Home  >  Subjects  >  current page My Profile

Essays on "Sports / Exercise / Fitness"  |  Term Papers 1-40

 1 2 3 . . . Last › Filter Options:  

Gender on Concussion Reporting in

Each of the participants had competed in either a high school sport or a college team. The participants were required to indicate their perceived stress intensity and their typical coping response after experiencing two stressors that they perceived as most intense. The results were analyzed via multivariate analysis. Results There were differences by race and gender. Caucasians experienced higher stress…

Pages: 7  |  Annotated Bibliography  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Exercise Science the Physiological Benefits of Childhood

Exercise Science The Physiological Benefits of Childhood Exercise The problem of childhood obesity has worsened in recent years as children tend to engage in less physical activity, to eat less nutritionally and to lead generally sedentary lifestyles. The result is a set of negative health indicators which include juvenile diabetes, increased risk of heart disease and diminishing physical dexterity. Therefore,…

Pages: 6  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Sports Science and Sports Medicine-

(Patrick, 2003) This is known as neuromuscular training, these programs seek to enhance balance, body/joint awareness, movement technique and muscle strength, a mixture of biomechanics and physiotherapy. (Patrick, 2003) When pro-basketball player/coach Korie Hlede tore an ACL five years ago, she began an ACL injury prevention routine that she follows religiously so as to prevent the injury from recurring. (Patrick,…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Pettlep Imagery on Sports Performance Imagery as

¶ … PETTLEP Imagery on Sports Performance Imagery as a means of assisting success has been used in a variety of applications. Specifically, the use of imagery in enhancing sports performance has been particularly researched, in recent years. The PETTLEP motor-based imagery process has demonstrated encouraging results in a variety of sports, including: golf, hockey, gymnastics, and weight lifting. However, there is still a question regarding if these results can be generalized to other sports and even other facets of the sports already involved in studies and whether or not the results will be found long-term. Holmes and Collins (2001) pioneered the seven-component imagery process known as PETTLEP imagery. In Holmes and Collins process, there are seven factors that are taken into consideration when implementing this motor-based imagery. These components include: physical, environment, task, timing, learning, emotion, and perspective. The authors surmised that the brain stores memories that are accessed by physical preparation and execution, especially motor imagery that is related to preparation and execution. Their seven-point checklist is an evidence-based method that highlights the areas that should be monitored, to enhance the efficacy of the imagery on the physical task. Several researchers have used the PETTLEP imagery practice in their research to determine its effectiveness. Wright and Smith (2009) compared the effects of PETTLEP imagery with the results obtained using more traditional imagery, on muscle strength in its subjects. Fifty participants were divided into five groups consisting of those who used: PETTLEP, traditional imagery, physical practice, a combination of PETTLEP and practice, and a control group. Over a course of six weeks participants in the PETTLEP, combination and physical practice groups showed improvement in their strength. Interestingly, there were no marked differences in improvement between the participants who used PETTLEP and those who were in the physical practice group. Although these results seem to support the use of PETTLEP for strength improvement, there are limitations to the research. The study period, six weeks, was quite short. The question of whether or not these same results would be seen for longer periods of study needs to be answered. Other muscle groups should be tested to see if the bicep results can be generalized to the entire body. In addition, whether or not these results can be applied to specific tasks needed to complete sports-specific tasks needs to be demonstrated. Smith, Wright, and Cantwell (2008) studied the effects of PETTLEP imagery…

Pages: 3  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Motor Processes in Sport Tom

The approach for Tom might be best if the bilateral transfer notion is ignored and Tom's weakness is approached from a very basic instructional level. If there is bilateral transfer in this case it will reveal itself as Tom begins working on his left foot kicking technique and make the learning process all the smoother. Given the above facts of…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 15


