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Current Urban Ecology of American Cities

¶ … Urban studies legend Jane Jacobs on gentrification, the New Urbanism, and her legacy" by Bill Steigerwald (June 2001) As more and more of the world's growing population pours into densely packed urban regions, city planners are faced with some enormous challenges in providing livable conditions and services for these unprecedented numbers. In an early response to these trends, Jane Jacobs called for a more enlightened approach to city planning that takes real people and their needs into account. Although she is not an architect and does not have any specialized training, Jacobs' 1961 book, the Death and Life of Great American Cities, had an enormous influence on traditional city planning processes in the years since its publication. This paper reviews Bill Steigerwald's interview with Jacobs, "Urban studies legend Jane Jacobs on gentrification, the New Urbanism, and her legacy" to identify personal points of agreement as well as divisive issues. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion. Review and Discussion City planning in North America in general has been a hit-and-miss proposition over the years, and the learning curve has been extremely steep. In his interview with the venerable octogenarian, Steigerwald develops the points that Jacobs had been on the front lines of urban development in Canada during the last half of the 20th century and had the opportunity to witness firsthand the failed efforts of governmental planners to make cities better places to live. Just as Canada managed to avoid the same types of violent union and labor confrontation that rocked the United States during the 20th century, Canada also enjoyed the benefit of watching how the urban renewal initiatives undertaken by its neighbor to the south failed to achieve their goals and use these lessons learned for their own projects. The point is also made that city planning is not an exact science but is rather an art that must take into account the vast range of features that make a city livable by human standards. In response to a question concerning whether modern city planners had learned anything from the failed efforts in the past, Jacobs suggested that in the case of Pittsburg at least, they had not: "That attitude -- that you can sacrifice small things, young things, and a diversity of things for some great big success -- is sad." The truly sad aspect of the urban renewal…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


Urbanization and City Planning Considerations: A Prioritization

Urbanization and City Planning Considerations: A Prioritization City planning in an urban environment is not without its challenges. However, as technology moves forward and people realize that sustainability and the environment are two very important considerations in urban planning and urban living, the horizon for change becomes ever closer. This fact could not be more evident in developed nations, as access to sustainable products and processes is far greater than in less developed places. However, these less developed urban environments allow for a greater scale of change and positive impact, since much of the growth is yet to take place and is there fore fairly malleable and easily influenced to become more environmentally friendly and sustainable. The first priority of any future urban development, planning, or growth should be sustainability. Since the population of the planet is set to double in the next 30 years, it will become increasingly important that people wishing to live in urban environments, those environs with the highest environmental impact and largest human footprint, be willing and able to do so in a sustainable way (Rees and Wackernagel, 550). In a developed nation, this could be a challenge since much of the urbanization has already occurred, leaving little room for retrofitting or modification. However, with green room technologies and traffic flow and gas consumption optimization, developed nations could take the lead in sustainable urban planning and living (Termorshuizen, Opdam, and van den Brink, 381). In less developed nations, where sustainability is not often on the list of top priorities in urban planning, cities can be planned and built to help minimize environmental impact and maximize utility and use of space. The second priority of urban planning and design is pollution mitigation. Problems with water and air pollution are just the beginning as often soil pollutants are introduced when cities grow and expand (Rees and Wackernagel, 539). This is also part of the sustainability issue, but since urban environments are often the biggest culprits in pollution, since they have the highest human densities, considerations to reduce pollution……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Walked Through the Empty Lot,

Walking, jogging, and bicycle paths are essential to creating a healthy and enjoyable living environment for city residents, and I hope to be able to impact public policy in this area. One of the most important and most difficult problems facing American urban centers is the economic divide between rich and poor neighborhoods. Ethnic conflicts and class-related strife are issues that can be helped through effective urban planning and development. I hope to learn how to improve the lives of all city residents and to not favor the wealthy over the poor as a matter of course. Effective city planning can reduce the problems associated with economic and ethnic strife, especially crime. Moreover, keeping all neighborhoods clean and safe is a top priority in making city centers as livable as possible. I look forward to learning about the operation of public utilities, budgeting city funds, and managing burgeoning populations. I believe I have the communication, negotiation, and analytical skills required to solve such significant problems as these. Moreover, as an urban planner, I would also endeavor to improve air and water quality in urban centers. I believe that urban policy makers have a responsibility to regulate and control pollution and therefore I would like to learn how I can participate in the process of reducing and controlling harmful emissions and environmental toxins. Through my studies in urban planning, I intend to learn about the interface between science, economics, and public policy in improving the atmosphere and quality of life in our cities. With the power that this knowledge provides, I know that I can make a positive impact on the world. I also look forward to studying about the historical development of cities and relating that information to the future. Through traveling I have learned to appreciate the immense work that has gone into the planning, creation, and maintenance of cities. Urban residents usually take for granted the structures and infrastructures around them: traffic lights simply appear at intersections; water pipes naturally run beneath the ground; bike paths happen as a matter of course. Yet because I have always been a city person, one who relishes the high energy and potential of densely populated areas, I began to wonder if I could ever participate in modeling or changing an urban area. In the United States, where land is continually being transformed, urban planners and developers are indispensable. Now that engineers…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Real Estate in Greece

Real Estate in Greece The work of Costa Siomopoulos entitled: "Fast Growth for Greek Real Estate" state that over the past few years that there has been integration of real estate management, development and exploitation in Greece as social security funds, property and construction companies. Leasing firms, portfolio investment firms, foreign institutional investors, realtors, property valuers and others. (nd, paraphrased)…

