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Religion in God We Trust, E Pluribus

Religion In God We Trust, e pluribus Unum -- the two major strands of American religious thought? The predominant philosophical strain of American religious and political thought, according to the French Alexis de Tocqueville can be summed up as a philosophy of pantheism, pluralism, materialism, and above all, of the tyranny of the American democratic majority. Tocqueville suggested that Americans,…

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Apophatic Theology

Theology Explain apophatic theology and why a person must have ignorance before they can enter into communion with God Apophatic theology is a religious philosophy predicated around union with God. On the surface, this may not seem drastically different from Western religious philosophies. However, the central aspect in which apophatic theology differs is through its emphasis on inward purification, involving…

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Religion Christianity Started as a

Luther's edicts had established an emerging faction of Christianity that denied vehemently the papal authority. With the denial of Papal authority came the avowal of a new type of worship and new vision of Christianity. In accordance with Protestant theory, the individual believer can come to know God without the intervention of a priest. Scripture is to be read and studied by the individual, regardless of Papal authority. The Reformation had a more significant impact on the social and political affairs of Europe than on its theological life. Disavowal of Church authority paved the way for the Enlightenment and the age of humanism. Religion had a stranglehold on European social life for centuries. The people demanded a more egalitarian state of affairs with a worldview built on reason instead of superstition. Thus, the evolution of Christianity since the Reformation has been a continual tug of war between fundamentalism and progressivism. Works Cited Augustine. City of God. Retrieved online: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=AugCity.xml&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=2&division=div2 Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Retrieved online: http://www.reformed.org/master/index.html?mainframe=/books/institutes/ The Chronicle of St. Denis, I.18-19, 23. Retrieved online: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/496clovis.asp Gregory VII. Dictatus Papae, 1090. Retrieved online: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/g7-dictpap.asp Luther, Martin. Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, 1520. Retrieved online: http://history.hanover.edu/texts/luthad.html Noll, Mark A. Turning Points. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.…

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God Describe an Experience of

These gifts of God in which pain and suffering seems inevitable, are probably most likely part of the mystery of life that is assumed when dealing with the spirit and spiritual matters. Regardless of Barth or Haight, faith seems dependent upon trust. Trust relies on mystery to give it context and purpose. Faith is a function and system of trust, but trust would not be needed if there were no mystery. God is our symbol to recognize this mystery. Symbols are metaphors to explain the necessary confusion that brings knowledge. 1. Discuss Haight's understanding of the nature of scripture and its use in theology. In what ways does this understanding cohere with the understanding of revelation and faith contained in his text The Dynamics of Theology and Dei Verbum? Scripture and the written word are tools of man and man alone. The same may be said about spirituality and religion. Do animals recognize Christ in all his goodness? It is unlikely that they recognized Him in the same manner that humanity has come to grips with this colossal mental undertaking. Faith, in my opinion is demonstrated and celebrated through the revelation of God through the written and spoken word. It is important that we select our words carefully and with kindness and with foresight. The nature of Scripture and its use in theology is an engrossing subject that can be interpreted in many ways, so a relative interpretation of spirituality must be respected. Contained within the dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation within the Catholic traditions, revelation is explained through the words of interpreters dedicated to the revelations of the Catholic traditions. The words themselves are sacred and divine inspiration and interpretation is actually a manifestation of the Holy Spirit. Schaab's Exploration into God reverberated Haight's interpretation of symbolism for God, " theology quite literally, the study of God is essentially an exploitation into the mystery of God into the mystery of those things which God created into which God is related namely the natural world " (p.1) . Mysteries and symbols are interchangeable in my opinion and this is an agreement to which all those who approach the subject of God must understand before continuing further. How is revelation interpreted relatively? Word's often inspire believers into action. Sometimes, actions inspire believers to create words. Literal interpretations of God are merely actions of divine inspiration. Understanding that the subtle matter that…

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African-American Women and Womanist Theology

African-American Women and Womanist Theology Religion has been a strong part of the black culture since the beginning of time. Upon migration to the United States, religion and the church was a source of survival, especially for black women. Black women theologians practiced throughout the Civil Rights Movement, the responsibility to exercise racial uplift and social responsibility as the core…

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What Is Religion?

¶ … religion? In Frederick Streng's discussion of the concept of religion across cultures, societies, and individuals, it surfaced that one of the working definitions of religion is "means toward ultimate transformation." This definition of religion as a means toward ultimate transformation can be interpreted into various meanings because of the different contexts in which religion is applied. As what Streng elaborated in his analysis, "...in religion, interpretive concepts are more problematical. Therefore we are suspicious of the adequacy of the dictionary's definition of religion." This was stated as a reaction to the prevalence of religion as multi-faceted, subject to various interpretations because of the differences of people in culture -- their values, traditions and beliefs. As was explicated in the passage, religion can be based on a belief in a deity; it can also be based on an activity or personal belief that one strictly and firmly adheres to; and it can also be a way of life. Ultimately, each manner of interpreting and defining religion has a primary goal in mind: that is, "to reach a state of being that is conceived to be the highest possible state or condition." agree with Streng when he proposed that this is the primary objective that people subsist to in believing in a specific form of religion. For me, religion can be any form of personal philosophy that one strongly believes in. Moreover, religion is anchored on the objective that people want to achieve the highest possible state or condition. Thus, religion can be any kind of belief that the individual perceives as his/her primary means of achieving the feeling of ultimate fulfillment or self-realization and -discovery. The religion I was exposed to was based on a deity, a metaphysical entity that has always been the "individual" whom I constantly seek for help and talk to in times of difficulties and challenges in my life. However, over time, I have come to realize that I do not have to strictly follow the traditional practices I used to do in order to show my faith to my religion. Thus, I began exercising my religion in the most comfortable and effective way I can: by continually talking and confiding my problems in a "greater power," which I perceive to be a force and formless entity. It does not matter whether this force has power or not; what is important is that this force…

