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Psychology and Behavior Discuss Antipsychotic Drugs, and

Psychology and Behavior Discuss antipsychotic drugs, and mention a few typical side effects. Briefly describe the category of anti-anxiety drugs called benzodiazepines, including side effects. Antipsychotic drugs are a group of drugs used to treat psychosis in patients. They are often used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, or delusional disorder, but the drugs can be used in many…

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Psychology Criminal Behavior Has Been the Subject

Psychology Criminal behavior has been the subject of interest for psychologists for a very long time. In a manner, it is quite intriguing question that what are the reasons and causes that lead a person to display criminal behavior. Many theories have been presented over the decades to answer this question. Most theories tend to focus on the factors that make a person indulge in committing crimes. While many factors are argued to be the main reasons for such criminal behavior, none can be proved with surety as behavior depends upon the way the brain and the psychology of a person works. Only the understanding of the human mind can assist psychologists greatly to investigate the structure of the mind and the way it operates (Barkow, Cosmides, & Tooby, 1992). Therefore, several biological theories have been presented by psychologists who attempt to explain the criminal behavior of a person's mind. One theory that suggests the links between biology and the criminal behavior is that the human brain adapts the biological traits of the human body into processes and mechanism of psychology. This theory explains that psychology is quite closely linked to the human physiology and the neuroscience functions of the brain. According to the psychologists who support this biological theory, the development of the behavioral conduct of a person depends upon the biological effects on the brain. Due to various biological factors in the human body such as increase in blood flow, rise in testosterone levels, etc. They explain that the brain adapts these physical signals into determining the behavior the person has to present by converting these signals into phenomena such as emotions, attitudes, core concepts of self value and motives (Bartol & Bartol, 2007). The behavior is discussed as a part of the evolutionary psychology of a person as suggested by the Darwinian selection. This selection theory says that the selection created the existing biological adaptations in living species to act as a solution for the problems that have recurred among the many generations of a species' ancestors (Dawkins, 1986). Therefore, the outlay of this theory suggests that the violent behavior in humans relates to the biological operations of the human physiology. For example, the feeling of pain when a person punched by another person urges the brain to generate the emotion of anger and to satisfy that emotion the first person engages into violent actions. Therefore, upon…

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Psychology Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Cognitive Behavioral

It is thought that more than seventeen million adults go through at least one incident of major depression every year. Of those who seek help, just forty to sixty percent will react to initial therapy. Cognitive behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that is often utilized to take care of patients with depression, anxiety or other issues. It entails helping people to recognize negative patterns of thinking and reacting, and then replacing them with more productive options. Study findings have shown that CBT has a very precise action on the brain's control of its emotional reaction. While health professionals have known that psychotherapy was normally helpful for depression, they have not known before how targeted its effects have been (Fahy, 2006). According to a study published in the January 2004 issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry, health professionals have been using Positron emission tomography (PET) to show the diverse effects of depression treatments on the brain. People who recuperate after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) show a model of brain alterations that is different from that of people who respond to medication. "By modifying attention and memory functions, affective bias, and maladaptive information processing, CBT teaches patients cognitive strategies to reduce automatic reactivity to negative thoughts. Unlike this top-down approach, which focuses on cortical brain areas and uses thought processes to change abnormal mood states; drug therapy is considered to be a bottom-up approach because it changes neurochemistry in the brain stem and limbic regions effecting basic emotional and circadian behaviors" (Barclay, 2004). References Barclay, Laurie. (2004). Brain PET Shows Different Effects of Depression Treatments. Retreived from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/466497 Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. (2011). Retreived from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=About_Treatments_and_Supports&template =/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=7952 Fahy, Joe. (2006). Study finds brain imaging could predict best depression therapy. Retrieved http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06095/679334-114.stm Neurological Changes Associated with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy. (2008). Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/2441…

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Culture Psych Culture and Human

, 2011). A social psychological investigation of the gift giving in North America and particularly the United States, the behavior was found to be a way of almost ranking the significance and the intimacy that exists in various relationships (Cheal, 2011). In a culture where material wealth is not so much a matter of direct survival but of status, the wealth one invests in the gifts they give is turned to an expression of the intimacy and connection one feels with the gift recipient (Cheal, 2011). Emotional attachments related to gift giving and the psychological perception about the worth of relationships is thus impacted by/has an impact on the behavior of gift giving, with direct cultural and psychological interactions (Cheal, 2011). Japan's celebration of Valentine's Day, a holiday taken directly from the United States following the end of World War II, provides a highly interesting take on gift giving. This highly ritualized culture, with a great respect for formality and adherence to tradition, has developed a five-part ritual of gift giving that includes consumer elements and the confession of romantic feelings in the (hoped for) establishment of an emotional bond between the two participants in the ritual (Minowa et al., 2010). The gifts themselves can vary somewhat but always include the giving of chocolate specifically, which is part of the consumerist tradition the Japanese directly adopted from the United States and now adheres to quite faithfully, and the similarity and rituality of the gifts diminish the status that might be associated with these gifts (Minowa et al., 2010). The gift itself, that is, is far less important than the ritual of the giving, and it is Japanese culture that changes this mental emphasis. Culture can and does influence psychology in a wide variety of ways, from artistic expression to gift giving to the conducting of business and beyond. Understanding psychology and psychological issues, then, requires an understanding of the cultural context in which these elements are being examined, and just so an understanding of culture necessarily depends upon (or automatically creates) a certain understanding of the psychologies that might develop in a given culture. Placing behaviors and observed problems in their proper cultural context provides a key to more effective psychological understanding and practice. References Aktipis, C., Cronk, L. & Aguiar, R. (2011). Risk-Pooling and Herd Survival: An Agent-Based Model of a Maasai Gift-Giving System. Human Ecology 39(2): 131-40. Cheal,…

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Organizational Psychology Productive and Counterproductive