Exercise and Fitness

Physical Fitness Recommendations -- Exercise Session Session Objectives and Appropriate Needs-Based Exercises The principal objective of the exercise session is to engage the client in an aerobic workout that allows her to reach the highest appropriate percentage of her maximum physiological capacity and for her to maintain that degree of exertion sufficiently long enough to promote positive aerobic conditioning and other physiological adaptations such as soft-tissue repair and strengthening during the rest period in between successive workouts. A second set of objectives is to help this client minimize the symptoms of ATCS and the discomfort and limitations attributable to them. In that regard, the exercise session is designed to incorporate extensive pre-workout stretching of the area and post-workout treatments to reduce any inflammation associated with the workout. Finally, the workout session is also designed to supplement the running portion of the workout with comparable aerobic exercise to the extent the ATCS symptoms limit her ability to complete a full running workout. Exercise Timing, Sequence, and Detailed Warm-up Plan In this particular exercise session, the client will begin by statically stretching the hamstring, gluteus, quadriceps, and calves. Next, she will perform specifically prescribed stretches for the anterior tibial compartment I conjunction with light downward longitudinal tissue massage of the area to stimulate blood flow to the low-blood-flow tissues of the tendons and fascia that form the anterior tibial compartment sheath to maximize its capacity to expand to accommodate the expansion of the anterior tibial muscle group within that structure. The stretch sequence is followed by walking at increasing speeds to further extend the progression to higher stress gaits and speeds. Subsequently, the client will work to be actively aware of the first signs of pressure and discomfort in order to switch……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Flow States and Sport

It is also essential to note the tendency of relationship between hypnotherapists to gain significant personal performance regardless of the competition within the sporting arena (Flaymonville et al., 2006). Unconscious mind is the driving force between most of the beliefs and behavior of individuals. This makes it ideal for the technique, which elicits change at unconscious level to be highly…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 15


Sport Drink Facts and Fictions

Results: Compared to placebo (water), ingesting glucose are regular intervals during the steady state portion of the task significantly improved performance; however, the addition of caffeine did not improve performance significantly compared to glucose alone. Conclusions: The sample size was small and incompletely randomized. Another weakness in the study was the use of water as a placebo, which would not…

Pages: 4  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Sports and Steroids

Sports and Steroids Steroids and Their Effects Steroids or anabolic steroids are drugs containing hormones or similar substances, which are used to increase strength and grow muscles (Donald & Talmadge 1998). When first developed in Europe in the 30s, they were used to treat under-nourished patients and induce their healing after surgery. It was in the 50s that competitive weightlifters…

Pages: 10  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 10


Philosophy of Sports

Philosophy of Sports But it's good for you!" An overview of American Sports -- collective and individual anxiety about just having fun One of the reasons that the ancient Greek ideal of sports came into being is no doubt the individualistic nature of Greek physical excellence, as embodied by the first Olympic Games. Ancient Olympic, Greek athletes competed in sports…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 4


Youth Sports

Youth sports have become a way for children to become distracted from the outside world. Sports shield children from the environment if they are at-risk youths or sports may create a sense of comrade among children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. However, what makes youth sports such an essential component of a child's upbringing is sports ability to build character. Ethics…

Pages: 4  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Sports Participation Character Development Opening

In the article, "Justplay: A revolutionary approach to youth sport administration and sportsmanship," Elaine Raakman (2006) asserts that although the potential exists for youth sport participation to build positive character traits, when society diverts its emphasis away from sportsmanship to focusing more on outcome, children as well as communities may experience negative benefits. Raakman relates the following: The original goals…

Pages: 20  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 20


Motivation in Sport Take a

The inconsistency in sport confidence that exists in duration of time is influenced in basic by the sources of the confidence. (Weinberg & Gould, 1999, p.24). Researchers can make an effort to realize how the sources of sport confidence would make an impact on the athlete's performance, level of confidence, cognition, emotion and behaviors. They may also carefully analyze the…

Pages: 50  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Health Importance of Health and