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God: Review of Karen Armstrong's

Armstrong's theory does not credit Man with original thought and places little value on Man's ability to rationalise or theorise on the concept of God and a life beyond the corporeal that has nothing to do with demanding gratification or continuous proof of existence. Armstrong places little importance on faith but more on interpreting surrounding events with one's own bias. Another core theme of the book relates Armstrong's less controversial belief that Judaism, Christianity, and Islam possess similar characteristics and have also influenced one another. In the Roman Empire, Christianity was first seen as a branch of Judaism, but when Christians made it clear that they were no longer members of the synagogue, they were regarded with contempt as a religion of fanatics who had committed the cardinal sin of impiety by breaking with the parent faith (Armstrong, 1994, 91). The reason behind the influence each major world religion wields over its rivals is due to their strongly competitive nature. Each world religion aspires for world dominance, attempting to recruit as many people as it can to its fold, adopting all means necessary, such as promising more compatibility to people's lifestyles, professing a monopoly on truth and slandering the competition. This interaction undeniably encourages followers to question the validity of their beliefs as well as religions to continuously reflect on their validity to their congregation. History of God by Karen Armstrong contributes much to the great debate concerning the evolution of Man's perception of God. Although it is flawed in its promotion of the survival of religions dependent on the practical needs of Man, it does present a different perspective on how Man's perception of God has evolved throughout history and how each of the major world religions have influenced the evolution of its rivals through competitive interaction. Bibliography Ali, M.M. (February 1993) "Karen Armstrong: A Profile in Literary Diversity," in Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. http://www.washington-report.org/backissues/0293/9302038.htm Armstrong, Karen. (1993) A History of God: the 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Ballantine Books, New York. History of God: the 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam - Review by Alfred A. Knopf. http://www.pinn.net/~sunshine/book-sum/histgod.html Karen Armstrong - A History of God. http://www.2think.org/hll/shtml Mason, M.S. (2001) "Tracing three religions, all with one God," in Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/2001/05/18/p9sl.html Powell, Ted. (1998) Ms. Karen Armstrong Lecture. http://psg.com/~ted/vaninst/VbArmstrong.html…

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Suffering in the Human Relationship

This is the idea of disinterested love, suggested by Gutierrez. Disinterested love is completely unconditional, without any expectation from the party being loved. This is the love that God professes to have for human beings. Reciprocally, human beings such as Job then choose disinterested religion, which is also unattached to any rewards for faith. This brings freedom to both God and the human being. Faith is expected unconditionally, as is love from God. This, according to Gutierrez, is the only true faith. Thus the meaning of suffering can be found neither in temporal retribution, nor in the loss of an otherwise unconditional love. The question that is daily on the lips of millions who suffer innocently remains: why? When Job receives no help from an apparently silent God, or from his non-suffering friends, he turns to his fellow sufferers, and finds new meaning in his circumstances. The meaning that Job finds is in suffering with others. Although he has previously been kind to the poor and the marginalized, he has not known their circumstances first-hand. His experience however puts him on a new level of understanding with those who suffer alongside him. This realization is born from Job's innocence. When he finds no meaning in temporal retribution, his thoughts turn to the wicked and the reasons for their prosperity. Seeing this as proof that temporal retribution is not applicable to his case, Job finds a better reason for his suffering. The lesson of suffering serves to bring Job at the same time to the level of God and to the level of the poor. God is on the side of the poor and the suffering. He appoints himself as their caretaker. Through suffering, Job experiences the true empathy that God has for the poor and the suffering. Thus, while suffering with other human beings, Job has the advantage of seeing them from God's point-of-view. This is where a true disinterested relationship with God is beneficial to the believer. The believer is under an obligation to be instruments of God on earth by alleviating the suffering of those less fortunate than themselves. This gives suffering a new meaning, as it did for Job: The obligation to care for the poor means that the poor are not persons being punished by God (as the doctrine of temporal retribution implicitly asserts), but rather God's friends." (p. 40) This leads Job to the conclusion…