Pages: 20  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 150


Everyday Urbanism

Architecture Urban Space and Architecture Addressing the cultural as well as the practical needs of urban communities and societies has become a growing challenge for city planners and for architects, as the growing density and diversity of many such communities and societies has led to rapidly changing needs and desires when it comes to public spaces. The different uses that public spaces are expected to serve have themselves become increasingly diverse, as well, which has led to some drastic rethinking not only in the theories that underlie urban planning and development, but also in the practical design efforts and construction implementations that take place. This paper will investigate certain emerging and evolving theories in urban planning and architecture as well as evidence of changing trends in the actual use and implementation of urban spaces, and examines an early example of these emerging trends as a point of illustration and inspection. Everyday Urbanism In an essay entitled "Everyday Urbanism," Margaret Crawford demonstrates how many urban spaces are actually sites of everyday public activity despite a lack of effort in designing a useful public space: "[everyday space] is banal, it's repetitive, it's everywhere and nowhere, it's a place that has few characteristics that people pay attention to." At the same time, Crawford maintains, a close observation of these bland and "repetitive" everyday spaces reveals that they are actually quite specifically identified and utilized by community members. In this view of unplanned urban space, there are design opportunities and planning influences to be found in existing areas and without conscious and over-arching design principles at work reshaping urban spaces or landscapes in large-scale ways. Such appropriation and site-specific utilizations -- the design/functionality aesthetic that Crawford defines as "Everyday Urbanism" -- are attempts to "refamiliarize urban environments," in contrast to design and architectural trends that lead to the "modernist sensation of defamiliarization." Examples of this Everyday Urbanism include garage-sale like endeavors taking place in empty parking lots or along streets, get-togethers on grassy spaces that were never intended for any real use, and a variety of other undesigned and spontaneous yet specific uses. Ecological Urbanism Margaret Crawford's concept of Everyday Urbanism dovetails quite nicely with the aesthetic and practical movement known as Ecological Urbanism, as defined and described by Moshen Mostafavi in his book of the same title. Mostafavi sees ecological urbanism as something of a response to the "scale of the ecological crisis"…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Sawyer Possesses a Strong Defense Against the

¶ … Sawyer possesses a strong defense against the legal action as outlined by Mills; to wit, the contract outlined by Sawyer was merely an oral offer and presented over a ten-year timeframe. The Statute of Frauds specifically notes that any contract exceeding one year must be devoted to written form else said document is invalid. Mills' secret tape recording of the oral offer is of no consequence because the alleged oral contract implied throughout the conversation was never formally executed as a written contract. In order for her claim of negligence to be upheld, the female riding the school bus must prove that the driver of said bus: 1) had a duty to refrain from some form of conduct or a duty to engage in some conduct (2) the driver breached that duty (3) the breach actually and proximately caused some harm (4) the plaintiff, as a result of the negligence, sustained damages. While the school bus driver did have a duty to perform his job in a manner protecting the safety of those on his bus, he could not have foreseen that a bee would fly through the bus window and become trapped in his clothing. Further the driver did attempt to regain control of the bus when it became apparent to him that the bus had slid onto the shoulder of the road thus attempting to fulfill his duty to provide safe……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


History of Urban Planning in the United

History Of Urban Planning in the United States Drive around a number of cities in the United States -- Houston, for example, or Los Angeles -- and you might think that urban planning was just a fantasy, since there seems to have been no thought whatsoever in terms of might be good for the long-term social, cultural, political, and economic health of these cities, where seemingly anything goes. On the other hand, any one of a number of planned communities that dot the newer neighborhoods across the country suggest that urban planning is simply fascism by other means as people cannot pick the flowers for their front yards. There are, of course, some cities that get their urban planning -- like that final bowl for Goldilocks -- just right. But sometimes these can seem very much in the minority, and sometimes seem to get things right more by accident than anything else. This paper examines the history of urban planning in the United States, considering what has lead different cities to take such extremes on the one hand while others have followed more moderate, more flexible courses that have been better able to stand the test of time. Giving the range of what goes under the heading of "urban planning," it is perhaps useful to begin with a definition of the term. In general, urban planning can be considered to be the intersection of land-use planning and transportation planning (along with, in some areas) planning to reduce the effects of pollution and climate change to improve or sustain the physical and social infrastructure and relationships of the community. Sometimes this planning is carried out on a larger geographic area and is called regional planning. It should be noted that urban planning is not the same thing as "urban renewal," which is a governmental focus (sometimes in concert with private enterprise) to remedy a range of infrastructural and cultural problems usually in older parts of a city. Urban renewal is also associated in both the United States and other industrialized nations with efforts made to improve the housing and work conditions for racial minorities. This fact has tended to politicize the process of urban planning in the United States, with conservatives often arguing against it as a part of their overall push to limit social services. However, urban planning is in fact a process that should be applied to all aspects…

Pages: 4  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Urban Planning Problems in the Developing World

Urban Development Urban Planning Problems in the Developing World: A Literature Review In order to adequately and accurately address the problems that might be faced with urban planning in developing countries and regions of the world, several key pieces of information will need to be found. First, the identification of problems that exist in urban planning generally should be found, and a general idea of developing parts of the world where urban planning is currently taking place would also form a part of the preliminary information need to fully research this issue. Then, an examination of these areas and the specific problems they are facing in terms of urban planning can take place, and finally an assessment of how these problems are similar to and/or differ from urban planning problems generally can be conducted. Collecting this information should be relatively easy using appropriate search terms entered into academic databases; specific terms that will be utilized will include "urban plan* AND problems OR issues OR barriers," "urban develop* regions," "third world urban plan*," and "urban plan* AND develop* world." Though the basic searches that will lead to the gathering of the necessary information are rather simplistic at the outset, it is expected that several constraints will make this research more difficult than it appears on the surface. Many of these search terms are likely to result in the return of many sources and articles that will not be useful to the research at hand, forming the primary constraint. As research is conducted, more refined search terms will present themselves to the researcher that can be used to narrow down the scope of the returned sources and articles. There is also the potential that abundant information will not exist on this topic, or at least in some of the subtopics identified, which would also constrain the possibility of research to a large degree. Literature Review A major problem facing urban planers generally, both in the developed and the developing worlds, is that f traffic congestion -- growth automatically means higher volumes of traffic, and limiting congestion is a way to increase the rate of growth, yet growth also leads to congestion thus creating something of a catch-22 situation (Tennoy 2010). Despite a realization of this issue and a concurrent acknowledgement that increased congestion causes increased pollution, planners tend to use traditional modes to frame this problem and new innovations have not been…