105). In conclusion, it is quite clear that exercise and health are intertwined. It is also quite clear that education is one of the keys to understanding exercise and motivating youth and adults to exercise more frequently. Studies consistently indicate that exercise can elevate mood, reduce health concerns, and allow people to live longer, more fulfilling lives. With the growing problem of obesity and its' health related problems, such as diabetes and heart disease, it is clear additional work needs to be done in educating Americans about the deadly game of inactivity. Exercise does not have to be rigorous to be helpful. The more people that know that, and begin to exercise, even moderately, the healthier the nation will become. References Akande, A., Van Wyk, C.D., & Osagie, J. (2000). Importance of exercise and nutrition in the prevention of illness and the enhancement of health. Education, 120(4), 758. Author not Available. (1999). Physical activity and health. Retrieved from the Center for Disease Control Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/intro.htm18 June 2004. Editors. (2004). Leading health indicators. Retrieved from the HealthyPeople.gov Web site: http://www.healthypeople.gov/Document/html/uih/uih_bw/uih_4.htm18 June 2004. Field, T., Diego, M., & Sanders, C.E. (2001). Exercise is positively related to adolescents' relationships and academics. Adolescence, 36(141), 105. Grove, N.C., & Spier, B.E. (1999). Motivating the well elderly to exercise. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 16(3), 179-189. Hausenblas, Heather A. Transtheoretical model: Is termination applicable to exercise? American Journal of Health Studies; 1/1/2004. Rauh, V.A. (2003). Health and community design: The impact of……

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Senior Fitness

Senior Fitness Currently Violet seems to be in relatively good shape and should be able to initiate a fitness program that will not only allow her to improve her fitness level, but it will also allow her to approach life with a positive outlook while remaining a strong, independent individual. One recent study determined that the key to healthy aging…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Starting a Sports Program at a Newly Built High School

Starting a Sports Program at a Newly Built High School The new high school which has been opened in the region is in dire need of a sports program. In the creation and implementation of the needed sports program, a multitude of elements have to be addressed. At a most primary level, logistics considerations have to be resolved, such as…

Pages: 10  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Psychology in Sports

Sports Psychology Athletes can often be seen and heard giving themselves positive affirmations concerning how they are going to perform. This scenario often happen before and even during competitions. The purpose of such murmuring is to prepare the mind and the psyche for the task ahead. The topic of sports psychology has garnered a great deal of attention in recent…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Effect of Endurance Training on Muscle Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise

¶ … Endurance Training on Muscle Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise In this paper, the effects of endurance training will be discussed with special reference to their impact on the muscle fat metabolism while prolonged exercises. The paper will talk about the overall increase and decrease in the levels of different acids in the body as well as the overall…

Pages: 8  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 35


Sports Medicine

Sports medicine specializes in preventing, diagnosing and treating injuries related to participating in sports and/or exercise, specifically the rotation or deformation of joints or muscles caused by engaging in such physical activities. Because of the competitive nature of sports, a primary focus of sports medicine is the rapid recovery of patients, which drives many innovations in the field (Sports Medicine).…

Pages: 6  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 7


Planning and Start Up of a New Business

Planning and Start-Up of a New Business Business PLAN for a STARTUP COMPANY The present plan has been developed to offer the company an overview of the industry in which it would operate and the strategies it would have to implement in order to ensure a successful outcome. General Company Description Products and Services Marketing Plan Operational Plan Management and…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 4


Gold's Gym Fitness Industry

Gold's Gym This report is an industry profile on Gold's Gym. The report will cover the company from four perspectives: Gold's industry's historical development, Gold's competitive structure, a general environment analysis and the global nature of the industry. Gold's Gym International has been considered one of the global leaders in the fitness industry for nearly forty years. The company and…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Attributions in Sports Psychology What