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River of God a New

Gregory Riley puts the history of Christianity into a splendidly readable format that has philosophical repercussion for its present and the future. Riley uses three models to illustrate an understanding of Christianity's ancestry, namely genealogy, a river system, and, from evolutionary theory, punctuated equilibrium. He presents Christianity as a family of organisms represented on a family tree or as a river like system of sources and streams. He explains the multicultural template from which Christianity originates, clearly in its Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Persian, Greek, and Greco-Roman influences. His work serves as the voice for the Greek and Hellenistic background of Jesus' thought. It also takes into account how the Greek tragedy influenced the early church's understanding of a crucified messiah, and the influence of Greek science on the understanding of God. He also provides knowledge on the influence of Persian thought, especially Zoroastrianism influence on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. His book is a completely Galilean Jesus and with emphasis on multicultural Christianity. Perhaps, this would add to the discussion on Christianity's place in the history of religion and its development in the midst of diverse cultural differences. The subject matter of this book has been rather argumentative because Riley is of the opinion that Christianity instigated from the remarkable theological variety of Eastern religions because just emphasizing on its origination from Judaism is not enough to understand the religions history thoroughly. He uses the equilibrium and the "river of God" instead of the threefold model of genealogy, to explore Christian origins. He investigates Christianity's genealogy, by carefully taking a deeper look at all the branches of its family tree to find the sources for the concepts such as, the Devil, body and soul, and above all the importance of monotheism. Then he argues his way through to prove his ideology that Christianity evolved by taking up certain ideas that would make sure it survived for a long time and discarded others that suppressed its longevity. Riley uses the river to illustrate the impact of diverse religious traditions that have become a part of Christianity including the numerous traditions that have become a part of Christianity. Although Riley's book covers many aspects of the Christian religion it somehow is dotted with problems. His subtitle is ambiguous, because he doesn't provide information on the new history of Christian origins, since the religion depended on the religious diversity. Riley also includes some inaccuracies such…

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John Mcneill's Book, Taking a

.. there is no healthy way to reverse or change sexual orientation once it is established." As such, McNeill notes that the rejection of a homosexual orientation would be the rejection of God's plan for an individual. One of the main arguments that support this central thesis is that both tradition and scripture support relationships between people of the same…

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Is God in Christianity Personal?

God and Human Relations God was clearly involved in His people's lives. He reveals himself in many important ways throughout the scripture to his people. We will list a number of ways in which God revealed himself to His people and showed that he was personal. First, with a general belief in the gospels, we accept our Lord's teachings that…

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Existence of God God's Existence Is Not

Existence of God God's existence is not provable, but one can just believe in it. Believe of God's existence depends on understanding and source of information that individual has on this subject. Believing and having faith in God can help people understand His existence as no one can prove it. Faith is what it calls to believe and thus if…

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Augustine's City of God Against the Pagans: Comparisons

Augustine the City of God Against the Pagans Comparisions of the Two Cities Saint Augustine's book "The City of God Against the Pagans" deals with the controversy involving Rome and how its fall was associated with the fact that Christianity concomitantly experienced a rise in influence. He wanted to inform people concerning the difference between the concept of Christianity and the concept of man-made society present in Rome. The book came as a response to the persecutions encountered by Christians in Rome and to the fact that many people were blaming Christianity for the fall of Rome. Saint Augustine wants the masses to understand that the city of God does not concern politics and that its connection with people is actually spiritual. The city of humans dealt with material matters and had its members dedicated to experiencing physical pleasures whereas the city of God was a place where people abandoned such practices in favor of embracing religion and God. The "divine authority" (p. 1) in the city of god is one of the principal elements that differentiates it from other cities. From Saint Augustine's perspective, another important difference between the two cities stands in their creation, as Rome was created "by the love of self, even to the contempt of God" while the actual city of God "was created by 283 the love of God, even to the contempt of self" (p. 2). People living in the earthly city are consumed by their interest in material matters. In contrast, those who dwell in the city of god are unimpressed by earthly advantages, as it is actually their indifference toward such things that assists them in tolerating their suffering with greater ease. Every individual is born out of sin, similar to Cain and Abel. However, a person can choose whether he or she will inhabit the city of god or the earthly city. Every citizen in the city of god initially had to choose, thus meaning that these people were not initially righteous, as they were the ones who wanted to take on a pious mission. Everyone……

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Theoretical and Personal Analysis of Sexuality Sex Therapy and Religion

Christian Sex: A Personal and Theoretical Analysis of Sexuality, Sex Therapy, and Religion Initial Personal Thoughts on the Proposal My mother is a very religious person, and raised me with a solid Christian perspective as well. This is one of the reasons that the topic of religion, sexuality, and sex therapy interested me so much; as a devout Christian I…

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Science and Religion: An Introduction

This also represents the non-confrontational model, because it shows the interdependence and reliance on outside elements to make a cohesive whole. This is the exact opposite of the confrontational model, which believes that science and religion are at odds with another, and do not support each other. Newton's model depends on support from all the other elements, indicating that science and religion can get along side by side. In fact, Newton's discoveries led to many other discoveries in science, but they led to a wider Christian view (Deism), that many people started to write about and discuss long after Newton's death. It led to critical thinking about how the world coexists, the planets coexist, and everything works so well together, and it led to more religious study and understanding. This also represents the non-confrontational model, because his work led to spiritual and scientific discussion and debate, which helps both sides understand each other and accept each other for what they are. Constructive debate is always helpful for understand and acceptance, and Newton's work created that debate and a whole new way of looking at science and spirituality together. In conclusion, Newton's discoveries about gravity and the planets were revolutionary at the time, and they sparked controversy. However, they help prove that religion and science can get along, and in fact, they can even support each other. This non-confrontational model of religion helps show that Newton's discoveries changed the way people look at science, and they helped form a whole new type of spiritual thought and acceptance. Science and religion can get along -- they do not have to be confrontational and negative. They also show that science can influence religion in many more ways than people may have first thought. References McGrath, A.E. (1999). Science and religion: An introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell……

