be like to ride on a beam of light and he figured out his Theory of Relativity partly by those thought experiments. He changed the way scientists understand gravity, space, and time. He also calculated the fact that matter and energy are different forms of the same thing using only mathematics. Those calculations predicted theories of nuclear power and also nuclear weapons. Besides the Theory of Relativity, Einstein also explained the reason for Brownian Motion of dust particles in water and the Photoelectric Effect. His theories played a part in the development of nuclear energy, lasers, and NASA's Apollo Space Program in addition to many other modern applications. If Albert Einstein had lived longer, he would have continued his unfinished work on understanding the science of……

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Math and Art in Sculptures

Math and Art in Sculptures The objective of this work is to examine the connection between abstract sculpture and abstract mathematics and to investigate the connection between mathematics and art. As well this work will examine the artist sculptors George W. Hart and Charles O. Perry and discuss their incorporation of math and art in their works and their beliefs…

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Isaac Newton: Maverick With a Mind in

Isaac Newton: Maverick With a Mind in Motion Isaac Newton was a maverick with his laws and theories. Newton revolutionized science at Cambridge Newton's background and predecessors empowered him Newton's laws of motion rock the science world. Newton's influence extends beyond laws of motion. Newton represents modern science as we know it. Isaac Newton was a true maverick of his day with his laws and theories regarding gravity and motion. His interests and education placed him at the right place and the right time to look at nature and question its forces. His laws of motion and gravity enabled the scientific world to move forward in quantum leaps. His contributions changed science, physics, and math as we know them, allowing the introduction of calculus, among other things. Newton forever altered how we think of science and nature. Isaac Newton is considered one of the most ingenious minds of the twentieth century. He is most remembered for his contributions to the mathematic and scientific arenas, where his work was most influential. Newton was primarily a physicist but he was also a mathematician, an astronomer, a philosopher, and a theologian. His greatest achievement is his laws of motion, a theory that changed physics forever. While looking at Newton's achievements, it is easy to fall into the trap of reading the words on the paper. What we should never forget is how he revolutionized modern science with his laws and theories. He was a real maverick. His studious background paved the way to a greater understanding of nature and her mysteries. Daniel Boorstin maintains that Newton was the "first popular hero of modern science" (Boorstin 401). His vision of nature was "more grandiose and more penetrating the Bacon's of Faustus'" (Boorstin 402). His vision "exercised greater influence over scientific thought than any secular figure since Aristotle" (402) and allowed the imagined to become real. Newton revolutionized Copernicanism at Cambridge University where he was able to study and debate. During his studies, he combined scientific skepticism with religious certainty to "posit the existence of gravity" (Noble 723). His law of gravity, in his 1687 publication, "not only accounted for motion but definitely united heaven and earth in a single scheme and created a convincing picture of an orderly nature" (Noble 724). The idea of God was present in Newton's mind and never far from his work. The notion of a grand mystery serving as…

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Transporter Technology

Transporter Technology Transferring light over a beam and duplicating the information held in the original light beam at the receiving end is a reality today, but it is a far cry from the original concept of the transporter made popular by the TV series 'Star Trek' or the matter transference machine in the movie "The Fly," created by writers George…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Taylor in Freedom and Determinism

Taylor in Freedom and Determinism Determinism is a philosophical concept which states that all events are determined by prior causes, including human behavior. "Hard determinism" further states that free will does not exist and there is no such thing as moral responsibility. "Soft determinism," however, argues that free will exists and consequently moral responsibility. This paper aims to prove that "soft determinism" is the more plausible theory. According to Taylor, everything that exists in the universe is governed by the laws of cause and effect. Anything can be explained by an unbroken chain of causes that occurred in the past. Applying this to human behavior, this means that all human actions are governed by the same cause-and-effect and nothing happens by chance. In addition to this, free will is only an illusion that man perceives as real. Anything that man does is ultimately pre-determined and thus he is not morally responsible for his actions. This concept is best illustrated by Laplace's demon: imagine an omniscient entity that knows everything about the past and present, the position of everything in the universe to the tiniest detail, and the knowledge of all physical laws. This being can use the knowledge to determine the future, down to the smallest detail. Since man is composed of matter also bounded by physical laws, he is also subject to such determination. According to Ayer, determinism and free will are compatible. He begins by stating that determinism and free will are independent concepts. Determinism deals with cause-and-effect, while free will deals with choice. The existence of one doesn't imply or negate the other. For example, it may be possible that man's actions are the inescapable result of a chain of cause-and-effect in his past leading to the present. However, man is capable of deliberately making a "free choice" among possible alternatives of action - and he does. Determinism doesn't imply constraint. A universe whose inevitable future is determined based on its past and present doesn't necessarily presuppose that everything in it doesn't have the capability to choose. In addition to this, Ayer explained that the rule of cause-and-effect are merely human perceptions. Finally, he postulated that "free will" might be a causal factor itself. This paper argues in favor of Ayer's view regarding soft determinism. Both determinism and soft determinism agree that everything is governed by cause-and-effect and that the future is the result of an unbroken…