Interestingly, studies referenced by the authors reveal that as group size increases, individual athletes "…diffuse the responsibility for group action"; hence, individuals in large groups (such as a football team) are not apt to accept failure on their own shoulders (Zaccaro, 257). And when it comes to group athletic behaviors, there are four characteristics that can result, according to Zaccaro's (referencing Miller and Schlenker (1985). First, a quarterback after a winning performance can attribute the success to his play ("I threw the ball well"). Even though he had 10 players around him making it all work, the quarterback can take credit, the attribution in this case to a single player. Second, the winning game can be attributed to "…factors of the group-including-the-self" (which Zaccaro calls "group-internal") (258). The quarterback might use the tired cliche, "It was a team effort…and I couldn't have done it without the team behind me"; what he really means is there was a sense of cohesiveness between the line and the backfield but he's glad to take some of the credit. The third characteristic is what Zaccaro attributes to "group-excluding-the-self" ("group other); that would be a situation in which the quarterback or captain says "This team worked hard all week for this game and we showed what we can do when every unit is alert and well prepared." And the fourth characteristic is said to be because of environmentally helpful conditions ("environment attributions"); this would be say a rainy day and the team always plays well in the mud. A key point for this article is that "…attributions which enhance the group can raise self-esteem" -- which makes sense because in team sports jealousy can occur if individuals take too much credit. Ability and Effort in Sports vs. Intellectual Ability and Effort An article in the Journal of Personality (1980) points to a study of 120 male college undergraduates, who were asked to ride a bicycle ergometer in a physical test. Following the manipulation of the bicycle (unknown to the riders it was made more difficult the second time) the riders experienced decreased performance (Rejeski, et al., 1980). The riders were then quizzed as to the attribution of their less impressive performance. "Successful outcomes were attributed to both ability and effort," but as to the unsuccessful outcomes, they were "…attributed to a lack of ability but not a lack of effort" (Rejeski, 233). The authors suggest…

Pages: 3  |  Article Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Why Does Gender Matter in Sport?

¶ … Gender Matter in Sports? There may well be reasons that gender should not matter in sports. However, sidestepping questions of morality or justice, gender does currently matter in sports for several reasons. Gender definitions have traditionally created and perpetuated differences that make gender matter in sports, though these gender definitions are being challenged. In addition, studies have found…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Sports Sponsorships: Considerations and Configurations

, 2004). The public relations team is unlikely to accept a pre-packaged promotional arrangement that does not allow them to optimize both the corporate spend and the media opportunity. It is incumbent on the professionals in the sports management industry to understand what the corporate entities understand, with regard to promotional opportunities, and it is also important for these professionals to keep an eye on what is ultimately best for the players and teams (Stier & Schneider, 2001). Summary The success of a sports marketer depends largely on their ability to gain a thorough understanding of the sponsor's objectives prior to developing a sponsorship proposal. This can be accomplished through meetings with the gatekeepers who grant or deny access to large corporations, through the company's decision-makers, and through secondary intelligence efforts. Whether a tailored or a pre-packaged sponsorship agreement is proposed, a sports marketer must understand the company, its markets, and its mission to ensure that the sponsorship meets the corporate or organizational needs. Finally, it is important to ensure that the sponsorship relationship is a continual one by providing good client service and regular follow-up to ensure that the sponsor is enjoying the relationship and its associated benefits. References Obsniuk, S. And Smith, S.J. (2007). Big league deals: A descriptive study of sponsorship levels in grassroots U.S. baseball and softball programs. The Sport Journal, 1543-9518. Crisp, B.R., and Swerissen, H. (2003). Critical processes for creating health-promoting sporting environments in Australia. Health Promotion International, 18 (2). McCook, K., Turco, D., & Riley, R. (n.d.). A look at the corporate decision making process. Cyber Journal of Sport Marketing. Retrieved http://www.ausport.gov.au/fulltext / cjsm/v1n2/mcook.htm Pruitt, S.W., Cornwell, T.B., and Clark, J.M. (2004). The NASCAR phenomenon: Auto racing sponsorships and shareholder wealth. Journal of Advertising Research, 44(3), 281-296. Roy, D.P., and Cornwell, T.B. (2001). The influence of brand equity on consumer responses to sports sponsorship. American Marketing Association, 12, 342. Steinbach, P. (2005). Signs of the times. Athletic Business, 29(5), 1-7. Stier, W.F., Jr., and Schneider, R. (2001). Fundraising: An essential……

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Career of an Athletic Trainer,