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Religion There Can Be Many Paths to

¶ … Religion There can be many paths to religions because there are so many religions. If there is one true Holy Spirit, God, or Almighty One being that governs all, it is entirely possible that this being meets cultures where they are and presents him or herself to them in such a way that is appealing to them. We are all different and many cultures respond to faith in different ways. Because we are so diverse, we need different forms of religion for all to have a chance to attain salvation. Culture, behavior, and the nature of God should be taken into consideration when we begin to believe in only on true religion. When considering the entire world and all of it inhabitants, we must look at different cultures and how long what they believe has been around. For example, Islam is a religion that has been in practice for thousands of years and it would not be fair to say that just because these people were not exposed to another religion, such as Christianity, are not living a life or practicing a faith that leads to salvation. In fact, it would be extremely narrow-minded to think this way. These people are just as good, pray just as much as others do, and believe as sincerely as anyone else. In addition to culture influencing individuals, we must also look at a person's behavior. No one individual can decide if a Jewish person does not attain salvation if he or she has lived a good life, studied the law, prayed to God for salvation, and believed that he or she received that salvation. It would be just as ludicrous to deny that a Christian that has prayed for salvation through……

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Nature of God

Religious Philosophy THE NATURE OF GOD Belief in a Supreme Being is ubiquitous among virtually all human cultures throughout the world. Western religious traditions rely on the concepts of a single, judgmental, punitive (but also benevolent) God. Judeo-Christian philosophies, in particular, emphasize the notions of God's beneficence and of our personal relationships with God. Very generally, Christian religions require unquestioned loyalty to an eternal, loving, and just God, who is fundamentally of Good "character." The Christian God rewards good behavior and also punishes for sinful human conduct. God rewards (and punishes) both in life as well as in the afterlife. Many believe that God appreciates (indeed, demands) our personal allegiance even more than our good conduct toward our human contemporaries, and that, unlike the former, our shortcomings with respect to the latter are unforgivable. According to Christian religious beliefs, God forgives all earthly sins of those who believe in him and rewards them with eternal life in Heaven after death. Conversely, no good deed on earth is sufficient to avoid eternal damnation in Hell for those who do not accept God, Christ, and the Holy Ghost. To merely entertain the question of whether or not the Christian God really exists (or in precisely what form) is a sin, in and of itself, and (presumably) even where the questioner's conclusion is in the affirmative. Faith that is both absolute and blind is (generally) an essential component of Western religious teachings. Still, much thought has been devoted to the question of God's nature and goodness, as well as to the relationship between God and morality in human conduct. Friedrich Nietzsche pointed out that to believe absolutely, but without ever having (first) doubted God's existence does not qualify as true faith. According to Nietzsche, for any conclusion to constitute a belief, its converse must first have been considered and rejected. With respect to the issue of human morality, Nietzsche rejected the idea that human morality is un-definable without an a-priori belief in God. Rather, that awareness that God does not exist opens the human mind to deduce and define objectively meaningful moral principles intellectually. (Nietzsche, 1886) David Hume (and many others) have suggested that even if one believes that a Creator is necessarily responsible for our existence, nothing at all requires that God be good, and that an unconcerned, morally ambiguous Creator is no less plausible than benevolent or concerned God. (Hume, 1779)…

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Challenge for the Historian of Religion

¶ … History of Religion Historians of religion face a host of methodological problems, many of which stem from researcher bias. Tapper (1995) examines the construction and consolidation of a viable Islamic anthropology: an academic anthropology with roots in Islamic ideology. Like Marxist or feminist anthropologies, Islamic anthropology critiques the dominant Western paradigm in order to come up with new and possibly more enlightening frames of reference with which to study the world's cultures. In "Metaphors and Sacred History," Varisco (1995) offers a specific example that inadvertently illustrates Islamic anthropology in action. By adopting the terminology and metaphors integral to Islamic culture, historians of religion can offer the academic community more valid interpretations, descriptions, and theories of Muslim societies. Extending their arguments beyond the boundaries of Islam, all historians of religion should take care to thoroughly explore terminology, ideology, assumptions, and biases before claiming to convey a universal perspective. Tapper (1995) points out that the anthropology of Islam presumes a Western perspective, rooted in an "application of the methods of cultural/social anthropology to the study of Islam as a world religion," (p. 185). Breaking down this statement makes apparent the challenges to the historian of religion. The history of religion or of any particular religion, like the anthropology of religion, attempts to be scientific in its approach in order to be accepted into the canon of Western academic literature. Thus, the "application of the methods of cultural/social anthropology" infers the application of accepted methodologies, which may include participant/observation in the field of anthropology as Tapper (1995) points out. Historians' methods differ, favoring instead the examination of artifacts or explication of validated primary source texts. Already the historian of religion has a problem, for what constitutes an "artifact" or a "primary source" depends on several intervening factors. Interpretation of historical texts can be especially problematic because not all texts can or should be taken literally; many of the allegories or metaphors within them have lost their original meaning over time; and linguistic or cultural barriers may prevent a complete understanding of the value, import, or impact of those texts on the people under scrutiny. Varisco's (1995) exploration of the tribal lineage of Muhammad emphasizes the importance of adopting the frame of reference most conducive to unbiased understanding. The term "tribe" connotes different things for Muslim and non-Muslim people, and the only way to effectively understand Muslim social structure is to grapple…

