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Race and Ethnic Relations

Race and Ethnic Relations History and location play a pivotal role in defining race and ethnic relations. Through the course of man's history, it has been made clear that there were already differences and seemingly unresolved disputes between some countries. These disputes may be in the form of variation in religion, race and/or social status. That is why until now,…

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Ethnic Studies as a Collective Disciplined Has

Ethnic Studies as a collective disciplined has had a varied history since its inception during 1968. The first institutions to offer such programs include San Francisco State and the University of California, including Berkeley and Santa Barbara. Ethnic Studies are also known as Black Studies, African-American Studies, Africana Studies, Mexican-American, and Puerto Rican Studies. Other ethnic programs include American Indian…

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Race and Ethnic Relations Dimensions

To look at Civic Assimilation, the authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding Alcohol Use. Overall, they ended up with a sample consisting of 17 useable countries of origin, made up of 1,484 respondents. They analyzed their data using a factor analysis. They found that there were only three orthogonal factors: Structural Assimilation, Cultural Assimilation, and Receptional Assimilation. The larger Sutructural Assimilation factor had large loadings for structural and marital assimilation variables. Cultural assimilation had large loadings for cultural, identification, and civic assimilation. Receptional assimilation had large loadings for attitude and behavior variables (as well as marital). These orthogonal factors were then used to create assimilation scales for the 17 ethnic groups. They found that structural and receptional and structural factors were significantly correlated, but neither was correlated with cultural assimilation. The further found that some groups were ranked consistently across types of assimilation (e.g., people of Russian German and Czechoslovakian decent), while, for many, there was an inconsistent pattern, with, e.g., high cultural assimilation and low structural assimilation or vice versa. They concluded, then, that a unidimentional approach to studying assimilation is problematic and that at least the three components (structural, cultural, and recoeptional) should be taken into consideration when assessing ethnic assimilation. Further, they say the results of the study "indicate that different ethnic groups have substantially different pattern of assimilation" (707), which directly counters Gordon's assumption that cultural assimilation is the first type to occur. They suggest that both the process and pattern of assimilation is different between groups, and both should be considered as part of a multidimientional approach to analyzing ethnic assimilation……

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Race Critical Theories: Text and Context Response

Race Critical Theories: Text And Context Response Although black and white are often thought of as the opposing 'camps' that define discussions of race in America today, the essay "Defining Black Feminist Thought" by Patricia Hill Collins suggests that the 'problem' of black womanhood acts as a profound challenge to conventional binary thinking about race. Collins calls upon scholars to accept more fluidity and overlap between black feminist thought and theories of race. She begins her essay noting that black feminist writings are "widely used" as slogans, yet are rarely defined, even though black women's narratives of struggle offer a rich source for all individuals to seeking overcome dichotomous thinking about racial and gender-based issues and tensions in society (152). Collins notes that black women may not feel as if they 'fit' into conventional discussions of either race or gender, yet their language and conceptual framework can offer powerful insight to the feminist and sociological rubrics of study that have often overlooked black women's contribution. One powerful example of Collins' is that a black lesbian woman who describes her experience at a heterosexual wedding as a kind of bondage. She uses the language to slavery to show how gay people feel they must conceal their true feelings, even amongst members of a family during a joyous celebration (158). Although Collins wishes to stress inclusion of various black women's perspectives, she is also careful to note that too easy an inclusion of all writers under the idea that 'everyone' can write from a Black feminist critical perspective is too easy (154). To speak of the singularity of such a perspective is itself marginalizing, and falls prey to the trap of seeing black women as offering the same voice and range of ideas, a concept that is anathema to Collins. Collins endorses the point-of-view that race and gender are social constructions, but because they have wielded such divisive and cultural power, one cannot assume that we are all 'the same' beneath the skin. Her essay strikes an empowering balance of showing the contribution that the diversity of black women voices has made to critical theory, even while she is writing about the sad fact that writers have attempted to appropriate or ignore black women's voices. Everyday Racism: A New Approach to the Study of Racism" by Philomena Essed discusses the inherently contradictory notion of "individual racism." For Essed, racism is always an…

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Chicano Studies Segregation Helped Form an Intense

Chicano Studies Segregation helped form an intense cultural exchange between different ethnic groups in 1940s Los Angeles, mostly because the ethnic groups all existed in the same basic area, which means they attended the same schools, shopped in the same stores, and socialized in the same clubs and restaurants. Of course, this was not always the case, but it occurred enough to crate true cultural exchange and social relations among the many different immigrant groups converging on Los Angeles and other U.S. cities. They were determined by the segregation of ethnic minorities from the white communities, and they have continued to form youth identity, as these communities tend to continue to exist, even after segregation ended, but discrimination and misunderstanding continued. Ethnic boundaries are the boundaries placed on a people by society, and the boundaries that many ethnic groups still adhere to and support, even unconsciously. They form out of prejudice and misunderstanding, and they support the subjugation of a people by not allowing them to move across borders in society. For example, ethnic boundaries are still in place in much of America education, which is why fewer Hispanics make it to college and then into the upper levels of the American economy. They are maintained by everyone who believes minorities cannot achieve the same things whites can, and they impact ethnic studies because they indicate there is still prejudice and disparity in America. 3. Today, political consciousness is valued, and even encouraged as it was in the 1940s. Chicanos today are becoming much more involved in the fight for citizenship, immigration issues, and better pay. They are becoming much more vocal, even if it threatens their own lifestyle, and they are trying to get others to understand the rigors of immigration and work in the U.S. This is similar to those who protested the war and democracy in the 1940s, and different from other eras, where for the most part,……