The most respected and accepted educational facilities are accredited according to standards created by the Commission on Accreditation for Allied Health Education (CAAHEP), a division of the American Medical Association (Hibberts). Many students major in exercise science with a specialty in athletic training. In most cases, they also need to obtain a state license or National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification in order to work as an athletic trainer and "to become certified, trainers must complete 1500 hours of athletic training, and pass the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification exam" (AHEC). Training includes many different factors, including nutrition, psychology, human anatomy and physiology, exercise physiology, first aid, therapy, injury prevention, administration, and many other aspects of sports psychology, medicine, and management (Hibberts). There are many job opportunities open to athletic trainers, in both professional and athletic organizations. Professional job opportunities related to an exercise science curriculum include athletic trainer, strength and conditioning specialist, exercise specialist, exercise physiologist, and health/fitness instructor. Athletic trainers are prepared to prevent, manage, and rehabilitate athletic injuries. They are often employed in high school, collegiate, and professional settings as well as sport medicine clinics, and industrial settings (Kornspan et al. 367). Clearly, there are many different opportunities open to athletic trainers, depending on their own preferences and abilities. There are training jobs open in both men's and women's athletics, from the high school to professional level and beyond. When it is understood just what athletic trainers actually do, it is easier to see how they are such an integral part of modern sports, and to see just how many places their services could be vital. Trainers average around $38, 858 a year. In conclusion, the career of an athletic trainer is not only interesting and varied; it can make or break the career of a professional athlete. While always on the sidelines, a professional athletic trainer can be involved in the exciting and ever-changing world of sports, and make a difference in many lives. Works Cited Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.…

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Arnold, T., & Shelbourne, K. (2000). A perioperative rehabilitation program for anterior cruciate ligament surgery. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 28, 1-16 Rehabilitation is crucial for postoperative knee injury. Describing their somewhat innovative preoperative program that had been conducted at their clinic during the last 10 years, the researchers detailed the 4-phase structure that they used to restore patients to activity…

Pages: 8  |  Annotated Bibliography  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Project Proposal Exercise Pros and Cons

¶ … represented by the psychological mechanisms which lead some people to exercise on a regular basis as well as by the reasons which keep others away from sports and physical activity. The purpose of the paper is to understand who are the people who get engaged in physical activities and sports. The goal is to comprehend why the same activity (or better said life style) is loved by some and hated by others. In addition, I would like to understand what are the psychological effects of sports upon people and the psychological factors which can actually impact sport performances. As far as the poeple who hate sports are concerned, the research wishes to see if there are such elements which could motivate them to do more physical activity. As far as athletes are concerned, the paper is focused on understanding what are the stimuli which lead them to surpass their physical limits and reach outstanding performances. Background: The already existing research in the area claims that physical exercise has a positive impact upon people -from both a physical and psychological point-of-view. It is also known that performing sports in outdoor contexts, especially in the middle of natural environments supports the state of well being. As far as the intensity of the physical activity required reaching this state, this is moderate. At this point it becomes clear why some people choose to practice sports. Scope: The argument is wide, but the main part of the research will focus exclusively upon the pros and cons that people have in mind when they have to take up a life style which includes physical exercise. Theoretical framework: the paper will use the theories according to which physical exercise is good for the mind and the body and those which argue that taking up and practicing sports are actions based on education and expectations. The creation of expectations in people through communication campaigns (which fundamentally try to sell one thing or another) is one of the elements that the research will……

Pages: 2  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Exercise Philosophy When Rio De

If one was to apply the principles of Adams, Keele and Schmidt, a new training and physical education program would incorporate the short-term benefits of practicing, visualization and build in more long-term benefits like specific practice strategies. For example, if new soccer players desiring to reach the skill set of a Pele wanted to learn three new soccer skills such…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 6


Use of Steroids in Athletes

Steroids Among Athletes Steroids are a class of prescribed drugs, used to treat abnormally low amounts of testosterone, body wasting in the case of AIDS and other disease conditions involving loss of body mass (National Institute of Drug Abuse 2006). Anabolic steroids contain hormones or hormone-like substances, used to boost strength and muscle growth (Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence 1998).…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 8