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Religion and Society. There Are

omsakthi.org/religions.htm)." God presented Moses with the Torah, and while it is believed that the prophets tell of God's wishes, Jews believe the Torah must remain unchanged. It is felt that since God created all in the world, there is goodness all around, and therefore one does not need to be saved from sin by a savior. Jews feel they are "God's chosen people and that the Messiah will arrive in the future, gather them into Israel, there will be a general resurrection of the dead, and the Jerusalem Temple destroyed in 70 CE will be rebuilt (www.omsakthi.org/religions.htm)." Christianity Christianity originally began as a "breakaway sect of Judaism nearly 2000 years ago. Jesus, the son of the Virgin Mary and her husband Joseph, but conceived through the Holy Spirit, was bothered by some of the practices within his native Jewish faith and began preaching a different message of God and religion (www.omsakthi.org/religions.htm)." During his time on Earth, Jesus not only taught through parables, but also performed a number of miracles. Jesus was "crucified on the cross for his teachings, during which he revealed that he was the Son of God sent to Earth to save humanity from our sins (www.omsakthi.org/religions.htm)." Christianity and Judaism have a similar basis for their beliefs, but then they change with the birth of Jesus Christ. There are two main differences in the religions. One is that "Christians believe in original sin and that Jesus died in our place to save us from that sin. The other is that Jesus was fully human and fully God and as the Son of God is part of the Holy Trinity: God the Father, His Son, and the Holy Spirit. All Christians believe in heaven and that those who sincerely repent their sins before God will be saved and join him in Heaven, while belief in hell and Satan varies among groups and individuals (www.omsakthi.org/religions.htm)." Islam Of the great religions of the world, Islam is the youngest. Muslims follow "the sacred texts of the Qu'ran, which are the words of Allah 'the One True God' as given to Mohammed, and the Hadith, which is a collection of Mohammed's sayings (www.omsakthi.org/religions.htm)." Muslims "follow a strict monotheism with one creator who is just, omnipotent and merciful. They also believe in Satan who drives people to sin, and that all unbelievers and sinners will spend eternity in Hell (www.omsakthi.org/religions.htm)." They feel that to…

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Machiavelli and the Role of

" In "The Prince," Pope Julius II intends to kill those who had wrongfully taken over the land of the Church. However, Machiavelli at first criticized Julius's immature approach by going with this intention, unarmed, in a place that is guarded by men who are armed at all times. It is also important to note that it was actually Giovampagolo…

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Chemistry and Biology on Christian

[footnoteRef:12] [12: Forsyth, Robert. "Then a miracle occurs': the blessing and limitations of science A bishop looks at science from the viewpoint of the Christian faith." http://www.iscast.org/journal/articles/Forsyth_R_2006-11_Then_A_Miracle_Occurs.pdf (accessed March 20, 2013). ] Science is a field that provides as knowledge about the simplest things but it also tells us secrets about the depths, structure and composition of the universe. It…

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Character's Attitude Toward God in

In contrast, the Greenleaf family seems to be getting along very well. This is incomprehensible to Mrs. May since Mr. Greenleaf is her hired hand. Another view of religion the reader experiences is through Mrs. Greenleaf, who does quite a bit of "prayer healing." This was certainly something Mrs. May could not understand, telling Mrs. Greenleaf that God would surely be ashamed of her for such behavior. But in the end, it is clear how Mrs. May was a victim of her own beliefs and the restrictions she placed on herself and life as a result of those very beliefs. Another example of how God is perceived can be expressed in the poem, God's Grandeur, by Gerard Manley Hopkins. Hopkins is able to reflect upon the beauty of nature with optimism. The opening lines of his poem show the reader that Hopkins has hope. Hopkins refers to the grandeur of God among the "ooze and oil" even though "Generations have trod, have trod, have trod..." And have seared, bleared, and smeared all. It is as if God's grandeur saves this world from itself as "it gathers to a greatness." He is able to see the beauty beyond the mess. The result of the Industrial Revolution and its affect on mankind and the earth are the focus of this poem. The reader is able to sense the tension Hopkins feels, knowing that in order for mankind to advance, nature must suffer some destruction. There may be a certain amount of apprehension about what impact this advancement might have on the future but Hopkins has faith that everything will work out for the best. He embraces the future without any fear. The poem, although it does touch on rather depressing issues, is somewhat uplifting. This attitude reflects Hopkins' faith and hope in his fellow man. Hopkins is expressing a bit of faith in that God will take care of everything in his closing lines: Because the Holy Ghost over the bent World broods with warm breath and with ah! Bright wings. As these examples prove, religion clearly shapes the opinions of characters in literature, as it shapes our own lives. By adding the element of a personal belief system, the character is given dimension and is therefore made more believable. Flannery O'Connor makes her characters extremely real by inserting their religious background. Culture, religion, and background blend together to create personalities that…

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. According to the

¶ … Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. According to the philosopher, "Religion is not consciousness of this or that truth in individual objects, but of the absolute truth, of truth as the universal, the all-comprehending, outside of which there lies nothing at all. The content of its consciousness is further the Universally True, which exists on its own account or in…

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Role of Religion and Politics