Pages: 3  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Nigeria the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development

Nigerian Federal Ministry Rapidly expanding cities have significantly contributed to an ever increasing deficit in housing, among other widespread problems. This is experienced in cities throughout the world as infrastructure is developed in order to accommodate growing urban populations. Problems associated with this rapid growth, including housing deficits, present major obstacles for economic growth and development, especially in developing nations throughout the world. Nigeria is no stranger to this phenomenon of rapid urban growth. The increasingly expanding cities, and the problems that accompany this expansion, forced the federal government to seriously address issues surrounding housing and urban development. In response to this crisis, the Nigerian government created the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development in July of 2003. This federal ministry was made responsible for ensuring the deliverance of adequate and sustainable housing, as well as the maintenance of a living environment that is conducive to meeting the aspirations and needs of the citizens of Nigeria. The purpose of the establishment of the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development in Nigeria was to provide several services to Nigerian citizens, both homeowners and non-homeowners. These services include: handling and supervision of projects conducted by the Federal secretariat; the provision of infrastructure projects involving site and services estates as well as shelter initiatives; issuing og certificates indicating occupancy; compiling inventory of Federal government fixed assets; implementing the National Sites and Services Programme; establishing a support office for the UN-HABITAT program; the provision of a Prototype Housing Scheme; fire fighting and prevention; the development of blueprints for effective planning; development of the housing facilitation scheme; the rehabilitation of Federal Secretariats among the states; the modernization and computerization of the Federal Land Registry; implementing various sites and services; implementing programs for urban renewal and slum upgrading; development of the Sustainable Cities Program; implementing Latterite Brick Projects; establishing of libraries and the Urban Management Information System (UMIS); and implementing the Grievance Redress Mechanism (GRM). The aim of the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development in the provision of these services is to facilitate and promote housing that is adequate, decent and affordable for all Nigerians, regardless of economic or social standing. The focus is to ensure this decent standard of housing in both rural and urban settings in order to encourage decent and healthy living environments. The ministry strives to achieve this goal through the establishment of a system of housing delivery…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Latino Immigration in LA

Housing Issues for Los Angeles Latinos Certain housing issues abound for Latino residents in Los Angeles, due in no small part to particular longstanding political and private practices, a distinctive socio-cultural tradition of residents, and a wealth of legislation that is routinely bypassed to propagate systematic discrimination. The manifold effects of such discrimination may be evidenced in the grouping of…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


African-American Housing: Chicago Study Chicago Housing Study

African-American Housing: Chicago Study Chicago Housing Study African-American Housing Disparities Historical Chicago Housing Facts Covenants The Gautreaux Case Recent Studies and Their Findings Chicago Housing Study African-American Housing Disparities The objective of this work is to examine the status and condition of African-Americans as compared to whites in the area of housing specifically in the city of Chicago, Illinois both…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Land Use Planning Policies and

Effectiveness of plans Kaiser and Godschalk's literature also reveal planning policies are ineffective. The land use patterns mapped in community administrative departments often set out plans without any specific land use or implementation strategy. Kaiser and Godschalk call these verbal policy plans, designed for non-physical development policy. At the initial stages these plans were found important for foundation policy. However,…

Pages: 20  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Regional Planning, Some Examples, Which

Fast Facts About the Strategic Plan Background TVA is preparing for fundamental changes that we believe increased competition will bring to the entire electric utility industry and to TVA's business environment. In the past decade, as the electric-utility industry has moved toward open-market competition, many TVA distributor customers have told us that they want the option of buying from other…

Pages: 11  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Daniels When City and Country

One of the greatest strengths of the book is its careful consideration of a number of different interests in the ongoing issue of urban-rural expansion. Daniels looks at the problems of politicians who are interested in economic growth, but who must be sensitive to voters. Further, he looks at the issue from the side of planners and developers who are faced with the task of deciding how much development occurs in the city and in the countryside. In his analysis, Daniels does not fail to consider the needs and opinions of other groups, including developers, citizens, landowners, local governments, and even the courts. In conclusion, despite these problems in putting urban sprawl within a larger context of urban management and public administration, When City and Country Collide is a useful look at the problems of urban sprawl. Daniels is thorough in his investigations of the problems of urban sprawl, and manages to create a concrete picture of the problems facing growing cities, at least within this defined area. Overall, Daniels provides a useful look into how urban sprawl characterizes modern city planning, and provides some insights into urban management and public administration. References Morgan, David R. And England, Robert E. 1999. Managing Urban America (Public Administration and Public Policy), 5th edition. Chatham House Publishers. Daniels, Thomas L. 1998. When City and……