It involved observing and recording systematically the employees' behaviors. Archival data is another popular method of studying behavior. In organizational psychology archival data is most prevalent when comparison is made to other observational methods. This is mainly because there is an absolute abundance of sources that are available to researcher from archival data. In applied social research, the method known to be most important is survey research. It has a broad area that includes the basic questionnaires, asking direct questions to respondents, determining respondent's behaviors, attitudes, and personalities. Surveys are mainly used when gathering a wide variety of information and they use interviews or questionnaires. Use of organizational psychology in organizations Using the various research methods available, an organization can use organizational psychology to establish the reason why employees are not able to function as a team, or work together. Obtaining information regarding each employee on their attitude, opinion, personal growth, feedback loops, and adaptations will provide the employer with crucial insights regarding the employees' interactions with each other especially when they are working on a group task. Organizational psychology can also be used to enlighten individual job performances. An organization can be able to control the fate of an employee within the organization when the employee's responsibilities are well understood. Some of the things that the employer should consider during this strategic method are the employee's efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity, which all lead to the overall utilization of their position. Using organizational psychology an organization can also be able to make hiring decisions Shams & Jackson, 2006. Currently many human resource employees make use of observational methods and research surveys when selecting the qualified candidates for the workplace. In order to predict an employee's job performance they will use structured interviews, personality test, and knowledge tests. Organizational psychology can also be used when determining if a specific employee has work behavior that is counterproductive. Some of the counterproductive behaviors are absenteeism and ineffective job performance. These behaviors can be discovered by observation or experiments, which are better referred to as empirical data. Currently organizational psychology is mostly used by human resource consultants and coordinators, but in the past organizational psychology was used by scientists. The methods of organizational psychology can be used to get information from workplaces and non-workplaces. Using the strategy of organizational psychology, the behavior of individuals and organizations can be discovered to be interesting. References Guion,…

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Conceptualization of Psychological Distress Psychology

They suppose that other people are talking and are afraid of madness (Hayes, 2008). Cross-cultural and historical evidence shows how the mainstream society feared and excluded the psychologically distressed persons. In the mid-eighteenth century, it is evident that fear emerged in medical terms but moral myths animated them. At the same time, the fear of madness developed as the dread…

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Ethical Issues in Family and

Family marriage and therapy and is more than just a new technique or excellent treatment technique - it comprises a whole tolerant of human behavior and the conceptualization of problems (Scher, 2012). Despite the fact all of the helping professions share a shared heritage, there are vital theoretical and methodological changes that need moral codes of behavior and consecutive training…

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Psychology Is Considered to Be

Both positive and cognitive psychology uses the scientific technique to clarify the association that is among reasoning and behavior. Meanwhile positive psychology could couple with any other methods, cognitive psychology has lived without argument for practically four periods (Sweetland, 2009). In the 21st century, progress and technology go hand-in-hand; as a result, the formation of artificial intelligence will probable outcome…

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Biopsychological Approach? A Physiological Assumption

What are the major underlying assumptions of physiological psychology? First, behavior is a result of physiological processes. Second, animal models of behavior can mimic or approximate the behavior of humans. Third, human behavior is inferred via a comparative method. Fourth, the understanding of neural control of behavior can be inferred from animal models (Pinel, 2012). What effect do these assumptions have on psychology? Nearly every field of psychology now considers the neural mechanisms that are involved in behavior due to the influence of physiological psychology. The neural control behavior is considered to result from a combination of inherit or genetic factors as well as experience that influences neural development and neural proliferation (plasticity). The nature vs. nurture debate has been largely replaced by an interactive model (Pinel, 2011). What are some techniques or research methods used to examine the link between the brain and behavior? Experiments are used to determine causal inferences in biological psychology. Much of the experimental research is performed on animals as ethical issues in stunning brain damage or performing brain surgery on humans for research purposes can arise, but simple noninvasive experiments are also performed on human participants. Quasi-experimental studies investigate biological foundations of behavior in intact groups of people such as people with brain damage or some other condition. Case studies focus on a single participant and are often used for rare and unusual conditions. Correlational research cannot infer cause but can look at associations between variables of interest to biological psychologists (Pinel, 2011). What are some findings in biological psychology that can result or have resulted from these techniques or research methods? Experimental studies of animals have identified key areas of the brain involved in addictive behaviors. Quasi-experimental studies with alcoholics have investigated how intellectual functions are affected by chronic alcohol use. Case studies of people with rare types of color blindness or aphasia have indicated the brain areas are involved in these functions. Correlational research has been able to identify risk factors for certain things like addictions, certain brain diseases, and other behaviors (Pinel, 2011). References Pinel, J. (2011). Biopsychology 8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and……

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Developmental History of Positive Psychology

Positive Psychology The History and Development of Positive Psychology: An Overview of Perspectives and Theories As the medical and even the human sciences go, psychology is still a relative newcomer to the real of academic scholarship and real-world practice. Surgeries and other investigations into the workings of the human body -- methods of determining the sources of illnesses and attempts…

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Biological Psychology

Psychology - Biological Psychology BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CONCEPTS The Origin and Development of Biological Theories of Psychology: The earliest known origin of biological theories of human psychology go back to antiquity, as much as a millennium before the Common Era. More recently, classical philosophers of the Middle Ages, and later, of the post-Enlightenment era considered the relationship of biology and human psychology in relation to concepts of free will, biological determinism, and moral responsibility (Pinker, 2002). In the 17th century, Rene Descartes postulated that all human behavior could be explained by a sufficiently detailed understanding of biological processes and systemic reactions (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). In the 19th century, Paul Broca investigated the role of brain injury and abnormalities in relation to human speech. Broca was eventually able to establish through empirical evidence that a specific region of the brain was responsible for human speech; in connection with that discovery, the region was later named Broca's area in recognition of the importance of his foundational work in the field of biopsychology (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). At approximately the same time, the both the medical world and the emerging field of neuropsychology were advanced substantially by the accident that occurred to railway worker Phineas Gage in 1848. Gage had been the victim of an explosion accident that caused a 3-foot, 7-inch steel rod to pierce his skull and lodge itself through his brain, its ends protruding from below his left eye socket and from the top of his skull in the area of the frontal cortex. The fact that Gage survived in the pre-antibiotic era of medicine and before Lister's Germ Theory of disease was unexpected. The fact that he did provided some of the earliest evidence of the extent to which specific areas of the brain are responsible for specific aspects of human personality (Dennet, 1991). Gage survived the accident but with significant personality changes that were attributable directly to the destruction of a portion of his frontal cortex. Major Underlying Assumption of Biological Theory of Psychology: The major underlying assumptions of biological theories of psychology are that psychological behavior is merely the external expression of variations in biological structure, processes, and responses to stimuli. According to the bio-psychological or neurophysiological theory of human behavior, hard-wired elements of brain structure and other individual characteristics of biological structure determine the way that organisms respond to the external environment. This……