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Cultural Pluralism

Cultural Pluralism The American territory is well-known for its cultural pluralism. The outstanding cultural diversity and ethnic pluralism in the United States call for cultural awareness and special social education of the community members, in order to avoid important problems, such as racism and discrimination. The basis of the modern democratic society requires more than tolerance towards the different racial,…

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Ethnic Studies Asian American and African Americans

¶ … Asian-Americans and African-Americans in several key areas of their immigration to the United States. African-Americans and Asian-Americans have suffered many of the same abuses and prejudices as they sought to become Americans. They have many commonalities and some differences as well. Their arrival in America has been controversial, and their presence here adds to a more diverse and varied society today. Asian-Americans and African-Americans both had to immigrate to the United States, they were not native to the area. African-Americans were some of the first immigrants to arrive; most of them were initially brought here against their will to serve as slaves in both the North and South of the eastern United States. There are records of slaves and free blacks living in the U.S. In the 1700s and by the early1800s, there were thousands of blacks working as slaves on the great plantations of the South. African-Americans came to the U.S. via two main routes. Most all were shipped to the U.S. from Africa on slave ships after they were captured from their homelands. The route from Africa to Europe and on to America was called the Middle Passage (Palmer, 2000, p. 15). Conditions on the slave ships were horrible, as many black historians have noted. One writes, "Chained together and confined to the cramped, hot, and humid holds of the ships, these Africans were lucky if they survived the ordeal" (Palmer, 2000, p. 15). Some slaves also came to America via the Caribbean, where they worked on sugar cane and other plantations before they were "imported" to the United States. Asian-Americans also came to the United States aboard ships, mostly from China. They too suffered horrible conditions, and many perished before they arrived at their destination. Later, many Chinese women were shipped to the United States against their will to work as prostitutes, and they came by ship as well. Thus, both groups endured difficult voyages to reach America. The Chinese had to pay, sometimes exorbitant sums to reach their destination, while blacks had no say in their lives after they were kidnapped and boarded ship. Asian-Americans immigrated to this country mostly out of hope for work and a better life. The first Asians to arrive were Chinese on the West Coast. One author notes, "The Chinese were the first Asian group that entered in large and persistent numbers. About 52,000 Chinese arrived in 1852 alone.…

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Racism and Discrimination

In addition, some sociologists employ field research and participant observational techniques which can provide robust findings and valuable empirical observations; however, these approaches can be highly time-consuming and expensive (Neuman, 2003). By contrast, survey research is a highly cost-effective approach that can provide sociologists with large amounts of data in a relatively short timeframe (Neuman, 2003). Case studies also provide a useful framework in which an issue of interest can be investigated in depth and with greater attention to details (Leedy, 1997). Furthermore, case study research can help identify gaps in the literature and directions for future studies (Neuman, 2003). Irrespective of the research methodology employed, though, sociologists generally explain the causes of prejudice in terms of personality types that are predisposed towards prejudicial thinking (Farley, 2005). People that hold prejudicial views about others and practice discrimination against one group of people typically have negative views about other groups as well (Farley, 2005). Conclusion The review of the literature showed that sociologists can use a broad array of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, including surveys, interviews, case studies, participant observation, field research and secondary analysis. Each of these research methodologies has its respective strengths and weaknesses compared to the others, and the determination as to which approach is optimal for a given research project depends on the type of information that is needed and the goals of the study. In the final analysis, it is reasonable to conclude that sociologists that employ more than one research approach will gain more insights into the issues of interests compared to those that employ a single approach. References Dion, K. (2002, February). The social psychology of perceived prejudice and discrimination. Canadian Psychology, 43(1), 1-5. Farley, J.E. (2005). Majority -- minority relations, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Grinnell, R.M. Jr. & Unrau, Y.A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press. Leedy, P.D. (1997). Practical research: Planning and design (6th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Neuman, W.L. (2003).……

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Race and Racism in the Chicano a Community

Race and Racism in the Chicana/O Community Two major challenges that exist regarding Chicana/o education that is connected largely to race are the high dropout rates for students of this ethnic heritage and the racial segregation that pervades schools that the majority of such students attend (Yosso, 2). For example, as Yosso explains, for every 100 Chicana/o elementary school students, 44 of them graduate from high school; 56 students of the initial 100 drop out (3). Of the 44 that graduate from high school, 26 enroll in college, but only seven graduate with a bachelor's degree, only two will continue on to graduate school and less than one will hold a doctoral degree (Yosso, 3). Yosso points out that Chicana/o students consistently underperform Caucasian students, yet also illuminates that this is no doubt connected to the fact that "Chicana/o students usually attend over-crowded, run-down, and racially segregated schools. Too often, these schools provide low per-pupil expenditures, few well-trained teachers, and limited access to a quality, college-bound curriculum" (Yosso, 4). As Yosso explains, often these schools lack basic resources and supplies. All these factors can contribute enormously to a higher drop-out rate because the experience of education for these students isn't about the journey or exploration of learning, presenting students with surmountable challenges, or demonstrating the value of teamwork, instead, school is like any other institution, perhaps resembling most of all, a prison sentence to a lot of these kids. Whereas children from other backgrounds receive the benefit of nurturing and being able to blossom to the full extent of their abilities in other classrooms, Chicana/o students merely have to get through the day. Furthermore, that lack of diversity can only contribute to the high dropout rate, as students don't get the benefit of being around motivated students from other backgrounds. As Yosso summarizes, "High schools tend to reflect the patterns of structural inequality evidenced at the primary levels of the pipeline. In urban, suburban and rural communities across the United States, Chicana/o students attend racially segregated, overcrowded high schools in dilapidated buildings with an insufficient number of functioning bathrooms" (57). This racial segregation is compounded by the fact that lots of textbooks used in these classes neglect to mention the contributions made by Hispanics and Latinos have made throughout history, adding to the development of the country. 2. Arizona's HB 2281 is a bigoted political move made to resemble education…