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Black Holes Astronomy Encompasses Vast Topics and

Black Holes Astronomy encompasses vast topics and includes many subjects. Among these subjects is the area of study involving black holes. Although there has been a great deal of research concerning this subject, there are still many factors concerning black holes that are still unknown. The purpose of this disccusion is to explain the phenomenon of black holes and how…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 0


Absolute Determinism Questions About Place

Nature of quanta behavior can be only explained by statistic regularities of a special Boze-Einstein statistics. All the processes which occur with quanta have random character so their behavior can not be predicted and regularities from classical mechanics can not be applied. Uncertainty principles of Heisenberg only proved the false of absolute determinism in the world of micro-particles. So if the absolute determinism can not be applied to physics of micro world it can not be applied to nature in general and can not postulate absolutism of dynamic processes according to Laplace's initial definition. Making a conclusion I would like to say that Laplace's absolute determinism was a philosophical conclusion made on the base of existing contemporary knowledge of mathematics and mechanics: "Present events are connected with preceding ones by a tie based upon the evident principle that a thing cannot ocur without a cause which produces it. This axiom, known by the name of the principle of sufficient reason, extends even to actions which are considered indifferent..." (Laplas, 3 ) His desire to give mathematical explanation to all processes was inspired by the number of mechanical problems which where solved in the 17-18 centuries with the help of calculus and other mathematics methods. But even the contemporaries of Laplace argued that absolute determinism worked properly only in mechanics or while conducting experiments. In other cases it faced a lot of problems as the premises made on the base of absolute determinism laws often appeared to be false while solving classic philosophical problems. Nevertheless, Laplace's theory showed that world was more complicated than it seemed to be to philosophers and mathematicians and weak points in determinism theory of Laplace only opened the horizons for further research. Reference: Laplace, Pierre Simon A Philosophical Essay on……

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Quadratic Formula

¶ … Value of Money Quadratic Formula Info: When using the quadratic formula to solve a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, the discriminant is b2-4ac. This discriminant can be positive, zero, or negative. (When the discriminate is negative, then we have the square root of a negative number. This is called an imaginary number, sqrt (-1) = i.) Explain what the value of the discriminant means to the graph of y = ax2 + bx + c. Hint: Chose values of a, b and c to create a particular discriminant. Then, graph the corresponding equation. Search the Cybrary and Internet. In the real world, where might these imaginary numbers be used? The discriminant b2-4ac is used to identify three possible solution cases for quadratic equations: one real solution, two real solutions, and an imaginary solution. For the first case (one real solution), it will show a parabola that touches the x-axis at a single point. For example, the equation y = x^2-2x + 1 will produce the following graph: For this case, the discriminant is b^2-4ac = -2^2-4*1*1……

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Existence the Nature of Existence Ever Since

Existence The Nature of Existence Ever since human beings became aware of being, they have pondered the nature of existence. Why are we here? What is the purpose of existence? These questions continue to make people wonder. As time has gone by and humans have made many discoveries, their concept of reality has shifted and changed in an evolution --…

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Environmental History Galileo Bacon Descartes and Newton

Enlightenment Thinkers: Galileo, Bacon, Descartes and Newton revolution in human thought took place during the period of history called The Enlightenment. The great weakness of the old paradigm, religion, lay in it superstition. The new paradigm, physical science, corrected for this weakness by establishing a new mind in which only the evidence of the physical senses could lead to knowledge. Galileo heralded the great change, and so he is often called the Father of Science. In this essay we will consider Galileo and three other thinkers who were crucial to the Enlightenment -- Bacon, Descartes, and Newton. Because the church perceived science as a threat, Galileo was forced to recant his views about the sun being the center of the solar system. His views were not just theories, however -- he had observed the planets and their movements through a telescope and found that Copernicus was right. Galileo was the first person to use a scientific instrument to study the universe. Through its use he developed a different relationship to nature than had previously been common. Instead of viewing the heavens with a naked eye and feeling a part of nature, he observed the planets with an instrument, thus, removing himself from being a part of nature to studying it as though it were objective and separate from himself. Galileo viewed reality as objective and autonomous -- independent from human beings and their activities. Nature was no longer experienced but observed and studied, and only the scientific worldview of a quantifiable material reality was significant or "real." Nature came to be seen as objective, clocklike, and mechanical. In this view, any alternative views of reality -- intuition, for example -- were rejected as legitimate roads to knowledge or understanding. Galileo did away with superstition by developing a new kind of logic -- "induction and deduction, observation and mathematics, were essentially wedded, and the natural kinds and syllogistic inferences of Aristotle relegated to oblivion" (p. 79). He saw this as necessary in order to "read" the universe. The old Aristotelian syllogistic reasoning was useless to science. Math was everything. Although the church censored Galileo, he did not seek to discredit the existence of God or challenge the authority of the Bible. He said, in fact, that the Bible teaches, "the glory and greatness of Almighty God are marvelously discerned in all his works and divinely read in the open book of…