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Ego Psychology Theorists of Ego

When you are becoming older, you begin to acquire more and more principles. (Psychology of Behavior) The distinctive mold of psychological and behavioral characteristics that differentiates each of us from everyone else is the Personality. The distinctiveness of the individual Personality is comparatively constant and lasting, frequently developed in childhood and influence the way we think, act, feel and behave. The study of personality involves five major methods with their own way of evaluating personality. These are Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Behavioral, Trait and Bio-psychological theories. Psychodynamic theories highlight the relationship of Unconscious mental processes in shaping human thinking, conduct and feelings. It is a Conflict approach that presumes that contrasting forces within an individual are continuously disagreeing. According to humanistic theorist Carl Rogers, the 'Self' is fundamental to personality. We recognize the world and our understanding through our notions about the 'Self', our Self-Concept. Rogers sees the Self-Concept as nucleus to comprehending human behavior and personality because we "act according to our self-concept," be it optimistic or pessimistic. According to Trait theorists, personality can be fully appreciated by recognizing personality traits, lasting characteristics that classify and manage behavior across circumstances. Traits are features such as aloof, believing, controlled, nervous, grim and docile that influence behavior. (Personality Theory and Assessment) References "Ego, Superego and Id" retrieved from http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/E/Eg/Ego,_Superego_and_Id.htm Accessed on 25 February 2005 "Emotional and psychological issues page 2" retrieved from http://www.betterbuddha.com/emotional_and_psychologial_issues_2.htm Accessed on 25 February 2005 "Freud's Structural and Topographical Models of Personality" (March 21, 2004) Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/psychology101/ego.html Accessed on 25 February 2005 "Humanistic Psychology overview" Association of Humanistic Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.ahpweb.org/aboutahp/whatis.html Accessed on 25 February 2005 "Major Neoanalytic theory and theorists" (22 September 2003) Retrieved from http://www.wilderdom.com/personality/L8-10MajorNeoanalyticTheoriesTheorists.html Accessed on 25 February 2005 Martin, Jim. "Human Behavior and the Social Environment I" (28 September 1999) Retrieved from http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/GSSW/jam/switr/991415.htm Accessed on 25 February 2005 "Personality Theory and Assessment" retrieved from http://inst.santafe.cc.fl.us/~mwehr/StudyGM/MOD3.htm Accessed on 25 February 2005 Plaut, Ethan. R. "Psychoanalysis: From Theory to Practice, Past to Present" North Western University. Retrieved from http://galton.psych.nwu.edu/papers/plaut.html Accessed on 25 February 2005 "Psychoanalysis" Psychology World. Retrieved from http://web.umr.edu/~psyworld/psychoanalysis.htm Accessed on 25 February 2005 "Psychology of Behavior" retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/26618/en-1.1.1=Freud.htm Accessed on 25 February 2005…

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History and Current Applications of Behaviorism

Behaviorism: History, Development, And Current Applications There are many different schools and branches of psychological theory and thought, and even though this area of science is barely a century old these branches have all developed and evolved tremendously. Behaviorism is certainly no exception; in some ways one of the oldest and most fundamental schools of psychology, there have been drastic changes and splits to behavioral psychology and amongst behavioral theorists. The following pages will briefly outline the foundation of behaviorism by detailing the contributions made to the theory by three of its most prominent researchers and theorists. Changes that were brought to the theory during the course of its development will also be discussed, as will current applications and trends in behaviorism. Though brief, an examination of these areas of the theoretical and practical implications of historical and modern behaviorism will provide a comprehensive overview of the theory and its potential effectiveness. One of the major themes of John Watson's writings on behaviorism was the strain now known as methodological behaviorism, which is essentially a commentary on the science of psychology itself. Believing things like mood and mental states to be individual and thus ultimately unknowable and non-empirical, methodological behaviorists are quite strict in observing only external and thus objectively measurable data in drawing their conclusions (Graham 2010). Psychological behaviorism is not at all mutually exclusive of methodological behaviorism, and Watson as well as the more well-known Ivan Pavlov could both said to be of this school of though, which focuses on learning histories and conditioning as primary influences of psychology and behavior (Graham 2010). Pavlov had his famous experiment (or coincidental discovery) with dogs in which the subjects became used to a bell ringing when their meal was being served, and would salivate at the ringing of the bell even without the presence of food (Mills 1998). Watson and others took this form of operant conditioning to its height with behavior modification techniques and therapies during the first half of the twentieth century (Mills 1998) B.F. Skinner, who came on the scene later (his life spanned most of the twentieth century, from 1904 to 1990) took psychological behaviorism to its logical conclusion, seeing mental activity and mental states as behavior and claiming it was circular reasoning to explain behavior with behavior; the most prevalent non-behavioral influence on behavior Skinner could identify was environment, and thus he became intimately concerned…

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Psychology Theories in Psychology, Personality

Freud corresponded that the behavior of a person is mainly a reflection of what he/she experienced in his/her early life, particularly in the first 6 years of life. An Individual is unconsciously motivated by the early life experiences and the same experiences drive his/her instinctual senses. In simple words, deterministic view supported by Freud depicts that the present behaviors of…

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Anxiety Co-Occuring Disorder the Following