Religion and Politics Religion and Candidacy: The Debate President Barack Obama's inclusion of atheists in his inaugural address spiked discussion, blogs, and even a lengthy talk on NPR. Some were thrilled with the development, while others were shocked and found his acknowledgement of the group offensive. The range of opinions regarding the acknowledgement exemplifies the large range of religious ideas…

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Spread of Christianity and Buddhism

The Spread of Buddhism and Christianity Throughout history people have always exchanged goods, technologies, ideas, and customs. Likewise religions were also spread out of their homelands due to contact with other societies. This phenomenon also caused several religions to no longer be fringe cults but instead widely accepted global institutions. Three religions that would serve as an example of this…

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Montgomery County NC

Montgomery County NC When Montgomery County was formed in 1779 from Anson County, it was named in honor of Richard Montgomery who, in 1775, lost his life at the battle of Quebec in the attempt to conquer Canada. Its county seat is Troy. The county was formed in 1779 from Anson County. It was named in honor of Richard Montgomery,…

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Exegesis and Demonstrate What Is

Define the terms Dogma and Doctrine, giving an example of each and then show how these terms relate to the creeds. Thomas Bokenkotter has called creed statements, such as the Nicean creed, that are part of the faith essentials for Catholics, statements or professions of belief. Creeds are professions of dogma before the church, solidifying and affirming a Catholic's relationship with the Church and the individual's belief in the Church Dogma. A dogma s a De Fide article of faith. In Catholicism, there exists what is understood to be a hierarchy of truths, whereby some doctrines have been formally defined by the Church as dogmas, such as a profession of belief in the trinity and the tripartite nature of God, a truth that Catholics consider dogmatically, essentially irrevocable and non-negotiable. To give up belief in a dogma is quite serious, because it means to give up belief in the church itself. Other doctrines, as opposed to dogmas do not carry such a weight although they may be generally believed to be true by the majority of theologians. Doctrines are areas of contention, although both sides are supported by different verifiable points-of-view, such as Paul's view, for example, of the responsibilities of the gentile community to Jewish law, as expressed in Galatians. The totality of the Mosaic law that must be obeyed by individual gentile Christians has varied, depending on different versions of Christian exegesis of the Hebraic Bible, although certain aspects, such as the kosher laws, have largely fallen by the wayside -- however other aspects, such as keeping the Sabbath holy, have been incorporated into common Christian practices. Thus, although Paul's views are largely accepted, the exact permutations of his belief that Jesus' resurrection created a cataclysmic event in human history that subsumed God's covenant with Israel and made it applicable to all humanity, and this subsumed the Mosaic covenant with a new covenant, can in doctrine receive multiple interpretations. Works Cited Bokenkotter, Thomas. "The Creed: Faith Essentials for Catholics." From Catholic Update. "Exegesis." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Fourth Edition. 2000. "Exegesis." The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05692b.htm Guinan. "Christian Spirituality" Langenbrunner. "How to Understand the Bible."……

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Christianity and Islam

Islam and Christianity Religion serves as one of several socializing factors in a society, and religion helps shape the culture, determines aspects of the legal system, governs how the people are ruled, and achieves a number of other functions in the social order. Christianity and Islam are among the major religions in the world, serving primary populations in specific areas…

Pages: 13  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


William James, Complete Religious Experience

In a similar, way St. Thomas quotes Jesus as saying: "The heavens and the earth will be rolled up in your presence. And one who lives from the Living One will not see death." (111). In other words, the worshipper will be so immersed in phenomenological vividness of God that that is all there is. "The Kingdom of the Father is spread out upon the earth, and men do not see it." (ii3) -- For it is only seen by experience. Action comes from the very essence -- the soul - of the human. Religion -- or consent to a God -- cannot simply come from acquiescence and from a theoretical acknowledgement of God's existence. James described this in a psychological way in his 'Principals of Psychology: "Will you or won't you have it so?" is the most probing question we are ever asked; we are asked it every hour of the day, and about the largest as well as the smallest, the most theoretical as well as the most practical, things. We answer by consents or non-consents and not by words. What wonder that these dumb responses should seem our deepest organs of communication with the nature of things! (PP, p. 1182). In other words, our consent to the minutest aspects of regular life come by nods or rejections, most frequently articulated or actively formed. They are never abstract, mental affirmations. Life involves a throwing into it. Life is God. In that way, affirmation of God is likewise a consent or non-consent that is activated on a fully conscious, man-permeated, rather than ephemeral, level. This may be also James' intent when he talks about reality. To him, reality is something that "means simply relation to our emotional and active life…whatever excites and stimulates our interest is real" (PP 924). For a person then who is a true worshipper, he is not simply sitting at the sidelines and watching religion play out as some sort of ball-game. He is sitting in it; playing it; throwing the ball; and feeling religion in each and every one of his veins as he madly chases around the field. Religion is a part of him, is in him. Not outside of him. Further on, James argues that our original experiences -- on all matters -- may be objective and that they become corporal or vivid as they intensify and as we become aware of…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Everyman and the Song of