Stretching Dynamic vs. Static Stretching -- Comparing

Stretching Dynamic vs. Static Stretching -- Comparing and Contrasting the Pros and Cons Everyone knows that athletes love debates. Who was the best hitter of all time? What is more of a test of athletic endurance -- swimming the English Channel or running an ultra-marathon? What is the best way to build up your triceps? But less physically obsessed people may be amused to hear that even stretching is an issue of controversy within the fitness community. Stretching, however, does facilitate a critical component of fitness, namely flexibility, which along with strength and endurance, are critical to performing not only feats of athletic prowess, but simply functioning in a healthy way during the normal acts of daily life. The debate about stretching usually revolves around the question of what is better -- the static or dynamic forms of stretching? But first of all, what is flexibility, the fitness component stretching is supposed to enhance? "Flexibility is the range of motion possible around a specific joint or series of articulations. Flexibility is specific to a given joint or movement. A person may not be able to function normally if a joint lacks normal movement" ("Stretching and Flexibility," ExRx, 2007). While "dynamic stretching incorporates movements that mimic a specific sport or exercise in an exaggerated yet controlled manner; [and is] often include during the warm-up or in preparation for a sports event," the "static technique involves passively stretching a muscle to the point of mild discomfort by holding it in a maximal stretch for an extended period" ("Stretching and Flexibility," ExRx, 2007). A good contrast between the two types of stretches might be seen in a runner preparing for a hard workout or a race. A runner engaged in dynamic stretching might do some chest-to-knee running, or exaggerated skipping, while a runner engaged in static stretching might lean up against a wall in a lunge, to stretch his quadriceps muscles and hamstrings. Dynamic also means motion, thus dynamic stretching may include arm swings, knee rotations, and neck circles, while static stretching is traditionally not performed with much of a range of motion, and certainly not fast motions (Campbell, 2007). Players in sports requiring pinpoint reflexes and reactions, like basketball players and soccer players, are often devout exponents of dynamic stretching. Contrary to popular belief, stretching before a workout does not appear to decrease the occurrence of injury. The risk of injury seems…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Biomechanical Priciples Biomechanical Principles Biomechanics

Instead, the swimmer must find the optimal point in their pull where the most water will be moved. This results in the best and most efficient stroke. There are currently two strokes that swimmers use to optimize their thrust. The first is a traditional pinwheel stroke. This stroke involves keeping the arm straight in the water and producing a semi-circle. The second stroke is known as the caterpillar arm and involves bending the arm slightly to keep a straight line in the water. This second move efficiently pushes more water out of the way and minimizes the strain on the shoulder (Richardson, 1986). As can be seen, freestyle swimming is as much a science as any other athletic move. It requires precision of motion to counter the force of the water and maximize energy during a swim. Without taking all factors into consideration, an athlete will expend greater amounts of energy with less overall success. References Boone, Tommy; Birnbaum, Larry (2005). Exercise Physiology: Professional Issues, Organizational Concerns, and Ethical Trends. Edward Mellen Pr. Burkett, Brendan (2012). Basic principles for understanding sport mechanics. Human Kinetics. Accessed 14 March 2012 from http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/basic-mechanical-principles Miller, Doris (1975). Biomechanics of Swimming. Exercise and Sport Sciences. Vol. 3.1, 219-248. Richardson, AR (1986). The Biomechanics of Swimming: The Shoulder and Knee. Clin Sports Med. Vol 5.1, 103-13. Toussaint, H.M., Hollander, A.P., Berg, C. v. d., & Vorontsov, A.……

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Sports on Self-Esteem: An Investigational

The study is limited because of the small sample size and amount of time allocated to conducting the study. The study did also show that even among students who did not report participation in sports, a high level of self-esteem exists. Thus the researcher may conclude that while sports participation may relate to an overall sense of wellness and high self-esteem, a number of factors probably contribute to this rather than one factor. Additional studies will have to be carried out to determine the exact relationship that exists between sports participation and self-esteem. Appendix Interview Questions Athletes 1) Do you believe your involvement in sports has impacted your self-esteem in a positive manner? 2) Do you feel pressure to act a certain way or behave in a certain way due to your involvement in sports? 3) Do you feel that you have a more positive attitude than your peers who are not involved in sports? 4) Do you feel that you are attractive? 5) Do you feel that you will be able to achieve all of the goals that you establish for yourself? Interview Questions Non-Athletes 1) Do you feel that you have a strong sense of self-esteem? 2) Do you feel that participating in sports would influence your self-esteem? 3) Do you feel pressure to participate or not participate in sports? 4) Do you feel that you have a positive attitude? 5) Do you feel that you will be able to achieve the goals you set out to? References: Billups, A. (1999- Jul 26). "Study finds sports give girls confidence to tackle science." The Washington Times: 9. Bowker, A., Cornock, B. & Gadbois, S. (2003). "Sports participation and self-esteem: variations as a function of gender and gender role orientation." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 1:47 Dunn, J.G., Gotwals, J.K. & Wayment, H.A. (2003). "An examination of perfectionisms and self-esteem in intercollegiate athletes." Journal of Sports Behavior, 26(1): 17. Fox, K.R. (2000). "Self-esteem, self-perceptions and exercise." International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31:228-240. Gustafson, S. (2001). "Self-Esteem/Exercise." Behavioral Consultants, P.C. Retrieved April……