In addition to that, a patient suffering from anxiety can also be faced with other co-occurring disorders such as substance addiction and depression. As a result, the patient's condition becomes precarious. In order to cure the patient suffering from anxiety and other co-occurring disorders the therapists must tackle all the issues simultaneously and make an integrated cure plan for the patient. References Casa Palmera. (2009). Anxiety Disorder Symptoms and Co-Occurring Disorders. California: Casa Palmera. p. 1. http://casapalmera.com/anxiety-disorder-symptoms-and-co-occurring-disorders / [Accessed: 11 Sep 2013]. Gil-Rivas, V., Prause, J. And Grella, C. (2009). 'Substance Use following Residential Treatment among Individuals with Co-occurring Disorders: The Role of Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms and Trauma Exposure'. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23 (2), pp. 304-314. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2753528 / [Accessed: 12 September 2013]. Hazelden Foundation (2013). What Are Co-occurring Disorders?. Center City: Hazelden Foundation, pp. 1-2. Reuschel, L. (2011). GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER IN CHILDREN AND ADOLSCENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Illinois State University. pp. 1-2. http://psychology.illinoisstate.edu/cc/Comps/Reuschel%20-%20GAD.pdf [Accessed: 11 Sep 2013]. Stein, D., Hollander, E. And Rothbaum, B. (2010). Textbook of anxiety disorders. Washington [etc.]: American Psychiatric. National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). What is Anxiety Disorder?. Rockville: National Institute of Mental Health. pp. 1-3. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml [Accessed: 11 Sep……

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Social Phobia There Is a

It is also the clinician's duty to determine whether the excessive reactions are that of anxiety or as a result of adverse effects of some medications. If the person already has other health issues, for example obesity, the anxiety or fear felt should not be related to the other health condition or should be out of proportion to what is usually experienced (Hirsch and Matthews, 2000). References Chen, Y.P., Ehlers, A., Clark, D.M., & Mansell, W. (2000). Social phobia and attentional avoidance of faces. Manuscript submitted for publication. Clark, D.M. (2000). Cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders. In M.G. Gelder, J. Lopez-Ibor, & N.N. Andreason (Eds.), New Oxford textbook of psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Harvey, A., Clark, D. M., Ehlers, A., & Rapee, R.M. (2000). Social anxiety and self-impression: cognitive preparation enhances the beneficial effects of video feedback following a stressful social task. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 1183 -- 1192. Hirsch, C.R. & Matthews, A. (2000). Impaired positive inferential bias in social phobia. Manuscript submitted for publication. Mellings, T.M.B. & Alden, L.E. (2000).……

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John Watson and His Contributions to the

¶ … John Watson and his contributions to the field of behavioral psychology. John B. Watson came to be known as one of the creators of behavioral psychology and an expert in the subject. He later left psychology and worked in advertising, creating a completely new niche of advertising that tried to market to people's behavior. John B. Watson was…

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Martin Luther King a Dreamer and His

Martin Luther King A DREAMER and HIS DREAM Martin Luther King, Jr. Biography Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia to Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. And Alberta Williams (Brown, 2010). His siblings are Christine and the late Reverend Alfred Daniel Williams. He studied at the Yonge Street Elementary School in Atlanta, the David…

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Psychiatric Nursing Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder Type I from a Theoretical and Empirical Perspective Bipolar disorder, which was at one time called manic depressive disorder, is a mental illness defined by alterations between manic moods and clinical depression. It is common now to differentiate between Bipolar I and Bipolar II disorders. In a general sense, Bipolar I disorder most closely corresponds to the previously used terminology manic depression. Bipolar I generates mood swings that are extremely severe and significantly impair functioning and quality of life. It can also entail psychotic episodes in some cases. Because of the severity of the disorder, many people suffering from Bipolar I are institutionalized. The length of each mood swing can range from days to months to years. Some people with this disorder stay in a certain state for so long that they no longer consider themselves to be bipolar. Then, unexpectedly, their mood will shift drastically in the opposite direction, causing extreme distress for both the sufferer and their loved ones (Joyce & Mitchell, 2005). The DSM-IV provides the following criteria for Bipolar I Disorder: "The essential feature of Bipolar I Disorder is a clinical course that is characterized by the occurrence of one or more Manic Episodes or Mixed Episodes. Often individuals have also had one or more Major Depressive Episodes. Episodes of Substance-Induced Mood Disorder (due to the direct effects of a medication, or other somatic treatments for depression, a drug of abuse, or toxin exposure) or of Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition do not count toward a diagnosis of Bipolar I Disorder. In addition, the episodes are not better accounted for by Schizoaffective Disorder and are not superimposed on Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder, or Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified" (p. 350) Prevalence of Bipolar Disorder Type I According to Doran (2007) the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder type I is approximately 1% of the U.S. population. However, when less strict criteria are used than that which is applied by the DSM-IV, Doran reports that studies estimate that the actual prevalence is five times higher. Incidents of misdiagnosis also make it difficult to estimate the number of actual bipolar sufferers. According to Hirschfeld (2002) "Results from the National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association (NDMDA) survey indicate that 73% of patients with bipolar disorder were misdiagnosed on initial presentation to a healthcare professional" (p. 9) Applicable Nursing Theory: Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations…

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Childhood Separation Anxiety Disorder

Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) manifests itself in children as extreme anxiety based on unrealistic expectations of permanent disconnection when the child is separated from parents or other individuals with whom they are strongly emotionally attached. Separation anxiety is a normal part of the childhood development process in infants because they do not have the cognitive abilities to distinguish between temporary absence and permanent absence. Most children move past this separation anxiety by the time they reach pre-school age. Separation anxiety becomes an actual mental disorder when the child continues to have irrational fears when separated from those to whom he or she is emotionally attached past pre-school age and even into adolescence. According to MedicineNet.com, "Approximately 4%-5% of children and adolescents suffer from separation anxiety disorder." The symptoms for Separation Anxiety Disorder (309.21) as described by the DSM-IV-TR, involves three or more of the following indicators: (1) recurrent excessive distress when separation from home or major attachment figures occurs or is anticipated (2) persistent and excessive worry about losing, or about possible harm befalling, major attachment figures (3) persistent and excessive worry that an untoward event will lead to separation from a major attachment figure (e.g., getting lost or being kidnapped) (4) persistent reluctance or refusal to go to school or elsewhere because of fear of separation (5) persistently and excessively fearful or reluctant to be alone or without major attachment figures at home or without significant adults in other settings (6) persistent reluctance or refusal to go to sleep without being near a major attachment figure or to sleep away from home (7) repeated nightmares involving the theme of separation (8) repeated complaints of physical symptoms (such as headaches, stomachaches, nausea, or vomiting) when separation from major attachment figures occurs or is anticipated (p. 391) The diagnostic criteria for SAD, according to the DSM-IV-TR are: (1) Developmentally inappropriate and excessive anxiety concerning separation from home or from those to whom the individual is attached, as evidenced by at least three of the symptoms described above. (2) The duration of the disturbance is at least 4 weeks. (3) The onset is before age 18 years. (4) The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, academic (occupational), or other important areas of functioning. (5) The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, or other Psychotic Disorder and,…