But to his dismay all of them refuse to assist him in his problem, despite their strong promises. Saddened by everyone's act Everyone turns towards his Good Deeds, which is week. When asked the reason for his weakness, Good-Deeds replies, Yea, sir, I may thank you of all; If ye had perfectly cheered me, Your book of account now full ready had be. (Everyman, Line 500). Even though the amount of Good-Deeds is less compared to Everyone's other friends, but he decides to council and help Everyone through this complicated journey. Besides Good-Deeds, even Knowledge proposes to help Everyone. Everyone is overjoyed and learns to arbiter correctly what actually matters to the health of the soul facing death. At the grave the qualities of flesh i.e. Strength and Flesh also fade away. In the end, only Good Deeds help Everyone enter into heaven, coupled with the assistance of Knowledge, by means of Confession and Priesthood. Hence, by experience and Christian ideals, Everyone learns that no worldly material can help a man enter into heaven except for a man's good deeds and knowledge. It is believed that The Song of Roland like other medieval chansons de geste, was passed orally among wanderers before it was actually written down. The story in The Song of Roland was believed to be a historical truth by jongleur's medieval audience. The story is a typical representation of the struggle between good and evil. The Christian Franks led by Charlemagne are considered to be good whereas, the Muslims led by Marsilla and Baligant represent the evil side. The Song of Roland transforms Roland into an epic hero. He is viewed as a role model among all knights during the crusades. His character demonstrates boldness and high temperament. These personality traits of his win him much recognition and criticism among his friends. Roland is Charlmagne's nephew and most trusted soldier since he has conquered a great number of lands for him. He is such an important person to Charlmagne that Ganelon, Roland's stepfather promises the Saracens that Charlmagne will lost the battle if Roland is not their by his side. Roland from the very beginning refuses to negotiate with the Saracens. To him war against the Muslims and Islam is not merely a battle, it is a religious obligation. Even though Roland is chivalrous, he is unwise and imprudent. He decides to face his and his friend's…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands the

In 1755, Cook joined the British navy. During his time in the navy, many wars occurred, and he served time fighting in Canada. There he learned the trades of surveying, mathematics, and astronomy. When the war ended in 1763, he was sent to survey part of Canada's eastern coast. Cook sailed the ocean on several voyages, but his final one landed him in Hawaii. The outside world did not know about the Hawaiian until after Captain James Cook of the British Navy landed there on January of 1778. He had been given two ships, known as the Resolution and the Discovery. The purpose of this voyage was to find a northern sea route between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Explorers had been looking for such a Northwest Passage for more than 200 years. Cook landed during the beginning of makahiki or the celebration that was ongoing while the islanders awaited the return of their god, Lono. The Captain and crew were greeted with great kindness and exuberation. The Polynesian people saw the ship as a symbol of the great god since it was the shape and makeup what they believed would be like that of Lono. Captain Cook was soon adorned with medals and other beautiful metals, and enjoyed his newfound fame. He soon began to trade with the Hawaiians, and respect was greatly shown throughout each transaction. The Polynesian people looked to Cook in awe as they felt that he had divine powers. Cook named the islands the Sandwich Islands in honor of the Earl of Sandwich, first lord of the British admiralty. The islanders continued to "worship" Cook for a short period of about four months. The women were made available for pleasures, and an abundance of food was delivered daily for consumption by Cook and his men. Cook left after only two weeks. Life returned to normal after Cook's departure. The Polynesian Chiefs returned to the island, and overthrew the rule of the commoners. The people fell back into their normal roles in a classified society. They continued to worship by offering sacrifices to their gods and goddesses, and visit the temples for purification. Cook's presence as Lono solidified the god's existence and sealed the belief system of the Polynesian people. Cook returned to Hawaii for the winter of 1978 during the month of November. Within just a few months, his men and the islanders had become…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Worldview Religions Have Been One

Worldview Religions have been one of the fundamental forces that have shaped the earth in terms of the direction of the societies and the beliefs and way of life. It is the single thing that is known to bind large number of people together and give them a similar sense of belonging and similarity in destiny. In this case, the worldview of the Muslims are largely influenced by the Holy Quran and Islamic writing and the same applies for Christians being influenced by the Holy Bible. These are just a few among many other religions that have their writings that shape their lives, their ay of thinking ad interaction and which they hold as holy. This paper will however narrow down to the manifest comparison and similarities that exists between Christianity and the Islamic faith. Comparison of Christian and Islamic Theism The Christian religion and the Islam have various common convergence points in belief, practice and life philosophy. For instance, the existence of God is held by both religions and God is perceived as a supreme being whose ways are not questionable. Both religions believe it is the same God that created the universe and He is responsible for putting things in order on a daily basis and determining destiny. Both religions believe in the God who transcends human capability of comprehension, He is omnipresent and omniscient hence omnipotent too. God is considered the only Supreme Being and both religions emphasize in monotheism. Both religions also have a keen emphasis on the value of virtuous living on earth so that one day when death comes, the life after death will be endless in heaven. On the contrast, hell is also presented in both religions as the final destination for those who live evil lives. It is also outstanding in both religions that death acts as the only bridge to the after-life which is eternal Ravi N., (2010). Differences between Christian and Islamic Theism Despite the similarities that are fundamental in putting the two religions close to each other, there……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Egyptian Influence on Judaism and Christianity

Egyptian Influence on Judaism and Christianity Egyptian influence The issue of the relationship between Egyptian cultural history and the histories of Judaism and Christianity is one that is mired in controversy. This controversy is also linked to various interpretations of the Biblical texts and to the view that has emerged in recent years that the Bible is more myth and…

Pages: 14  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Redemptive Role of the Black Church