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How to Improve Race Relations in the United States

Race Relations and Racism Racism is a disease, a historical ill, a disorder of the historical self... [and] it is the outcome of the West's assault upon the living world to create this idolatrous property, of an attempt, existing beneath white rationalizations, to take back from the world what we fancy was taken from us in the process of separation."…

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Racism and Various Forms How

The neo-liberal laws of Australian government are also regarded as an attempt to cope up with the global economy rather than creating a multicultural society. Infect the presence of individuals and families of Asian descent in Australia are evident that the global economy has also affected the nation (McGoldrick, Giordano & Garcia-Preto, 2005). The borders and physical lines of human…

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Sociology Racism Throughout History Racism Has Been

Sociology Racism Throughout history racism has been seen as a plight that tends to target vulnerable groups. Racism is the conviction that characteristics and abilities can be attributed to people simply on the basis of their race and that some racial groups are superior to others. Racism and discrimination have been used as dominant weapons encouraging fear or hatred of…

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Fiction of Race Race: The

One trait infrequently predicts for another. (One cannot read deeper meanings into physical cues)" (Goodman 1998). Above all "there is greater variation within than among purported races" and members of different racial categories show more similarities between one another than differences as human beings when compared with other animal species (Goodman 1998). It is not 'race' that is useful in understanding the evolution and continuing biological and other needs of the human community. "What we should be studying instead are the complex ways in which biology and culture co-produce one another in the human species" (Marks 2012: 29). Aspects of human biology have been given great significance above and beyond their original roots in skin pigmentation but it is better to study the phenomenon itself rather than to classify diseases as 'racial' diseases. Of course, some might argue that people want to define themselves by race and it is their right to do so. But in serious questions have arisen as to whether such traditional identity politics are feasible in the 21st century. Celebrities such as Barack Obama and Tiger Woods, although identified with the African-American community, also proudly proclaim their multiethnic heritage, which includes mothers who are not classified as African-Americans. The 'boxes' people must check on applications must grow infinitely more complex as intermarriage and changing cultural ideals transforms our society. Today, it would be surprising to ask if one's race was Irish or Italian on an application in a manner that would not be shocking to a resident of the 19th century. In another 100 years, as scientific advances and cultural changes coalesce, being asked to identify as Latino may seem equally strange and narrow. This does not mean that national identity and pride in one's heritage will go away. In fact, it may increase, as people are allowed to celebrate the diversity and multitudes which exist within them, rather than feel pressured to categorize their personal complex histories along the fiction of 'race,' a concept that is not biologically sound and has produced so much suffering, historically speaking. References Duster, Troy. (2005). Race and reification in science. Science, 307 (5712). 1050-1051. Retrieved: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/307/5712/1050.full?ijkey=CrQywbf6JKCIs&keytype=ref&siteid=sci Garcia, Richard. (2003). The misuse of race in medical diagnosis. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 49 (35): B15. Retrieved: http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-01-y.htm Goodman, Alan. (1998). The race pit. Anthropology Newsletter. Reprinted: http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-01-10.htm Marks, J. (2012) Recent advances in culturomics. [Review of Sense and Nonsense, by…

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Conceptualizations of Racism in Contemporary

Britain thus appears to be very much focused on the past in its political and class systems. In fact, the practice of classifying people according to occupation and income began as early as 1851. And this also is only focused on the class system as it is known today. The class system has begun much earlier in British history, with servants and royalty being the opposite sides of the scale. Today racism is closely bound up with this system. It is unfortunate that theories such as racial inferiority should be combined with practices such as marginalization in order to ensure an unfair social structure. Britain is however moving into a century where equality issues are of major importance. Thus by means of protests and continuous effort, racial and other minorities can work together to achieve positive social change. Bibliography Ben-Tovim, G., J. Gabriel, I. Law, and K. Stredder. "A Political Analysis of Local Struggles for Racial Equality." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Jenkins, R. "Social Anthropological Models of Inter-ethnic Relations." Ben-Tovim, G., J. Gabriel, I. Law, and K. Stredder. "A Political Analysis of Local Struggles for Racial Equality." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Mason, D. "Controversies and Continuities in Race and Ethnic Relations Theory." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Mason, D. Race and Ethnicity in Modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Rex, J. "The Role of Class Analysis in the Study of Race Relations - A Weberian Perspective." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Rose, D. "Official Social Classification in the UK." In Social Research Update, Issue 9, July 1995. http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/sru/SRU9.html Solomos, J. "Varieties of Marxist Conceptions of 'Race', Class and the State: a Critical Analysis." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University……

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Diversity in Schooling

Diversity & Racism in Schooling Any place where number of people of different culture, language or color, live that society usually generates prejudices among people. Societies where people live with full of prejudices affects the way in which a society grows or develops. These factors not only affect society but they also affect the people who are part of that…

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Psychological Effects of Racism on Minority Groups

Psychological Effects of Racism When the effects of contemporary racism are discussed, the conversation frequently revolves around the more tangible, practical effects of racism that are evident in large-scale trends, such as the dearth of minorities in political and corporate leadership positions, or the disproportionate number of minorities incarcerated and executed by countries such as the United States (Bobo &…

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Is Race for Real?