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To Diagnose or Not to Diagnose

¶ … Diagnose or Not to Diagnose Differentiate among the various types of mental illness described in case examples People suffering with mental illness experience limitations in their cognitive and behavior skills along with emotional and behavioral disorders. These disorders limit their ability to learn new skills. Some of the common conditions that are considered as mental illnesses are "Anxiety…

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Mirror Neurons

Mirror Neurons The discovery of Mirror neurons has led to new theories in understanding the development of human social cognition, empathy, imitative skills, learning skills, etc. Mirror neurons are very important and unique neuronic cell types that are activated not only by doing action but also by observing an action. The neural basis of empathy and callousness will also offer…

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Kasparov Was Able to Defeat

One of these is the trend to give more and more credence to embodied cognition. This trend actually represents an ideological shift from centuries of previous research, which considered the mind and the body largely distinct and simply posited that the former controlled the latter. Another trend that has emerged of late is psychobiology, which allows researchers to root perceptions and certain social behaviors in biological rudiments. Evolutionary psychology is another fairly popular trend within social psychology; this theory contends that traits of cognition and various processes have evolved due to adaptations, much like other adaptations noted by Charles Darwin. More than likely, embodied cognition will have the greatest impact on society, because it has the potential to revolutionize the way that people think -- and thus learn and work, as a result. One of the more surprising social psychology theory found in Susan Fiske's book, Social Beings: Core Motives in Psychology is the notion of embodied cognition. Although this theory pertains to cognitive psychology just as much if not more so than social psychology, the ramifications for its social applications are manifold and intriguing. The basic notion behind this concept is that cognitive processes are affected by physiological ones, specifically those relating to the perceptual or the motor system. This theory is so startling because traditional psychology contends that the cognitive processes influence physical ones, and that the latter have no influence over the former. If this theory were applied correctly, such as in social settings like conventional schools and classrooms, it has the potential for revolutionizing classroom behavior and the way that teachers teach, which could potentially involve a more kinesthetic focus. References Fiske, S.T. (2010). Social beings: Core motives in social psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Hartke, R.J., Larson, E., Lefebrve, K. (2011). "Brain injury: impaired cognition." Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Retrieved from http://lifecenter.ric.org/index.php?tray=content&tid=top279&cid=207 Tanner, J. (2009). "Psychobiology and social psychology." Brainy Behavior. Retrieved from http://www.brainybehavior.com/blog/2009/01/psychobiology-and-social-psychology/#more-295…

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Psychology Criminal Behavior

¶ … post: Risk factors of early drug use and a genetic history of addiction Gary F.'s early use of drugs was a clear risk factor that led to his development of an addiction and criminal behavior later in life. Using drugs fundamentally alters the reward structure of the brain, and young people with developing brains are particularly vulnerable to being affected. Gary F. felt he had few career prospects, and because of his involvement in 'drug culture,' selling drugs on the streets seemed like a more viable option than staying in school. Combined with an environment where drug use was normalized and a lack of adequate adult role models both in school and at home, Gary F.'s descent into addition seems easily explained (Burkhead 2006: 24). Nurture as well as nature also plays a role in addiction. Not everyone who tries drugs and alcohol at a young age becomes addicted, but Gary F.'s biological mother was an alcoholic, so it is likely that Gary F. was very vulnerable to alcohol addiction because of his genetic makeup (Burkhead 2006: 24-25). In Gary F.'s case, environment combined with biology made him vulnerable to using drugs, and a school and home environment which suggested that his career prospects were dim further incentivized going down this path in life. It is possible that an intervention at some point could have helped Gary F. lead a more productive life. Even if Gary F. tried drugs at a young age, having a sense of a future could have mitigated the attractiveness of selling drugs on the street and made him question if this was the best way for him to make money. Not trying drugs so early might also have given his brain time to develop and made him less vulnerable to being addicted to drugs and alcohol. However, the two combined -- genetics and environment -- proved to be a toxic combination. Writing assignment The comparison of the cases of Gary F. And Gary G. is designed to illustrate how environmental and biological factors alike can have a profound influence on the development of criminal behavior. Gary G. was born to a stable, middle-class household where law-abiding behavior was encouraged. Moreover, because Gary G. expected to go to college like his parents and enter into a profession, he did not want to jeopardize his future prospects with criminal behavior or drug addiction (Burkhead 2006:…

Pages: 3  |  "Discussion and Results" Chapter  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counseling

The professional strengths that I have acquired and have seen counselors make use of their field of practice are elaborated in the following paragraphs. Meanwhile, for professional growth it is important that professionals should analyze the limitations pertaining to the field of practice. Strengths When I make an analysis of the professional strengths related to the field of counseling I…