Pages: 5  |  Book Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


American Industrialization and Its Impacts on Urban System

American Industrialization Urban Systems The industrial revolution, as it is termed changed the role of cities to a fundamental level in the history of America. Industries tend to congregate at major sources of resources including but not limited to communications, transportation and labor. The growth of cities in the U.S. can even be linked directly to industrialization, as the greater the needs of the market the greater the size of cities that grew around industry to feed it. Capital had to be available, hence communications with foreign investors was needed, until such time as urban centers began to provide their own capital systems and lending. (Kantor, and David 86) The Industrial Revolution fundamentally transformed the role of cities in capitalism and created a national urban system based on market competition. This new urban economy had enormous local political implications. Not least, it enabled some city governments to achieve powerful market positions and secure relative economic independence. This new reality would change the bargaining positions of local government and business. (Kantor, and David 86) Urban centers grew exponentially, physically, culturally and socially as a result of industrialization. Many labor needs in the northern cities in the U.S., based near waterways and shipping centers, were met by recruited immigrants from nearly every nation in the world, at different times and for different industries. (Hommann 33) All these people, as well as the industries they worked for an in needed infrastructural supports, systems to get clean water, dispose of waste and transport people and goods. Road building and city planning began with urban needs, as they were required and according to a sort of natural design, then city planning came into the picture to resolve many conflicts that developed. City planning has thus been preceded in America by extensive free and unplanned urban development and is still overwhelmed, if not engulfed, by it. This chapter gives an overview of the efforts of American planning to stem or correct economic and developmental devastation. While it is true that the laying out of streets is but one phase of city planning, it is an important one. Obviously a city must be built around designated channels of movement, and its street layout markedly affects everything that follows. As we have seen, virtually all attempts at grandeur had to give way to the speculative gridiron plan. (Hommann 47) The fact that true urban centers exist at all…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 4


Urban Culture What Is Urban

Graffiti is an urban art form that is unique to the city, but one in which anyone can participate as an artist. The significance of fashion, of wearing one's clothes as art is also an element of urban visual culture. The reason that so many fashion trends spring from the city is not simply the location of wealth and talent in these areas, but the fact that individuals are more often driven out onto the streets, out of small apartments to 'show themselves' to one another. Who one is in such an anonymous environment is not immediately known, as in a small town, how one looks and what one wears defines who one is on the street, at any moment. It is also noteworthy that there are a diversity of visual texts in various neighborhoods -- for instance, the presence of street or commercial signs in a foreign language or alphabet are an act of visual communication particular to cities that 'say something about the neighborhood's composition and sense of identity. Whose Culture, Whose City? The patchwork nature of cities into a variety of ethnic, class, and vocationally oriented areas means that no single group 'owns' a particular city. This is particularly true of the sprawling nature of American cities. Witold Rybczynski, Professor of Urbanism at the University of Philadelphia, argued in his 1995 book City Life that the American city is different from the European city because America's urban planners had more abundant open space to allow for more segmentation of ethnic identities, as well as a more diverse population. (Cited by Lobo & Schooler, 2004) This diversity, growth of capitalism, and expansion created a greater environment of cultural freedom, a sense of democratic equality between various groups, and respect for one another in the sense that anyone could succeed in America. But it also created a security of neighborhood environments, so that certain ethnic, regional, and national musical traditions, cuisines, and ways of life could retain their integrity. Thus, in America, certain ethnic legacies, from pizza, to hip-hip, and clogs, might have all begun as the product of one ethnic group, became blended and reformulated in an urban environment with other cultures, and then, finally, in the industrial age, were sold to all other regions as the world as something urban, ethnic, and 'American,' all at once. Works Cited Schultz, Stanley. Constructing the Urban Culture American Cities and…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Suburban Metropolis

Los Angeles Area: Population Growth Los Angeles consists of a five county region that has experienced incredible growth since the late nineteenth century. The population of this region has increased from just fewer than twenty thousand in 1870 to almost twenty million by 2010 population estimates. Los Angeles has become the second largest urban region in the United States and…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


New York Real Estate and

In addition, more parents are leasing apartments for their children, and some retirees are choosing Manhattan over traditional cities such as Miami (Toy, 2012). Tourism continues to grow, and the development of new hotels in Downtown New York, including the W. And the Four Seasons, added 3,152 rooms in 2011 pushing hotel occupancy rate higher (Gregor, 2011). The robust development…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Sociology of California Department of

Compact development has not been objected to in relation to traffic congestion (Gordon), because higher densities meant greater congestion. Air quality was also questioned in connection with California's rapid growth in the 80s. But sprawl opponents maintained that air quality in California, particularly in Los Angeles, had been improving dramatically every year, even during peak growths in the 80s. Smog alerts were less recently than in 1977, according to them. They continue to suggest that more compact development could affect air quality only minimally because automobile trips are shortened and less frequent (Gordon). It will be emphasized that almost two-thirds of automobile pollution has to do with starting and stopping, the cold start and the hot soak. It is quite a different thing now with the telecommunications revolution that allows jobs to be brought home or follow people where they live (Gordon), rather than people moving to where the jobs were in the past. Today, an increasing number of mobile households choose to live in high-amenity-low density settings and most of the job growth is in the rural areas. This appears to be the trend, although still quite a number are in the urban areas (Gordon). California Business, Housing and Transportation Secretary Sunne McPeak urged for greater mobility and more sufficient workforce housing with the right environment in using smart growth (Metro Investment Report 2004). In an interview, he stressed the need to understand the role and position of schools as a key strategy in improving the neighborhood and that the objectives should be prosperous economy, quality environment and social equity. With $2.9 billion left from the 2000 Transportation and Congestion Relief Program to finance 141 road and transit projects in California, the Secretary said she and her department were still qualifying projects for restored funding when the economy improved. The criteria would be the number and kinds of jobs they could generate immediately and in the long run and how the projects would address the housing needs of an increasing population and its job needs after transportation improvement had been completed (Metro Investment Report). The Secretary also said that some high-profile TCRP projects were then going through communities planning for housing deficits in 20 years, stressing that, while the Department would invest in public transportation, current land use practices should also be changed. If not, she said that all that spent public money would end up with less mobility.…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Space New York City Use