¶ … Race for Real? Race is a modern idea. Ancient societies did not divide people according to physical differences, but according to religion, status, class, even language. The term "race" gained popularity during the 1920s and 1930s, but the concept existed long before that. Greeks, Romans and Jews people did not divide their society according to race, but according…

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Racism Seven People in a

Using these factors poses imperative questions before attempting to answer about the races in the room. Some questions can involve where the seven people originally originated from, what they perceive about each other, what their cultures are and if they are discriminating against each other. However, the answer given will still be ambiguous. Culture, habits and customs have always been the determinant of a race and even not the biological makeup. Other societies consider and take certain perceived important physical characteristics and use them to place people in different racial categories. Such classification systems bring little or no difference from one society to the next. Different race and criteria for classification of races vary between different societies. Someone who is considered black in America may be considered as white in Brazil. In Rwanda, all people are black but they divide themselves to two races of Hutsis and Tutsis; hence human is the only one who can determine race in their own perceptions. [footnoteRef:5] [5: 4 "Capitalism and Racism," URL http:/ / http://www.bolshevik.org/1917/no12/no12capitalismandracism.html> (accessed 25th July 2012).] One can also choose to use social classification and behavior to group races; blacks are perceived to behave in certain ways, to achieve certain levels because they are blacks. Whites are assumed to behave and achieve in other ways because they are whites. This shows that physical difference does not have much significance, and the attributes of social significance that exist are put into consideration. Different aspects of racism show that racism is a dogmatic issue based on perceptions and ideologies. Racist thinking involves principles which lead inevitably to the natural and unequal treatment of people of other ethnic groups. There is no society that has equal distribution of resources. In multi-ethnic society's ethnicity is used as a determinant for the nature of distribution of resources. Ethnic groups are ranked in hierarchies causing inequalities. Top ethnic groups maintain power and dominate over those who are low in the hierarchy. Racism causes hatred and undue advantages to racists. [footnoteRef:6] [6: Mark Benson, "Hate and Racism," (2012): URL http:/ / http://www.expatforum.com/america/hate-and-racism.html> (accessed 25th July 2012).] Conclusion Different societies have different operative classification systems. It is obvious that the term race is misconceived hence making it exceedingly difficult to employ a useful, universal analytic manner. The point-of-view of cultural macro-evolution should be replaced; this makes it possible for genetic macroevolution and collaboration of cultures and collaboration with…

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Health and Illness Racism's Role

This seems to smack of a racist bias against people of color. This look at certain disparities is disturbing if it is due to race, even if unconscious racism, but other factors have to be examined to make sure that race is the lone cause. Another historical fact is that people of color have a lower socioeconomic status than do…

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Whiteness as a Non-Race Paradoxes

Only by recognizing Whiteness privileges and acknowledging the white people's contribution to its hegemony over every facet of life, can we all hope to institute more of a level playing field in the world we live in. References Clark, Kendall. (January 8, 2001) My White Problem -- And Ours. http://monkeyfist.com/articles/734/plain Clark, Kendall. (June 28, 2001) The Global Privileges of Whiteness. http://monkeyfist.com/articles/764/plain Jensen, Robert. (July 19, 1998) "White Privilege Shapes the U.S.," in Baltimore Sun. http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/%7Erjensen/freelance/whiteprivilege.htm Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness. http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/current/9.1r_kuchta.html McIntosh, Peggy. (1988) White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://seas.stanford.edu/diso/articles/whiteprivilege.html Rodriguez, Roberto. (May 13, 1999) "The Study of Whiteness," in Black Issues in Higher Education 16. http://www.virginia.edu/~woodson/courses/aas102/articles/rodriguez.html ENDNOTES Analysis of Whiteness as a Social Construction Clark, Kendall. (June 28, 2001) The Global Privileges of Whiteness. http://monkeyfist.com/articles/764/plain McIntosh, Peggy. (1988) White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://seas.stanford.edu/diso/articles/whiteprivilege.html Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness. http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/current/9.1r_kuchta.html Jensen, Robert. (July 19, 1998) "White Privilege Shapes the U.S.," in Baltimore Sun. http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/%7Erjensen/freelance/whiteprivilege.htm Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness. http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/current/9.1r_kuchta.html Clark, Kendall. (June 28, 2001) The Global Privileges of Whiteness. http://monkeyfist.com/articles/764/plain McIntosh, Peggy. (1988) White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://seas.stanford.edu/diso/articles/whiteprivilege.html Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness. http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/current/9.1r_kuchta.html…

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Sociology and Racism Sociologists Recognize

Instead, people form ethnic groups and racist belief as a result of their socialization and social interaction (Shibutani and Kwan, 28). The implication of the Shibutan and Kwan book is that racism arises not because the ethnic groups look different physically. Rather, racism results from the different ways that members of various ethnic groups communicate. Different racial groups develop various systems of meanings and communication. An illustration would be the way members of African-American groups have taken "ownership" of the N word. This word changes in meaning when spoken by a Caucasian person. The interactionist perspective has its limitations, particularly in its narrow focus. Focusing on micro level research such as symbols and language can neglect the influence of social institutions on the development of racist attitudes. After all, people do not live their everyday lives independent of institutions like religion and media. However, the interactionist perspective has the advantage of bringing people into the sociological analysis. As the example regarding the N word has shown, the interactionist perspective recognizes the dynamic role that people play in the development and propagation of racism in society. Works Cited Herrnstein, Richard. The Bell Curve. New York: Free Press, 1994. Nisbett, Richard. "Race, Genetics and IQ." The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks, ed. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1998. Olzak, Susan. The Dynamics of Ethnic Competition and Conflict. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992. Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian……