Pages: 14  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 14


Lord of the Flies and

This is because aggression is innate in all human beings, stronger than most artificial social rules (Klein 1975). Jack's group illustrates this concept as they become more willing to commit acts of intensifying cruelty. Towards the end of the movie, they are able to kill Piggy without remorse, and turn to hunting Ralph with the intent to kill. Ralph is only saved by the timely arrival of an authority figure who is there to reinstate the social order. In Lord of the Flies, the pull towards aggression is further intensified by the lure of the group. One by one, the members of Ralph's group abandon the orderly society (depressive state) for Jack's band of hunters. Even Ralph himself, the movie's epitome of maturity, feels the twin lure of his own innate aggression and the temptation to abandon his responsibilities, such as keeping a fire going and building shelters. Instead, he could join Jack's band, leaving a life free from worries or consequences, as they take out their aggressions by hunting wild boar. In conclusion, Klein's theories regarding an innate aggression are useful in understanding the boys' behavior in Lord of the Flies. This aggression, the movie shows the viewer, can easily pull an individual back into a primitive mental state. The movie is a reminder of the power of aggression to override individual moral concerns. In the absence of rules and consequences, and in conjunction with the group, this innate aggression can lead anyone - even civilized boys - to become murderous killers. Works Cited Klein, Melanie (1975). "The Oedipus complex in light of early anxieties." In Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works, 1921-1945. London: Hogarth. Original work was published in 1945. Klein, Melanie (1984). "A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive sates. In R. Money-Kyrle (Ed.) The writings of Melanie Klein (Vol. 1, pp. 262-89). New York: The……

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Personality Assessment Instruments

Personality Assessment Instruments Millon, Rorschach and other methods of evaluation This paper will attempt to give an overview of two relatively common and recently derived questionnaire-type personality assessments used by mental health professionals, the MCMI-III (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory) and the MACI (Millon ™ Adolescent Clinical Inventory). It will compare the Millon approach with more subjective assessment methods such as…

Pages: 7  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Fodor Since the Beginning of His Career

Fodor Since the beginning of his career in the early 1960's Jerry Fodor has been able to produce a number of discrete arguments regarding cognitive science and philosophy of the mind; and just as these two fields of thought are distinct yet similar, so too are Fodor's major theses. In 1983 Fodor published his book Modularity of the Mind and…

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Edr What Is Environmental Design

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Voluntary standards for building accessibility (visually and physically handicapped) National Fire Protection Association Life Safety Code, 1976 Conclusion: EDR = Basic and applied (research + application in law) 3. Goals, Values, Orientations EDR is Value Explicit = make a values check, admit that values are impacting research Different from value-free, which assumes that research is conducted regardless of any values Eg. Important to study crime slums, poverty, worker productivity because these things have value Problem with diverse objectives of an institution eg. Prison (is a prison to rehabilitate or to punish? That will affect design….) or School (is a school for discipline and learning or social engagement? That will affect design) Goals of Environmental Design Research = Improving Quality of Life Contextual Values Commitment to better world, improving quality of life Problem-centered focus Ongoing communication between research, application; human + design professions (biz + psych) Action Oriented too (effect environmental policy, urban planning, architecture and landscape) Research and Design All Scales of the Physical Environment Micro-environments (interior design, anthropometrics) Meso-scale (environmental psychology, architecture, landscape architecture) Macro-scale (urban planning, geography, sociology) Time, Change and Adaptation Multidisciplinary by Nature and Necessity Conceptual Orientations Everyday physical environment on human experience Study people in groups as they carry out normal activities Integrity of Person-Environment Events People and settings interrelated Environment and behavior is a transactional unity -- single unit of analysis Behavior is joint product of human forces and situations factors Social, cultural, physical environment Content as much as Process Environmental Psychology = Intrapersonal processes (perception, cognition, learning) then mediate the impact of the environment on individual Difference between Environmental Design and Environmental psychology EDR concerned with broader questions of group behavior, social values, and cultural norms in relation to environment Content = Who actors are What activities they do In what settings they do it Mediating Role of Psychological, Social, and Cultural Processes Environment does not have a DIRECT impact on people, but it has an impact VIA people's perceptions Methodological Values and Orientations Descriptive, Exploratory, and Quasi-Experimental Research 1. Description of phenom. What variables are operating? Causal relationship btwn independent and dependent variables EDR Methodology: Qualitative and quantitative accounts of people-place transactions in the form of: case histories phenomenological accounts open-ended interviews longitudinal observations visual records 2. exploratory research, not just research hypothesis testing 3. internal and external validity Future Orientations 4. An Organizing Framework Framework =…

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Survival of Zi Wei Do

Again, this is not measurable in research terms and the TPB practitioners can focus on the advantageous and disadvantageous traits of an individual to determine the part that luck plays in the overall cultural standards within china and Hong Kong (Michael and Thomas, 2005). "As in Purple Star Astrology, Fate is primary. It is the moment, the time when events…

Pages: 20  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 10


Building Theory About Imagination and Creativity

¶ … Pilot Study - Imagination Pilot Study for QR Approach In order to understand cognitive processes such as imagination and creativity, it is necessary for researchers to conduct research that is either based in physiological science, such as a neuroscience investigation, or based in cognitive psychology. Research that enables the study participants to talk about and otherwise disclose their thoughts and perceptions -- when they are engaged in creative activity or when they are thinking about how they use their imagination -- can provide qualitative data about the lived experiences of the participants. These individual accounts make up the thick and rich narratives of qualitative research data. Quantitative research does not provide the deep and introspective information that quantitative methods provide. Qualitative researchers have long used the term thick rich description to describe an approach to achieving external validity in their studies (Goertz, 1973; Holloway, 1997; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Ryle, 1949). The process of describing a phenomenon in sufficient detail provides a basis for a researcher to evaluate the degree to which conclusions can be drawn from the data, and perhaps transferred -- in general terms -- to other people, settings, situations, and times. Ryle (1949) first used the term thick description, and Goertz (1973) applied it to ethnography. A thin description is a superficial account and is not desirable in qualitative research. Holloway (1997) defined thick, rich description as a detailed account of the field observations and experiences that enable the researcher to make cultural patterns and social relationships explicit and located in their context. The proposed research study is qualitative and is grounded in the phenomenological position. Qualitative research is holistic in approach and takes into account of the environments and situations in which individual experiences occur. This approach locates qualitative research so as to be concerned with particular instances or cases. A qualitative researcher in interested in understanding the perceptions and meaning-making of individuals in order to describe and explain behavior, phenomena, or social processes from the perspective of the research participants. Purpose of the Pilot Study The proposed research study has two purposes: 1) To increase understanding of the nature and functioning of imagination in the lives creative people, and 2) to contribute to theory of imagination based on research data. The purpose of the pilot study is to assess the utility of the interview protocol and investigate the reliability and validity of the…