23 0.02 1.25 18.67% MANHATTAN RETAIL VACANT SPACES NOW AND IN THE NEXT TWO YEARS (In Millions of Rentable Square Feet) % Monthly Change Midtown Manhattan Retail 0.67 0.11 0.78 Midtown Manhattan South Retail 1.40 0.07 1.47 Downtown Manhattan Retail 0.33 0.01 0.33 10.84% Total Retail 2.39 0.19 2.58 2. (Optimal Spaces) Filling empties will help bring life to each…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 15


Roman Identity

Roman Urbanization Why was Urbanization an Important Element for the Construction of a Roman Identity? The challenges of nation and empire building have been a fascination of western civilization since before the industrial revolution, which marked a period of massive alterations in the development of urban centers for trade and commerce in such societies. Yet, it must also be made…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 3


Urbanization and the Environment: A Critical Balancing

Urbanization and the Environment: A Critical Balancing Act The Dilemma The earth is a complex environment with a seemingly endless amount of vast resources. Viewed from the vantage point of an individual in an industrialized nation, it would appear that the earth has an endless capacity to care for its occupants. However, when viewed from an impoverished developing nation, the earth's limitations in caring for its inhabitants become a harsh reality. The human population continues to grow at an alarming rate. We know from studying the carrying capacities in other species that the earth's ability to support ever-expanding populations is limited. At some point, the balance is broken and a disaster occurs, one that is often devastating to the species involved. This brings us to the logical question of how long it will be until the earth re-balances the human population. Balancing urbanization and environmental impact issues is one of the most pressing issues confronting human society, both now and in the future. Slide 2 Institutionalizing Community-Based Development In Abidjan, structural adjustments have forced the Mayor of Adjame to focus on the issues of unemployment, poverty, and environmental decay in their country (Unesco, 2008a). Neighborhood committees (CDQs) helped to channel local resources to help improve living conditions. The impact of these programs has been astounding. Since their inception, they have: Generated full and part-time employment for 2000 workers. Collected $60 million in feels for projects such as infrastructure development Attained leverage at 6 times the amount invested Negotiated to cut the cost of basic water connections by 60% Vaccinated 800 children Instituted a training program for 40 men to improve their business skills Promotes the hiring of local labor, resulting in 200 jobs for local citizens. Slide 3 Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) Bank Shri Mahila Sewa Sahakari Bank, a bank of poor, self-employed women workers was established by those that it would serve...the women themselves (Unesco, 2008b). This bank offers support services to 51,000 depositors consisting of working Indian women in poor rural areas. The success of this bank has served as a catalyst in establishing further initiatives to help the poor and underprivileged. It demonstrates that people have to take their own initiative to institute change. Slide 4 Shelter Upgrading in Agadir, Morocco The Moroccan National Shelter Upgrading Agency (ANHI) in Agadir has a large percentage of women acting as head of household (Unesco, 2008c). An earthquake devastated this…

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Real Estate Markets on Shenzhen and Beijing:

¶ … Real Estate Markets on Shenzhen and Beijing: Overview of the Development and Analysis of Problems With the rise of the Chinese economy, the face of real estate in its many cities is changing dramatically. Yet, research shows that these changes are not uniform, and differ greatly depending on the area based on prime factors, such as government involvement…

Pages: 6  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


New York City's Zoning Laws

The landscape of the city has changed tremendously in the past century and in some cases the zoning laws have not kept pace and cannot address the newer issues that are at hand. There are several significant outcomes which zoning needs to address: Zoning must be consistent so that outcomes produce the desired result throughout the community Zoning needs to be comprehensive so that it can take into account the range of possibilities that might occur Zoning has to recognize and adapt to growth and change to meet future needs and expanding economies. Zoning has to protect the population's quality of life. Zoning has to be realistic and be able to be put into practice. New York City's zoning regulations fall short even though the city has been a pioneer of innovation in zoning resolutions. In 1916, New York City championed zoning regulations ushered n the great building boom. But the regulations were flawed because they didn't take into account population density in certain areas nor did it provide for adverse environmental conditions in less affluent areas. Today, New York is facing some consequential challenges that current regulations don't seem able to effectively deal with. The city is becoming a mecca of households of fewer people but more households. Space is at a premium as affluent families want larger rooms. The city is undergoing urban density and the revised zoning laws of 1961 are basically flawed in their vision and don't make allowances for urban growth. The reality is that New York City needs more development but of a different kind. What improvements would you recommend and how would you justify their value and feasibility? To begin with, new zoning may need to be implemented to allow for the type of flexibility and innovation that is now needed to design the city of the future. The old rules can still apply and be aptly enforced but a new series of regulations that addresses urban renewal and aesthetic architecture needs to be created. Developers need to be enticed to want to build in New York City -- and to have the ability to make a profit. Height regulations need to be considered so that height will not be an intrusion to the landscape or the population. I would recommend that we welcome new and innovative ideas for building and that we find a balance between the old and the new. We…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Domestic Architecture in Ancient Pompeii

Additionally, ceiling beams were also painted, gilded, or inlaid with ivory and the floors were paved in stone or fine mosaic. All historians have generally agreed on the ideology on the division of Pompeian mural painting into four styles based on stylistic variations each having its own specific characteristics. All four styles remained in use concurrently with specific styles chosen…

Pages: 30  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Zoning and Land Use New