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Human Resources the Connection Workplace

These factors are particularly important when they enter the labor market (Mays et al.). Recommendations The study conducted by Danty Jr. (2003) recommended further study on the effects of race and socio-economic status on health for confirmation. Other researchers should also formulate a new longitudinal database, which will speed up the accurate identification of the link between racism and its negative health effects in the workplace (Danty Jr.). Hammond et al. (2010) suggested that reducing workplace discrimination may improve the overall performance and behavior of racial or ethnic minority hospital employees who are at the greatest risk of exposure to discrimination (Hammond et al.). Mistry and Latoo (2009) see education as the most important part of an overall solution to the persistence of racism in the workplace in any organization. It should be infused into the curriculum. It should stress the need to recognize personal prejudices at an early age so as to challenge these prejudices within ourselves (Mistry and Latoo). Research showed that group-based discussions among Black women of similar work status on racism and sexism in the workplace may reduced feelings of job-related stress (Mays et al., 2013). These may also serve to form problem communication and problem-solving skills, which may, as a consequence, prevent or reduce race-based discrimination from creating too great an impact on their health and overall well-being (Mays et al.). # BIBLIOGRAPHY Danty, W.A., Jr. (2003). Employment discrimination, segregation and health. Vol. 93 # 2, American Journal of Public Health: American Public Health Association. Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447721 Hammond, W.P., et al. (2010). Workplace discrimination and depressive symptoms: a study of multi-ethnic hospital employees. Vol. 2 # 1, Race and Social Problems: PubMed Central. Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2867471 Mays, V.M., et al. (2013). Perceived race-based discrimination, employment status and job stress in a national sample of Black women: implications for health outcomes. Vol. 1 # 3, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology: PubMed Central. Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3681822 Mistry, M. And Latoo, J. (2009). Uncovering the face of racism in the workplace. Vol. 2 # 2, British Journal of Medical Practitioners: JMN Medical Education……

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English 2nd Lang) I Was Most Affected

¶ … English 2nd Lang) I was most affected by the entire episode of American Slavery and the fact that institutionalized racist policies against African-Americans lasted and were so bitterly contested for so long in American history. Prior to the course, I was only aware that there was a period in early American history when African blacks had been exploited as human slaves and that there was segregation before the Civil Rights era in the 1960s. I did not think about it in detail or realize how long it lasted, how many lives it affected, and how brutal it was. I had known that the American Civil War was fought largely over slavery but I did not realize how much political negotiation was involved over it for so long before the Civil War; it was thought-provoking to realize that the slavery issue played such a great role in the admission of states to the Union. Likewise, I had believed that the living conditions of American blacks must have improved beginning after the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865. It was shocking to me to learn that black people were still preventing from getting the rights they were supposed to have after 1865 by such organized illegal actions in so many states. I knew that the Ku Klux Klan existed as a racist group during the late 19th and early 20th century, but I was not aware that they had millions of members early in the 20th century and it was very disturbing to learn that they marched in large numbers in a parade right in front of the White House. It made me realize that what happened in Nazi Germany before and during the Second World War could have occurred in the United States just as easily under slightly different circumstances. For decades after the Emancipation Proclamation, local and state governments throughout the former slave states enacted what Martin Luther King Jr. called immoral laws. The purpose of those laws was to prevent the former slaves from enjoying any of the rights they were supposed to get after the Civil War. "Jim Crow" laws prohibited blacks from voting and from owning property and even the American federal government discriminated in many ways against blacks. Only very recently, the U.S. federal government admitted that it had illegally refused loans to black farmers throughout the early and mid 20th century because of their race.…

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Educational Equality in Canada Canada's Multiculturalism and

Educational Equality in Canada Canada's Multiculturalism and the Socially Disadvantaged Within the Educational System In the last forty years, Canada has officially embraced the notion of multiculturalism as a policy pursued both by the government and the public. From its first inception in 1971, multiculturalism in Canada has evolved gradually, affecting the perception of Canadians themselves and their view of…

Pages: 8  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Race as a Biology Is Fiction Racism as a Social Problem Is Real