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Behavior? Prejudice and Social Psychology

Thus, we all tend to fulfill our psychological need of belongingness and distinction that is reflected in the amount of influence that we absorb from societal factors such as peers, parents, figures of authority, and other factors that shape behavior. Conclusion As quoted by renowned researcher Milgram, "Psychiatrists predicted that only a pathological fringe of about one in a thousand would administer the highest shock on the board" (Milgram, 1973; Pg. 62). With such popularly held notions and general perceptions regarding individual's behavior, Milgram refuted that we only act morally in given situations and held true that obedience to authority plays an important role in shaping behavior of individuals. The self-argued plausible explanation individuals such as Adolph Eichmann after committing crimes, provide is that they were only acting on behalf of an actually responsible person. This implies that individual behavior is significantly shaped by the level of obedience one shows to the figure of authority. Whereby eminent scholars have attributed behavioral aspects of an individual related to motivational and intrinsic factors, social psychologists have asserted that it one's environment and deference to authority that shapes the individual's behavior. The breakdown of tasks that we perform on daily basis, into small rather disconnected parts, enables one to shift responsibility in totality to figures of authority, as in case of WWI and WWII crimes. These are events like wars that compel psychologists to investigate the determinants of an individual's behavior. References Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28. Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481. Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ). Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549. French, J.R., & Raven, B. (1959). The bases of social power. Studies in social power. Cartwright (Ed.), Ann Arbor, Mich.: Institute for Social Itcsearch, 259-269. Milgram, S. (1973). The perils of obedience. Harper's magazine, 247(1483), 62-77. Padilla, A.M., & Perez, W. (2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: A new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(1), 35-55. Smith, C., Organ, D.W., & Near, J.P. (1983). Organizational citizenship…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Self-Conception Social Psychology Conceptualization of

Since the human being has that constant sense of self in their lives, the emotional events therefore normally involve the complex self. It is worth noting though that there are some emotional events that do not need complex evaluation of self for instance fear at the sight of danger or joy upon receiving a call of having won lottery. However, taking into account the ever-present nature of the self, the winner of the lottery is bound to reappraise their win and make corresponding self-evaluation and come with conclusions like they are good in picking the numbers or tag some lucky number to an event in their daily lives hence creating some self-esteem out of the joy turning it into pride (a self-conscious emotion). Taking the other example of man running away at the sight of danger say a bear at a camping sight, the feeling of fear will definitely be the first emotional reaction, but the presence of the wife or girlfriend will invoke the self-representation in the scenario particularly taking into account the gender stereotypes hence making self-evaluations that lead to alternative emotions as well. The man may choose after self-evaluation to fight the bear which would generate self-esteem of pride if he manages to fend off the bear or degenerate into shame or guilt if he runs away and leaves the wife. These examples indicate that the self can significantly change the emotions experienced in events that may not necessarily appear to involve complex self processes. Jessica L & Richard W (n.d: 189) note that every emotion that man experiences will be uniquely influenced by the self process and consequently shape our self-esteem. For instance, fear can easily turn to be shame when we contemplate what our fear in that particular circumstance means. Anger can easily turn into hostility or aggression when that anger is directed towards someone who has threatened our livelihood. Self and behavior as related to self-presentation It has been noted that the self-conception that one displays will definitely influence the behavior put firth to the society. For instance, people whose conception of self ends in depicting low self-esteem are more likely to display aggressive behavior than those whose self-conception points towards high self-esteem (Missouri Western State University, 2009). The way an individual will present himself within the society or among peers will widely depend on the self-perception which in return shapes behavior. For instance,…

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Psychology of the Consumer Behavior

These were the things which are the ultimate needs of the life and without them survival is almost not possible or extremely difficult. 21st century has introduced a new set of mind in the people and that has shattering consequences in the form of psychological complexes aka disorders. The common one is dissatisfaction. You will easily find the people who would be urging for the things they do not need, or without which a nice survival is possible. Being a part of the society, you have a natural urge to being on the equal status of your peeps hence if you can get all that, you will be psychologically vulnerable. Thus the importance of material possessions has greatly been increased due to the IT revolution and technological advancement (Steven, 1995) and this is the very reason why rich are getting richer and poor are getting poorer. The examples can be mobile phone, Mp3/mp4 players, laptop, iPhones, iPods, tablets, own car, and things of this sort. Every young mind is inclined towards getting them regardless of the resources they have. There is a psychological push. Or else they will keep feeling guilty and hiding the low profiles. Apart from all that, material possessions also depict social values and cultural norms. An individual normally go for the things which have the social approval or cultural support. They also reveal about the personality to some extent. They are also responsible for the healthy or rough relationships. So all these things collectively put the psychological pressure on the human mind and the only way to get the satisfaction is to get them. (Appadurai, 1986) Now going to the consequences of 'if not'; the individual after trying his best to get moves to the illegal ways which are not socially accepted. But in order to satisfy his conscience he does it. Another factor can be suicide. Since it is now the third major reason of death worldwide, the reasons can be the high rate of anxiety and depressions particularly due to these aspects. As a result the crime rate has greatly been increased by now and it is till increasing. The unequal distribution of the wealth and psychological urge of material possessions has pushed the poor or low profile people off their thresholds. Critical analysis One of the major reasons for inculcating a psychological feeding of material possessions is the media. An eye which keeps…

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History of Psychology Over the Centuries Western