There are then public hearings, held by the affected community board and the City Planning Commission. Amendments must be considered and Okayed by the community board, the borough board, the Borough President, and then finally the City Council. (This rule is the primary source of Community Board and City Council power.)New York City employs a zoning system which offers a high level of certainty. The Department of City Planning believes that it is very important to give communities, developers and regulators a clear sense of what is and is not allowed in a given district. The City enacted United States' first comprehensive zoning resolution in 1916 and the City continues to be a leader in zoning policy in the States. The 1916 Zoning Resolution separated functionally incompatible uses and established height and setback controls. The ordinance became a model for urban communities throughout the United States The Zoning Resolution of New York City is divided into two parts: zoning text and zoning maps. The text establishes zoning districts and sets forth the regulations governing land use and development. There are three basic zoning districts: residential, commercial and manufacturing. Detailed regulations in the zoning text set out the use permitted, building density, parking requirements and other detailed design guidelines. Manufacturing uses and certain intense commercial uses are also subject to performance standards which limit noise, air pollution and other nuisance-creating activity Within the broad commercial zoning district category, office buildings are allowed in two out of the eight specific commercial districts: "Restricted Central Commercial Districts, C5" and "General Central Commercial Districts, C6." The remaining six specific commercial districts are for retail, entertainment and recreational uses at different scale and location. The broad manufacturing zoning district can be further divided into three specific manufacturing districts: "Light Manufacturing Districts, M1," "Medium Manufacturing Districts, M2" and "Heavy Manufacturing Districts, M3," based on performance standards. Flexibility in the zoning system is provided by allowing discretionary actions. Some development may be allowed if Special Permits are secured from the City Planning Commission or the Board of Standards and Appeals. (Richard F. Babcock, The Zoning Game Revisited, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy; Reprint edition (September 1990)) In response to the changing needs of the changing city, the Zoning Resolution is amended regularly. In 2000, the Department of City Planning presented a zoning proposal to facilitate Long Island City's transformation into a central business district. The proposed zoning…

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Low Income Home Loans as

A combination of factors can affect whether a borrower qualifies for a loan, and if so, at what interest rate. Many of these factors are class related. While lenders should consider a borrower's income and assets, an overemphasis on these factors may discriminate against low-income and minority borrowers (Kim, 2002). A low-income person under existing measures of creditworthiness is labeled…

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Game / Outside Game David

One of the most valuable contributions of Rusk's book is his use of census statistics to illustrate many of his concepts. This adds a great deal of credence to his theories, and is a profound addition to the anecdotal evidence. Despite this, many of his statistical claims are based on correlational, rather than causational, data. In addition to his scholarly…

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Event Coverage Story Pitch

¶ … Manhattan Community Board 4 (MCB4) public hearing on the District Plan for the proposed Hudson Yards Business Improvement District. The meeting took place July 31, 2013 at Roosevelt Hospital with 70 people in attendance. Supporters and opposition of the business development projects were in attendance, and with so many projects on the table there was a definitely a lot to discuss on the table. For over three hours, speakers discussed a number of issues in great detail. A number of potential projects were brought to the forum, each getting unique attention from both supporters and the opposition. Yet, it was issue 37, or the business improvement district for the Hudson Yards, was really center stage. The plan regards a southern portion of Hell's Kitchen, being within the area bounded by West 42nd and Eleventh Ave. According to the committee, "the specific aim of the proposed BID is "to provide maintenance for the Hudson Park and Boulevard and district-wide services and improvements that enhance the quality of life of an exceptionally diverse population who live, work and visit within the district" (NYC.gov 12). With no question, there was great support for the business development within the community. Nancy Diez, of the 531 Board of Managers at 9th and 42nd attended the meeting, adding that "We look at 9th Ave as Main Street. We love and appreciate BID. We support to take it further." There are a number of major components to the new development scheme, with the Hudson Yards BID being renamed the Hudson Yards / Hell's Kitchen Alliance. First and foremost is the desire to generate more open space within the area to increase the feel of open air within the space in question. More open space means a better quality of living for those residents of Hell's Kitchen. Paul, a resident owner and part of the 502 9th Ave Condo Association was excited to see the push towards opening up more space in the neighborhood, saying "I believe and support the greenery of the neighborhood." Also high on the list is addressing a number of problematic traffic and sanitation safety issues. On behalf of the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT), Lisa added "Items like sanitation and pedestrian safety are priority. We have a commitment to maintain the park. Looking forward to 2014." With a proposed expansion of the Number 7 subway line, it will be crucial to…

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Story Pitch

¶ … Manhattan Community Board 4, Chelsea Land Use (CLU) Committee and Waterfront, Parks, and Environment (WPE) Committee meeting has met to determine to what level they will continue allowing building and changing the Hudson River Park area of New York. Legislation has been passed which changes the Hudson River Park Act in order to take into account then needs of other bodies, including groups who wish for nothing more than to conserve and protect the Hudson River Park as it exists. Too much of the land, as in other parts of the country, has been taken over by bloodthirsty corporations who think of nothing more than their bottom line and the quickest way to fatten their wallets. The trust claimed that they would be financially damaged by these modifications and that they need to get control of the air rights in the area in order to sell their products. CB4 quite rightly does not trust this group, fearing that they will sell the air rights to companies who are similarly interested in only money, who will then use those air rights to violate the law, such as by building more floors in their buildings than are allowed by the district's regulations. The Trust in question has proven itself to be unconcerned by the objections of the opposition and has sited its own monetary gain as a reason why the city planners should allow them to control the air rights. The laws were created to protect the rights of the masses, not the few and this should be explored in order to continue the fight against these large organizations. Story……

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Company Sponsored Childcare Recently There

The child cares crisis and the problems that inadequate childcare present for corporate America is another topic. There is a wealth of background information available on both of these topics. However, there is none that approaches the topics from the angle that will be presented in this research. Therefore is impossible to examine previous academic research on the topic, due…

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Squatting Has Had a Long History Worldwide,