Smedley, a. & Smedley, B. (2005). "Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real." American psychologist 60(1), pp. 16-26. Despite what my be perceived in societal attitudes at large, a large debate still persists among certain researchers and theorists in the psychological world regarding the issue of race. As Smedley & Smedley (2005) note, some researchers still insist that there are measurable racial differences in aspects of personality such as intelligence that cannot be explained merely by social circumstances and upbringing, but in fact suggest or even require a genetic explanation. Most researchers do not find such conclusions accurate or scientifically meaningful, but their dismissal of the issues of race is, according to the authors, equally misleading and possibly destructive. As the authors themselves say about their intent in this article, "Our aim is not to review the psychological literature regarding the construction of race but to bring anthropological and historical perspectives to the study of race" (Smedley & Smedley 2005). The authors begin the main substance of this article by defining culture in anthropological terms, which essentially includes all of the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs of a given people. This understanding of culture negates the idea of biogenetic causes of behavior, placing the culture itself as the source and causal agent for all of these things. This relates to the idea of ethnicity, as well, which should not be confused with a racial difference but instead reflects differences in culture that have grown to the point of ethnic identification. Ethnic conflicts are actually usually between peoples that would identify the same racially, such as the English and the Irish or Indians and Pakistanis. In fact, language and religion were more important factors than perceived race in establishing identity until the 17th century. Even after the racial criteria of identity had been established, it was still clearly an entity quite apart from ethnicity, as the varying treatment of white American immigrants and minority groups in the United States demonstrates. Ethnic and cultural variations were expected to disappear by assimilation, but racial qualities were quite consciously permanent and impermeable. The nineteenth century saw race becoming a scientific subdivision of humanity, and in the mid-twentieth century genetic evidence for this division was claimed to exist. Subsequent research has shown that humans are 99.9% genetically the same, refuting such claims. The term "race" itself did not acquire the…

Pages: 3  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Race and Ethnicity in Gang

Gang activity has grown substantially throughout the world over the past decade. For the most part the majority of gang activity occurs in densely populated urban areas. Over the years a great deal of research has been conducted as it pertains to the reasons for gang activity and the individuals that are most likely to join gangs. The purpose of…

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Asian-Americans and Asian Jews and Their Reputation

¶ … Asian-Americans and Asian Jews and their reputation for academic success. The writer examines classroom, family and societal contributors to that reputation's development. There were six sources used to complete this paper. Racial Reputations for Academic Excellence Explored Society has dealt with stereotypes since the beginning of time. Whether those stereotypes were racially, ethnically or otherwise motivated they have…

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Theories of Race and Ethnicity

¶ … Scientific American by Michael J. Bamshad and Steve E. Olson ("Does Race Exist") brings the reader information that is understandably a bit heavy on the science end but helpful in a social context. And the article is helpful for the investigative young mind because after all, present day Western society is one of impressive human diversity. More than a mere "melting pot," America is a nation of many nations, many cultures and numerous immigrant groups of wildly diverse ethnicities. The point being, it is far too easy - and socially impolite - for a person to identify individuals strictly by "race." A person from Korea, for example, should not be referred to as "Oriental" (as that is vague as well as a racial slap in the face); but rather, that individual should be respected as an "Asian" whose ancestry is Korean. And of the several questions posed at the start of the article, the question most germane to the racial / ethnic issues at hand is, "...how valid is the concept of race from a biological standpoint?" The answer is, on one level at least, that the concept of race is not valid from a biological point-of-view, due to what has been discovered through DNA research. And while the authors dig deeper into the issue of ethnicity - through their discussion of DNA and "millions of polymorphisms" - interestingly, their research verifies that in some cases "...genetic analyses can distinguish groups of people according to their geographic origin." This would appear to be the most powerful revelation of this article. Additionally, it is eye opening to learn that for the average African-American (my friend in a History class, the running back for the San Diego Chargers - LaDainian Tomlinson - and our apartment neighbors who say "good morning" every day) only about 80% of his genes are directly connected to West Africa. Finally, this article delves briefly into the unfair, unpleasant "big brother" aspect of our government; the writers note that the FDA has continued "historical abuses associated with categorizing people by race." Indeed, the FDA authorizes the gathering of race and ethnic data from patients during clinical trials, and because the differences between groups are so miniscule and yet the abuses so vicious, this policy should be shot down. Meanwhile, Sally Satel's article ("Medicine's Race Problem") in the Hoover Institution's Policy Review begins by flatly stating that…

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Brazilian Ethnic Issues the Racial

Under sociologist Jon Cruz's theory of "ethnosympathy," whites and folks of color in both Brazil and the U.S. would develop "a greater level of identification with and appreciation of each other's experiences" (Daniel, 297). Brazil and Whiteness In Elisa Nascimento's book The Sorcery of Color: Identity, Race, and Gender in Brazil, the author goes into great detail to explain to…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Polygenism, Which Posits That Humans

Today, race in its original context of 'type' and 'descent' as per ideology appear quaint. There are very few credible scientists who still insist in separation of races and books that inoccasionally appear on the subject are considered pseudo-scientific and generally condemned by the larger audience. Race is still used but it is used primarily for government and political purposes such as for creating precise definition of ethnic or racial identification to be used for censuses, legislation and social or academic research that almost always is ultimately applied for civic purposes. Until comparatively recently, five racial / ethnic categories were used to distinguish people. These were: American Indian or Alaskan Native; Asian or Pacific Islander; Black / Negro; Caucasian / White; and Hispanic. Many of these terms are still used. The term 'non-white' is no longer acceptable, and in the case of an individual being of 'mixed racial and/or ethnic origin', he is categorized by that which "most closely reflects the individual's recognition in his community" (Banton, 64). The USA sees ethnicity as subdivision of a race, whereas Britain, for instance, (still possessing no definition in regards to 'race') assumes that individuals belong to a race. In short, although perspective of race as 'type' or 'descent' in its traditional sense had been largely abandoned, political pressures keep the idiom of 'race and 'ethnicity' alive. Banton seems to imply that 'race' assumed various connotations and implications to the people of the era as history and technology developed. In the beginning of time when biological understanding was still immature, people related to race as 'descent'. Later, under the influence of erroenoeus historical ideologies and teachigns, race became reclassifed as 'type', whilst in our current politically infused culture, race is used as instrument to politically identify communities and populations of people. References Banton, M. The Idiom of Race in Black, Les & John Solomos, 2009. Theories of Race and Racism, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge. Jackson, J., Race, Racism, and Science: Social Impact and Interaction,……