History Of Psychology Over the centuries Western societies have constantly wrestled with: various ailments surrounding human behavior and why an individual will engage in the actions they take. This would give rise to the field of modern day psychology, where various thinkers and philosophers were attempting to understand these issues. As a result, a variety of theories were developed, to provide a more in depth picture of how the human mind works. Where, a number of different psychologists would have a profound impact on understanding human behavior to include: Benjamin Rush, Henry Wegrocki, Karen Horney, Evelyn Hooker Thomas Szasz and Samuel Guze. This is significant, because the different ideas presented by these thinkers would provide the basic foundation for the psychology. To fully understand the impact that of each of these individuals had requires: looking at a summary of the different ideas. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights, as to how each of these individuals would help to shape modern day psychology. Benjamin Rush Benjamin Rush was considered to be the father of American Psychiatry. Where, he would classify the different diseases of the mind, while believing that mental illness was caused by a blood disorder. He was the first person to describe and catalogue the symptoms of Savant Syndrome. This would help Rush be able to identify a number of mental disorders, which would allow him to develop the therapeutic approach for treating addiction. This is where he believed that someone who is addicted to a chemical substance (such as alcohol), will lose control over their behaviors. At the same time, Rush would help to establish the modern day mental institution, as place where someone who is suffering from mental illness can be able to receive specific treatment for their ailments. (Gentile, 2008) Henry Wegrocki Henry Wegrocki argued that a statistical approach should be used in the study of abnormality. As the different ideas he presented would differ from other philosophers, with him believing in monitoring the observable behavior of the individual. This is where you would examine the actions of the individual, based upon how they are reacting to various situations, without making any kind of inferences as to the possible motives. Instead, the mental health professional would want to monitor the behavior of the individual, to determine what they are suffering from. (Gentile, 2008) Karen Horney Karen Horney believed that in probing the…

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Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology Although the Science

¶ … Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology Although the science of psychopathology is relatively modern, it is reasonable to posit that there ancient mankind was afflicted by mental illness and that there has always been a need for effective ways to treat it. In the not-too-distant past, these problems were understood in terms of magic and religion, but these perspectives have been replaced in Western medicine by a more scientific view of mental illness and abnormal behavior that seeks to understand abnormal behaviors based on their biological, psychosocial and sociocultural origins. To determine how this transition from the magic and religious to the scientific has taken place over the years, this paper provides a description of the origins of abnormal psychology, a brief overview concerning how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline and an assessment of the theoretical viewpoints and interpretations of the biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural models. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion. Review and Discussion a. Describe the origins of Abnormal Psychology. People have always suffered from mental illness and there have always been efforts by humans to understand and treat these disorders. According to Kimble and Schlesinger (1985), "The very early history of psychopathology is scant in the extreme and we must be extremely hesitant to draw inferences from the few available data. There are a few records of psychological therapy dating from 3000 B.C. In Egypt and Mesopotamia" (p. 267). What is known for certain is that magic and religion were the primary ways that ancient peoples understood and sought to treat mental illness. For instance, Kimble and Schlesinger note that, "Illness was believed to be of divine origin and it followed that treatment consisted largely of magical-religious practices. Dream interpretations, incantations, religious rituals, and suggestion were employed" (p. 267). These points are also made by other historians of psychopathology. For example, in their seminal work, The Psychodynamics of Abnormal Behavior, Brown and Menninger (1940), report that, "Magic [and] religion are the chief methods through which man has tried to understand his place in the cosmos and to better it" (p. 23). Indeed, magical and religious views were highly influential in the manner in which mental illness was perceived by ancient peoples. In this regard, Kimble and Schlesinger note that, "Early views about madness have been inferred from Biblical references. For example, Deuteronomy 28:23, 34 views madness as…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Organizational Behavior (Psychology) Applied Comprehension Organizational Psychologists

Organizational Behavior (Psychology) Applied Comprehension Organizational Psychologists continually seek the creation of relevant approaches for the application of organizational psychological principles. Central to the application of Industrial Organizational psychological principles, as an emergent approach, has been the elevation of consultation psychology as a primary approach for the application of organizational psychology. Theoretically, the tension between business, clinical psychology and Industrial…

Pages: 16  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 15


Anxiety Disorder and Subjective Distress

Pathologizing Anxiety: When is it Healthy to be Anxious? Psychiatry and psychology have a history of confusing normal behavior that is outside of the average with pathology. Anyone with any familiarity with the history of the DSM can look at conditions that were previously considered disorders, such as homosexuality, to see that there has been a push to pathologize the…

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Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational

However, some have questioned whether these results would have been the same if the groups of people had known one another. In the experiment, the boys were not acquainted with one another prior to the experiment. Believing that such a scenario is too artificial to make it generalizable to the population at large, Tyerman and Spencer conducted a similar experiment,…

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Three Theoretical Perspectives

Theoretical Perspectives to Human Behavior Over the last several years, there have been a number of theories introduced to explain human behavior. To fully understand the most effective approaches requires focusing on psychology, genetics and neuroscience. This will be accomplished by studying each perspective in relation to human conduct and which theory is most valid. Together, these different elements will highlight the underlying influences on the thoughts and actions of a person. The Three Perspectives on Human Behavior Like what was stated previously, there are three areas that are focused on these include: psychology, behavioral genetics and behavioral neuroscience. Psychology is when there is a focus on how the thoughts of an individual will influence their behavior. This is because the environment will shape the way that someone reacts to different events. (Robbins, 1991) Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Robbins (1991) who said, "Everything that happens in your life -- both what you are thrilled with and challenged by -- began with a decision. it's in your moments of decision that your destiny is shaped. The choices that you are making right now, every day, will shape how you feel today as well as who you are going to become in the future and beyond." This is illustrating how psychology will have a direct impact on the decisions that are made by everyone. When this happens, it will determine the levels of happiness and other challenges that are affecting the person (based upon these views). (Robbins, 1991) The way that this can explain human behavior is to focus on how the thoughts of the individual and the way they are reacting to events are influencing their actions. When this happens, mental health professionals will have a greater understanding as to what factors are impacting the person. This is the point that they can begin working with them to address these challenges and changing how they are looking at various events. In the future, this will result in positive transformations with their behavior. (Robbins, 1991) Behavioral genetics is when there is focus on how biological factors are influencing the way that someone is reacting to different events. During this process, there is a concentration on how certain inherited traits will impact the way a person sees themselves and their role in the world. This will influence their behavior by causing them to react in a manner that…

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