Squatting has had a long history worldwide, especially as concepts and laws related to property ownership change. Although most American media focuses on squatting movements in New York City, other cities in the United States are seeing squatters take over abandoned or foreclosed properties. The economic recession has driven many landowners out of their homes. Some are opting to ignore eviction notices, while other homeowners are becoming inadvertent landlords when homeless squatters take advantage of the indoor space. In some cities, squatting has become a political response to income disparity. Organizations like Take Back the Land in Miami works to place new "tenants" in abandoned homes, even setting them up with "secondhand furniture, cleaning supplies and yard upkeep. So far, he has moved six families into foreclosed homes and has nine on a waiting list," ("As Foreclosures Rise, Squatters Lay Claims"). As with Europe, the United States has been demonstrating a willingness to view squatting as a form of peaceful protest. Squatting is a form of social justice, a politically subversive reaction to injustice and income disparity. When rents are artificially high -- or at least higher than local residents can afford -- many legal tenants are driven from their homes. The result is a glut of empty property and a simultaneous humanitarian crisis from increased homelessness. Squatting is viewed as a viable solution to mitigate problems like overly powerful landlords and economies that prejudice the poor. In New York City, squatting made recent headlines when eleven buildings on the Lower East Side sold for $1 each. The city of New York basically donated the buildings at this price, giving them to a non-profit group that then handed the buildings over to 200+ squatters living inside. Cities are not always on the side of squatters, but increasing numbers of city representatives and law enforcement officials are taking stances in favor of squatters' rights. "Carol Abrams of the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development said the arrangement was made possible because the city does not want to displace people while creating code compliant housing," ("For $1, squatters become building owners in NYC"). In other words, the city understood the humanitarian and social justice issues at stake. There is no reason why a building should remain abandoned when in fact there are too many homeless people already. "The city preferred to have the squatters -- who will continue to…

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Federal Government in Dealing With

" In that regard, those who are most vulnerable to homelessness are individuals in the low income bracket. In my opinion, the federal government must play a more prominent role in addressing the plight of the homeless. This is more so the case when it comes to funding the construction of housing units that are more affordable. Towards this end, the government could consider further subsidize the construction of more housing units per annum. This in my opinion could help address the severe depletion of affordable housing units throughout the country. Other considerations the federal government should explore include increasing the level of funding advanced to various homeless-service providers. The amount of funds distributed to communities via the relevant agencies in an attempt to boost affordable housing programs should also be increased. Going forward, other federal departments should also be roped in to help in making homelessness history. Departments that could play a vital role in this endeavor include but they are not limited to the Department of Justice and the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Conclusion In conclusion, it should be noted that unless the federal government takes bold measures to increase the number of affordable housing units, the problem of homelessness will not be conclusively addressed anytime soon. The United States of America has both the tools and capabilities to bring to an end the homelessness menace. What lacks in my view is the proper, effective, and strategic utilization of the said tools and capabilities. References Lowrey, A. (2012, December 10). Homeless Rates in the U.S. Held Level Amid Recession, Study Says, but Big Gains are Elusive. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from The New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/us/homeless-rates-steady-despite-recession-hud-says.html?ref=housingandurbandevelopmentdepartment U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2013, Feb 5). Affordable Housing. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Department website: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/affordablehousing…

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New Suburban Poverty Suburban Poverty:

But it is also a fact that less affluent people are slowly but surely finding their way into suburbs anyway" and Press hopes that this will result in new voting patterns more favorable to the interests of the poor (Press 2007). Press' optimism seems undercut by the recent, overwhelming victory for Tea Party and Republican candidates, overwhelmingly supported by white, suburban voters. A presence within the suburbs does not always translate into electoral victory, if members of the so-called underclass do not vote. One of the dangers of the suburbs may be its spread-out nature, and there is a lack of cohesion and ability to mobilize, versus more urban environments. Press believes that affordable housing a vital component in providing a meaningful solution to the problem of suburban poverty. And as well as mobilizing the poor to take back the ballot box, to realize Press' dream, the courts may also be required. Recently, "a 3-year-old federal lawsuit, filed by the Anti-Discrimination Center, accusing [Westchester] County of taking tens of millions of dollars in federal housing grants while falsely certifying that it was living up to its legal requirement to provide affordable housing without reinforcing racial segregation" was won when "Judge Denise L. Cote ruled that between 2000 and 2006 the county had, indeed, misrepresented its actions and had made little or no effort to place affordable homes in overwhelmingly white communities where residents objected" (Fair housing in the suburbs, 2009, The New York Times). Only though anti-discrimination lawsuits, voting and meaningful social justice campaigns can change be enacted: food banks merely provide band-aid solutions to the problem of suburban poverty. References Allard, Scott & Benjamin Roth. (2010, October). Strained suburbs: The social service challenges of rising suburban poverty. The Brookings Institute. Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.brookings.edu/reports/2010/1007_suburban_poverty_allard_roth.aspx Cawthorne, Alexandra. (2010, October 27). Trouble in the suburbs: Poverty rises in areas outside cities. American Progress. Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/10/trouble_in_the_suburbs.html/print.html Fair housing in the suburbs. (2009, August 12). Editorial. The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/11/opinion/11tue3.html Press, Eyal. (2007, April 23). The new suburban poverty. The Nation. Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.thenation.com/article/new-suburban-poverty…