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Athabaskan-English Interethnic Communication," the Author Provides a

¶ … Athabaskan-English Interethnic Communication," the author provides a comparative analysis of communication between and among Athabaskans and English people. The discussion centers on four areas of study regarding communication between the two ethnic groups, that is, presentation of talk, distribution of talk, information structure, and content organization. In the presentation of the self during communication between Athabaskans and English,…

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Growth and the Social Importance of Ethnic

¶ … growth and the social importance of ethnic media in the United States. The article provides a clear overview of the growth of ethnic media publications and stresses that many of these publications provide valuable information for immigrants and ethnic groups. The article also stresses that many of the publications, while not always presented in a "professional" manner, provide…

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Chinese-American Studies: Wen Ho Lee

Not only did the common Asian-American feel outraged, but also the leaders of this community who were very outspoken in demanding that Dr. Lee be compensated in some way. Former UC Berkeley Chancellor Chang-lin Tien, the first Asian-American scientist appointed to the National Science Council, stated that the case was at a critical juncture after Lee's acquittal. As a result,…

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Does Racism Still Exist?

Racism in Today's Society Some people claim that racism is no longer a problem in the United States, citing the election of an African-American president and growing numbers of affluent and powerful minority individuals. Larger social issues such as homelessness, unemployment, and poverty all clearly show a racial division in this country, however, and show that racism is still an institutional and personal problem in this country (Marshall 2009). There are other more specific instances of racism beyond the large demographic evidence. Racial profiling is still routinely practiced openly by many law enforcement agencies and officers, and by even more on an implicit level (Shah 2004). There are some who argue that, though counter-productive to modern society, racism is a natural outgrowth fo the human need for collectivism, which causes individuals to group together and generally includes exclusionary rules that are used to strengthen the group (Rand 1963). This was certainly the root of racism here, where various ethnicities and immigrant groups were used……

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Racism in the United States: Racism Continues

Racism in the United States: Racism continues to be a powerful social issue throughout contemporary American society. In the United States, the two principal original sources of racism were (1) the typical atavistic xenophobia that generally exists within every human society where a dominant social culture confronts increasing foreign immigration; and (2) the lasting legacy of the shameful era of American Slavery that existed from the early 17th century in the original Colonies until the Emancipation Proclamation in the aftermath of the Civil War. Slavery in particular shaped much of modern American society, at least from the perspective of African-Americans generations in between their formal emancipation in 1865 and the adoption of meaningful civil rights reforms a century or more later. Others might argue that religious orientation also provided another significant source of racist sentiments in the U.S. In some respects, African-Americans may have had less success as a group overcoming the consequences of racism. This might naturally be attributable to the degree to which racism that originated in the pre-Civil War era still presents institutionalized racism faced by contemporary African-Americans. Shelby Steele offers a completely different analysis and suggests that the issue of racism has evolved into a form of self-sabotage among African-Americans, such as in the form of black-on-black crime and negative role models within urban communities, for example. To Steele, there is no connection between the high comparative drop-out rates among African-American college students and any type of racism on the part of any other racial group. According to Steele, charges of racism have been used as excuses by many in the African-American community, as well as to give credence to complaints that, in reality, are not functions of racism. In addition to diluting the impact of legitimate complaints about racism, Steele believes that many African-Americans are more psychologically dependent on the impact of racism on their lives that, "To admit this fully would cause us to lose the innocence we derive from our victimiza-tion. And we would jeopardize the entitlement we've always had to chal-lenge society. We are in the odd and self-defeating position in which taking responsibility for bettering ourselves feels like a surrender to white power." (Steele, p538). "...we see racism everywhere and miss opportunity even as we stumble over it. About 70% of black students at my university drop out before graduation -- a flight from opportunity that racism cannot explain." (Steele, p539).…

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Multicultural Education Is a Field of Study

Multicultural Education is a field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal educational opportunities for students from diverse racial, ethnic, social-class, and cultural groups. One of its important goals is to help all students to acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic democratic society and to interact, negotiate,…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 6


Prostrate Cancer Health Disparities Among

(American Cancer Society, 2003). For 1996 to 2009, new prostate cancer incidence rates and death rates from prostate cancer among Hispanic men surpassed the proportions for Pacific Islanders and Asian-Americans and but were lesser than those for African-Americans and whites. (National Cancer Institute, 2002). Mexican-American men have meaningfully lesser amounts of prostate cancer than those that are of non-Latino whites and African-Americans. The quantities for Cuban-American and Puerto Rican men are alike to those for whites of non-Latino background. (Intercultural Cancer Council, 2001) Hispanics/Latinos males when it comes for treatment for prostate cancer are also disturbed by many financial and cultural disparities in health care, comprising of unequal influence in federally subsidized cancer study. Furthermore, lack of contribution in health investigation has deferred the development of discouragement and action labors for this unusual population group. Among Latino males, inadequate screening and defensive care normally leads to late diagnosis, later or inadequate treatment and, with some cancers, higher humankind. Social Work Practice with Cancer Patients For black and Latino males that have been diagnosed with cancer, a social worker is a very vital member of the health care team. A social worker will be able to provide counseling, education, and information services, and transfers to community means to these patients and their family members. Furthermore, a social worker will be able to assist these people in navigating the health care system and find encouragement to achieve the day-to-day tests of living with cancer. As a Social worker, in order to intervene, and improve health outcomes, I would like a bridge in helping these people to be able to connect to the resources that they will have to need in order for them to really find practical help for them. For some of the patients, this might mean involving a transfer to the financial aid office of the hospital, or directions for applying for disability, or a clarification of rights that are supposed to be covered up under the Family Medical Leave Act. For others patients, it will more than likely mean learning about support groups that are stationed at the local community wellness center. As a social worker, it would be easy to also help begin dialogues about the cost of cancer care. It would also be my duty to connect them with other people that are going through the same thing that they are. It would be explained to them…