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Cohesion and Team Success There Has Been

Cohesion and Team Success There has been a great deal of research dedicated to attempting to explain the role of team cohesion in team success or effectiveness. There are those who claim that team effectiveness can be gained from social cohesion among team members and others who claim that task cohesions is more important in the team realizing success. The…

Pages: 8  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Style

(2004). Another factor that is impossible to control given the structure of this study is the fact that there are multiple coaches involved and every coach is different. How they control and pose situations is going differ from person to person, as noted by Stevens (2012). Perhaps it would not be wide enough of a sample to look at one…

Pages: 10  |  Capstone Project  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Facilities Management Critiques

¶ … Job Competencies of Sport Facility Managers: Robert Case and J. David Branch The study by Case & Branch (2003) talks about sports facilities that exist in the United States and offers different careers for students to opt from. The study states that the sports management training prepares students for professional management. However, it is also imperative that this…

Pages: 7  |  Article Critique  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Behavioral Change Contract

Cardio Workout Plan Changes in heath behavior are predicated by the desire and the will to assume encompassing changes in lifestyle. It is my intention to make such a change according to the following health plan. This will center on the development of a cardiovascular workout as a way of achieving muscle growth. The commitment and follow-through necessary for such a program requires a carefully delineated plan. Results of Wellness Assessment: This plan is preceded a wellness assessment. Here, I would remark that I am in fair condition though I have not always been as active as I like to be. Additionally, I am prone to consuming junk food and engaging in sedentary activities. Though I feel health and am young, I intend to establish an exercise program that can help me maintain this health and vitality as I age. Seven Steps for Successful Change: Understand the Culture: Before developing a cardio program that is appropriate to my needs, I would first immerse myself into the literature relating to cardio workout culture. It is appropriate to learn from the experts and perhaps even consult physical therapists, trainers and/or physicians before making all of my decisions. The preliminary effort is served by the following literature review. Get the Facts: Based on my research, the exercise around which I intend to center my program is the 'mountain climber.' This will be supplemented by an array of other activities. However, based on the findings produced by Waehner (2010), this seems appropriate as a focal exercise. Waehner indicates that "mountain climbers are an advanced, high intensity exercise that will get your heart rate up and add intensity to your workouts. This move will also build leg endurance and help you work on agility as well, making it a great overall exercise." (Waehner, 1) This strikes me as an exercise that is both rigorous and enjoyable. To my perspective, being able to remain on a regimented course of exercise is not simply factored on one's discipline. As the research reinforces, this alone will not always be encouragement to remains committed to a program. According to ShapeFit (2010), one's engagement in the process has a great deal to do with one's ability to enjoy the selected activities. Therefore, ShapeFit reports that "the best cardio exercise is simply the one you will do day in and day out consistently. Choose one which you enjoy doing and don't…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Athletes Review Ankle Tape or Ankle Brace

Athletes Review: Ankle Tape or Ankle Brace The human foot has an extremely complex structure of bones, joints and muscles. Meadows (2006) points out, "The human foot has 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments. With such a complex structure, a lot can go wrong. While some foot problems are inherited, many occur because of…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Importance of Physical Education in Schools and Colleges