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Dangling Particles, Physicist Lisa Randall

Admittedly, the debate is complicated by the less precise nature of evolutionary theory and our inability to perform experiments to test the progression of a particular species. Moreover, evolution is by no means a complete theory. We have yet to learn how the initial conditions for evolution came about -- why we have 23 pairs of chromosomes and at which level evolution operates are only two of the things we don't understand. But such gaps should serve as incentives for questions and further scientific advances, not for abandoning the scientific enterprise. This debate might be tamed if scientists clearly acknowledged both the successes and limitations of the current theory, so that the indisputable elements are clearly isolated. But skeptics have to acknowledge that the way to progress is by scientifically addressing the missing elements, not by ignoring evidence. The current controversy over what to teach is just embarrassing. DANGLING PARTICLES [9.19.05] LISA RANDALL, a professor of physics at Harvard, is the author of Warped Passages: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universe's Hidden Dimensions. Lisa Randall's research in theoretical high energy physics is primarily related to the question of what is the physics underlying the standard model of particle physics. This has involved studies of strongly interacting theories, supersymmetry, and most recently, extra dimensions of space. In this latter work, she investigates "warped" geometries. The study of further implications of this work has involved string theory, holography, and cosmology. Lisa Randall also continues to work on supersymmetry and other beyond-the-standard-model physics. Within a year of her work on extra dimensions, it was featured on the front page of the Science Times section of The New York Times. It has also been featured in the Economist, the New Scientist,…

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Dennett Daniel Dennett Is an American Professor

Dennett Daniel Dennett is an American professor of philosophy, and a renowned writer. His research in the field of philosophy largely revolves around the philosophy of the mind and philosophy of science. Daniel Dennett coined in the term of "Intentional System" to describe the mental properties of something with regard to their intentional behavior towards a system. Dennett described the…

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Working Disciplines Education in Today's

A breakthrough in one discipline is useless unless it can connect to the larger scheme of natural operation. But, there are many who dedicate their lives to one single discipline, sacrificing much in order to understand just one small part of nature. It is hard for humans to accept their limitations and false bravado accompanying this hard work certainly distorts any cooperative efforts that necessitate universal understanding. Politics is being played out in education just like everywhere else in the world. It feels good to be accepted and contributing something novel to the world. Many people will forgo ethical and balanced methods to promote their self serving views to reap emotional benefit. Money and greed play important factors in motivating much research these days and it is a challenge in itself to find what angle many of these people are driving their research towards. Foundational research is based upon individual and subjective causes making cooperative understanding even that much more difficult to attain. Purpose itself is being ignored in educational research. The question why, not what, needs to be asked more often. In physics, apples fall off trees and abstract equations can significantly model this process, but these models cannot explain why the tree is there in the first place. More importantly, perhaps beside philosophy, no discipline can sufficiently explain the cause, or the why, of human existence. Synthesizing interdisciplinary research can be accomplished if a more general attitude is taken by those who research. Over specialization compartmentalizes much of the institutional educational forces which garner much human effort and work yet fails miserably at providing true knowledge and understanding. More cooperation is needed. Fragmented information and research does nothing but contribute to more confusion. The development of more well rounded approaches should be encouraged in these situations. Physics is quite useless if it cannot accurately predict the motion of material and forces. Its integration into the social sciences and arts is required if humanity is to reap the benefits of its researchers in this specific field. The language of physics needs to be accurately translated into every other field if it is to prove its worthiness. Until then, all science and research will remain well below its potential and not serving its natural purpose in the universe.…

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God Exist? The Case for

" One person's definition of these terms is different than another's. Therefore, each person's concept of God is different. Immanuel Kant also disputed St. Anselm's reasoning as proof. His thinking is somewhat complicated, but in essence, he says that St. Anselm's argument requires you to assume the existence of God in order to prove God's existence. Also, St. Anselm is…

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