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Race in Social Services Race

Of course, like most other organizations in the United States today, CII, too, has to necessarily take cognizance of racial issues related to affirmative action. This implies that CII does take a stand on racial issues as and when they arise since in today's climate, it is critical for any organization to ensure that there are no discriminatory nuances or practices in its human resources management or in the services it renders. Thus, CII takes a great deal of care to ensure that its members treat all population segments equally. In fact, CII's policy vis-a-vis racial diversity has assured that there are no stereotypical comments made regarding race or ethnic groups, even if such comments are not negative. One important point to note, however, is that CII's work sometimes necessarily involves dealing with issues specific to race. For instance, CII's service providers have to inevitably take into account certain cultural considerations when addressing issues related to family violence and child abuse. Indeed, the understanding of various cultural perspectives, attitudes, and behaviors is vital in providing effective child and family welfare services or intervention programs. Thus, the only role that race plays in CII is in terms of enhancing the organization's understanding of various diverse cultures and their possible impact on family life and child upbringing. In all other respects, CII does not lend any special consideration to either race or ethnicity factors and, in fact, encourages a racially diverse staff composition in all its offices and locations. References Children's Institute International Web site. (2004). An Overview of CII; Employment; Cultural Considerations in Relation to Child Abuse & Family Violence. Retrieved Oct. 25, 2004: http://www.childrensinstitute.org/index.html…

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Health Disparities

Race and Class As the Ignored Determinants of Health Disparities For decades researchers have kept statistics, in the United States, regarding health disparities amongst its citizens. The most common stratification of this research often lies along the lines of race. Many studies have been performed regarding the differences in health issues among those of the Caucasian, Black, Hispanic, Native American, Asian, etc. populations. However, very rarely "(t)he U.S. government is one of the few developed Western nations that does not routinely report health statistics by class" (Kawachi, Daniels, & Robinson 141). As Kawachi, Daniels and Robinson note, there is very little information on important health disparity topics by such class stratifications as: income, occupation, or educational attainment. Where class is the ignored determinant of health disparities, race has become the increasingly more common variable. Race is "a way to categorize humans, (and) race has since come to take on a wide range of meanings, mixing social and biologic ingredients in varied proportions. This plasticity has made it a tool that fits equally well in the hands of demagogues who want to justify genocide and eugenics and of health scientists who want to improve surveillance for diseases" (Kauffman, Cooper, & Ward 1166). Kawachi, Daniels and Robinson discuss three primary views of racial health disparities. First, there are the biological links to disparities that give rise to research centered on race-based genetic susceptibility to diseases. Kauffman, Cooper, and Ward support this first view. Although they mention that class could be a factor in health disparities, they note that there are racial and ethnic differences in the causes, expression, and prevalence of various diseases. The relative importance of bias, culture, socioeconomic status, access to care, and environmental and genetic influences on the development of disease is an empirical question that, in most……

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Prejudice Discrimination

Prejudice / Discrimination White privilege is a reality in the United States society. White privilege (based on skin color) sets Caucasians of European ancestry apart from African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans, Native Americans and other minorities. What are the ramifications of that elite status among the various cultures and subcultures in the U.S. In the article by Peggy McIntosh, she explains that white privilege is not necessarily wide open for everyone to see -- as a contrast between races -- and understand. Instead, white privilege is a "…invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions, maps, passports, codebooks, visas, clothes, tools and blank checks." Privilege Doesn't Necessarily Imply Blatant Racism However, when McIntosh takes the extraordinary step of listing twenty-six "conditions" that a white person can establish that perhaps minorities cannot establish, as least not with the same ease as McIntosh does in her essay. She makes an important distinction as she launches into her essay, beginning with the 26 conditions. These conditions have more to do with McIntosh's skin color -- white juxtaposed with a Latino's brown skin or of an African-American's darker skin -- than contrasts between her socioeconomic situation and that of the other two cultures. In other words there may be Latinos (or Blacks) in her work environment who have more money saved or who have a nicer house than she does; but nevertheless her white skin confers dominance over other skin colors. McIntosh openly acknowledges that her white skin is an unearned entitlement which offers her an unearned advantage over others of different skin colors. In other words, having white skin is the same as going into a football game a touchdown ahead before the first kickoff. Racism and Prejudice -- Deeper Levels of Discrimination Prejudice, meanwhile, is a far deeper form of racial differentiation than simply having assumed dominance because of having white skin. Author Jeremy Ossman explains that cognitive levels of prejudice are based on ethnocentrism, which is the belief that one's particular culture or racial group better than all other groups and hence they are all inferior. When a person is taking action based on his or her ethnocentrism -- that means being openly and actively doing things and having feelings that are biased against persons of other races. White settlers from Europe killed thousands of Native Americans because they were "heathen savages" (Chapter 4, p. 82). Ossman explains that when people are treated brutally by…

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