¶ … Physical Education in schools and colleges The importance of Physical Education at schools and colleges Physical education has become an important issue that is seen by many educators as an essential aspect of the overall educational program at schools and colleges in the country. This concern is based on a number of contemporary issues. The first is that there has been a decline in the perceived importance of physical education at schools and colleges. (Drane et al. 2004) This decline has raised concern in the light of the recent reports of an increase in obesity among the youth in the United States. While physical exercise and physical exercise programs are seen as important in terms of general health and well-being, the evidence of the relationship between obesity and the lack of physical exercise has raised this concern to another level and increased the importance of physical education at our schools and colleges. The importance of physical education in schools and colleges in the United States was first realized in the 1950s'. Studies at that time indicated that students in American colleges were less physically fit compared to their counterparts in Europe. (Pivarnik and Pfeiffer) These studies resulted in the establishment of President's Council on Youth Fitness, which was established in 1956. There were subsequent studies and efforts to improve the state of physical fitness and education in our schools and colleges. However, the decline of physical fitness among children in the country has been a continual topic of debate in recent years. The strong evidence of obesity among the youth has served to exacerbate this concern and highlight the need for a greater emphasis on physical education. Many experts claim that improvements to physical education program at schools in particular are essential to combat these growing rates of obesity as well as improve general student health. There is therefore a consensus that children should be more involved in physical exercise in a formal sense and on a regular basis. Secondly, there is increasing agreement among educationists and healthcare experts that there is a close and important link between a lack of physical exercise and obesity among children. These views are borne out by numerous studies. For example, in 1989 the Michigan Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (MAHPERD) issued a statement which, "...emphasized the importance of quality physical education programs in Michigan schools " (Pivarnik and…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 3


Physical Activity for Seniors

Physical Activity Physical Activities and the Elderly: A Grant Proposal At every age, it is imperative to remain physically active. Individuals who maintain a lifestyle that includes regular physical activity and exercise can significantly reduce their vulnerability to obesity, heart disease and a host of other conditions associated with a sedentary lifestyle. As important as physical activity is across one's…

Pages: 8  |  Grant Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


New Branch of Science Called

Since there are many vacancies in jobs related to advising people about exercise and nutrition in leisure centers that is where they usually work for some time. The problem lies in the fact that the skills and competencies of graduates in sports science are not really recognized by the sport and leisure industry, and when the people working in this sector provide more than asked for. Sport and exercise scientists at these leisure centers provide expert advice on many health related issues, even obesity. But in leisure centers, workers are limited to only providing general advice and advice that contains specialized knowledge. Sports engineering, is also one of the jobs that involve the study of the equipment and surfaces that athletes use, this filed also offers wider job opportunities because it has a greater application in industry. This job is also more appealing to many who have studied in this field because nearly half of sports engineering jobs fall under the private sector, which means better pay and fringe benefits. Even sportswear manufacturers including Nike and Dunlop Slazenger have sports engineers and various other technical staff with interest in sport, working for them even if they have no specialized skill in this field. Trends are changing and specialized sports engineers are now coming into the job market. With so much advancement in sports the public still has a vague impression of sports science, since most people believe this field is limited to the top sports performers and state-of-the-art running shoes. However, the truth is that this field provides people with many facilities such as, biomechanics to look at sports injuries, and the healing process. It also provides information on the nutrition intake for high-performance athletes, which can also be used by women to maintain their energy levels during childbirth. Sports science, which uses motor learning and motor control for human movement is what it deals with. References Computational Learning and Motor Control Lab, available at http://www-slab.usc.edu/,accessed on: November 20, 2003 Graduate Programs: Masters in Motor Control, available at http://www.indiana.edu/~kines/ms_motor.html, accessed on: November 20, 2003 JCU - Motor Learning and Motor Control, available at: www.jcu.edu.au/school/phtm/ises/lev3sub/sp34hbk.html, accessed on: November 20, 2003 Motor Behavior Specialization - Doctoral Degree Program, available at http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/ess/grad/motrbeh1.htm, accessed on: November 20, 2003 Research at the Lab for Computational Motor Control, available at http://www.bme.jhu.edu/~reza/research_page.html, accessed on: November 20, 2003 Tim's Research: Motor Control and Motor Learning, available at http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~timothyv/motorctrl.html,…

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0

 1 2 3 . . . Last ›

 

Disclaimer