Black Church The Redemptive Role of the Black Church Abstract (to be inserted when project is completed) Table of Contents (preliminary) The black church holds a special place in African-American culture that differs from the role of the predominantly white churches. Much of this is due to cultural traits that inspire closeness in African-American society. A shared history of struggle…

Pages: 50  |  Dissertation  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 12


Revelation Our Senses Are so Feeble That

Revelation Our senses are so feeble that we could never understand single word that God says to us unless we are illumined by his Holy Spirit for carnal men cannot comprehend heavenly things" John Calvin (1509-1564). Introducing John Calvin; Donald G. Bloesch John Calvin argued that the Christian scriptures must be literally read. "Anything not contained explicitly and literally in…

Pages: 10  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Historical Jesus

¶ … Jesus In looking to find the historical Jesus, the best source - the only source - are the Synoptic Gospels of the Bible. The "Synoptic" Gospels means that these are books, stories that can stand collectively because of their interrelationship with one another (Nickle, Keith F., 1980). This means that the Gospels are, for the most part, closely…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 2


Scientology May Be One of the Most

Scientology may be one of the most controversial modern religions, its late founder L. Ron Hubbard one of modern history's most contentious writers and spiritual leaders. The Church of Scientology was founded in 1954 but the origins of its doctrine can be traced back to Hubbard's 1950 publication Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. Dianetics became an unexpected best…

Pages: 15  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 8


Religious Influence on Art

Religous Influence on Art Art has been significantly shaped by religious values through the ages, considering that the spiritual nature of religious concepts served as a perfect tool to inspire artists. Most artists who employ religious ideas while they devise their creations are interested in putting across their faith through art and in influencing the public in adopting spiritual attitudes in their relationship with society. Many individuals relate to how artists paint using their spiritual personality, with their material personality only being used with the purpose of giving shape to their thoughts. Some artists are likely to close their eyes before actually starting to create art, as this provides them with the opportunity to reach their spirituality easier. Through considering supernatural concepts present in religious teachings, artists are enabled to create artwork that is as unique as possible. The fact that supernatural motifs are an essential part in the process of creation makes it possible for them to detach themselves from the material world and attempt to create art that expresses spirituality through its perfection. One can even say that spirituality fed some of the greatest works of art created through time. Jones, Cheslyn; Wainwright, Geoffrey and Yarnold, Edward eds., the Study of Spirituality (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986) Kuspit, Donald, "Reconsidering the Spiritual in Art," Retrieved February 17, 2012, from the Blackbird Website: http://www.blackbird.vcu.edu/v2n1/gallery/kuspit_d/reconsidering_text.htm McCray, Linda, 'A Brief History of Spiritual Art," Retrieved February 17, 2012, from the EnvisionChurch Website: http://www1.georgetown.edu/centers/liturgy/envisionchurch/45498.html Ponomareff, Constantin V. And Bryson, Kenneth a. The Curve of the Sacred: An Exploration of Human Spirituality (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006) Von Ogden Vogt, Art & Religion (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1921) Religion played a major role in assisting some of history's greatest artists not only through feeding their thoughts, both also through financing some of the greatest artworks that have ever been created. Religious individuals commissioned artists with the purpose of having them create artwork in accordance with particular religious ideas. It can even be said that the relationship between artists and religion contained ideas related to marketing. Artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo had no other choice but to work for religious persons in order to be able to make a living. Although there were a series of patrons willing to pay for artwork, the influence of religion and the fact that religious people had access to a wide range of resources made…

Pages: 3  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 25


Man as a Passive Agent in His

¶ … Man as a Passive Agent in His Construction of Himself In "Is Google Making Us Stupid?" Nicholas Carr makes the argument that the internet has not only changed how people can access information, but also how people process that information that they do access. As his title suggests, he believes that the internet has contributed to a decline…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Faith: Philosophy Paul Tillich Paul

Therefore he felt that external objects were the source of precipitated images and thoughts. Weaknesses It has been discovered that a lot of Descartes thoughts were inspired by the work of medieval theologians. He was also a very devout catholic and did not want to offend the church. There are some flaws in Descartes work. He believes that God would never deceive us. There are a lot of doubts about that theory. God is perfect and omnipotent but there is no way he would not deceive us. Deception is all part of our destiny. It depends on how we tackle the situation. His theory about the distinctiveness of the mind from the body has some minor flaws. Dreams are also thoughts and images, which are produced in the mind while asleep. These images are sometimes culled from past events and mixed together randomly. In a way the images were not willingly produced but at the same time we are unwilling participants as our brain contributes to generating these images. In that way we can't blame external sources such as evil spirits or environmental factors for such dreams. Bibliography 1. Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, vol. 1 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 205, 209, 237. 2. Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, vol. 2 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957, Page 6) 3. William Rowe, Religious Symbols and God (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 76-77 4. Forrest E. Baird, "Descartes' Epistemology." New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 2000. 5. Descartes, Renee. Meditations, 1641-42 "God is unconditioned, that makes him God; but the 'unconditional' is not God." Paul Tillich It would be a great victory for Christian apologetics if the words 'God' and 'existence' were very definitely separated," Paul Tillich I know clearly and distinctly that there is in me a passive faculty, which receives perceptions from an active source. This active source of perception is either God, external objects, or I. I am not that active source since such perceptions are not willfully produced and does not involve (my true essence). God does not implant ideas of perception……

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0

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