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Income Tax What Are the

According to an estimate issued by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the Government might have to phase out about 60,000 vouchers because the House wasn't providing enough money, although this is disputed by those behind the reforms. (Koff, 2003) However, this inadequacy is not a fault of the reforms, but of the acute housing shortage facing the United States. In a situation where funding for housing support is lagging far behind demand, it could be argued that any measures which increase the amount of funds available would be welcome. The major fear of critics of the reform concerning the amount of flexibility afforded to the states through the block grants is that it may actually worsen the housing shortage. States which are in financial difficulties may choose to change the eligibility criteria for the grants in order to use the grants as deficit financing. With so many states in dire financial straits, that worry could prove to be well-founded. ("Out In the Cold," 2003) Since a major selling point of the proposal is that cost savings would enable the Government to provide more grants to people having difficulties finding safe, affordable housing, arguably the most damaging criticism is that the reform may reduce the amount of money available for distribution to needy families. As local agencies would be forced to relinquish control of the funds to state entities, the states would have to replace an existing network with their own, which is never an inexpensive process. The increased administrative oversight and organizational costs for the State would inevitably cut into the amount of funds available to assist needy families. Therefore, the states may be spending more in new administrative costs than is saved by the central Government by passing these duties down to the state level. (Koff, 2003) Reducing the administrative burden of programs such as Section 8 on central Government to free up more funds to plough into increased financing for such programs appears to be a reasonable course of action, but if the ultimate costs are merely spread, not cut, such an action would not do much to improve the housing difficulties faced by the nation's poor. Finding ways to eliminate bureaucratic roadblocks, improving the screening process for prospective tenants and educating landlords in order to convince them to accept tenants who pay with vouchers may, perhaps, be areas where tangible and tenable improvements can be…

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Urban Planning & Urban Planners

The broad phenomenon of sprawl is a variety of issues related to land use, transportation, urban and regional design, and planning. Cities expand quickly while also covering an increasing amount of land area. Three factors are argued to be driving this trend: a growing population, rising incomes, and falling community costs (Brueckner, 2000). Some of the disadvantages that are generally attributed to urban sprawl include factors such as the loss of farmlands and wildlife habitats, high car and technology dependence, air pollution and health hazards, increased and higher per-person infrastructure costs. Urban sprawl has many ecological and health implications which are commonly interrelated. Since urban sprawl positions people outside of walking distance to many of life's necessities, individuals in these communities are effectively forced to rely on cars for everyday transportation. Not only has this reliance on vehicles has contributed significantly to air pollution but it has also played a role in the growing obesity epidemic in the country. When people do not walk on a regular basis because it is so inconvenient to use this form of transportation, then they are far more likely to experience weight problems. However, when communities are designed to be walkable the community members are often much healthier and often report to be happier as well (Frank, et al., 2006). Urban sprawl is just one of many issues that a community planner might face as they attempt to prepare for future growth. However, this can be a difficult task because transportation with an automobile has become so ingrained into the culture's collective consciousness that it is hard to break this trend; even despite research indicating there is a much higher quality of life in alternative arrangements. Therefore sometimes much of an urban planner's job will consist of educating the public as well as policy makers to the emerging research in the field. Yet it is often difficult to overcome the obstacles that the current culture of growth provides. Works Cited Brueckner, J. (2000). URBAN SPRAWL: DIAGNOSIS AND REMEDIES. International Regional Science Review, 160-171. Frank, L., Sallis, J., Conway, T., Chapman, J., Saelens, B., & Bachman, W. (2006). Many Pathways from Land Use to Health: Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality. Journal of the American Planning Association, 75-87. Handy, S., Boarnet, M., Ewing, R., & Killingsworth, R. (2002). How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from urbanplanning.……

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Zoning and Development Case Study:

An Economic Feasibility Study; b. An Amendment to the North County, South County and Downtown City General Plans; c. An Environmental Impact Report; d. Annexation; e. Financing. Conclusion: Attempted development of the Natomas Joint Vision Project Area gave rise to competing interests among County North, County South, Downtown City, FEMA, Advocacy groups such as the HCP Conservancy, landowners, airport planners and developers. With the recommended Win-Win method of conflict resolution and applying the Charrette method, economic equity can be provided to all stakeholders through drafting an MOU among County South, County North and Downtown City, and implementation of an economic feasibility study, amendment to the general plans of North County, South County and Downtown City, an Environmental Impact Report, appropriate annexation and appropriate financing. Works Cited Aspen Environmental Group. (2010). Energy Aware: Facility Siting and Permitting Guide. Retrieved from California Energy Commission Web site: http://www.energy.ca.gov/2010publications/CEC-600-2010-007/CEC-600-2010-007.pdf Callihan, D., Kleiman, D., & Tirnauer, J. (2009). An Independent Evaluation of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's Habitat Conservation Plan Program. Washington, D.C.: Management Systems International. City of Sacramento, CA Planning Department. (2009, June 22). Natomas Joint Vision. Retrieved from City of Sacramento Web site: http://www.cityofsacramento.org/planning/projects/natomas-joint-vision/ Granicus. (2008). 2030 Sacramento General Plan: East Sacramento Community Plan. Sacramento, CA: Granicus. National Charrette Institute. (2011). National Charrette Institute: Charrettes for Regional and Comprehensive Planning. Retrieved from Charrette Institute Web site: http://www.charretteinstitute.org/projects/regional-planning.html Newell, C. (2008). Managing local government: Cases in effectiveness (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: ICMA Press. Sacramento Housing and Redevopment Agency. (2007). County of Sacramento: 2008-2012 Consolidated Plan. Retrieved from SHRA.org Web site: http://www.shra.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=irx-9qf6VNc%3D&tabid=88&mid=392 Stark, P.B., & Flaherty, J. (2003). The Only Negotiating Guide You'll Ever Need: 101 Ways to Win Every Tiime in Any Situation. New York,……

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Urban and Suburban Planning. It

Large metropolitan areas are attractive to many due to the economic, educational and cultural opportunities available in these areas. During much of the 20th century and especially during economic downturns and recessions large amounts of people abandoned rural areas in search of opportunities that were available in large cities. They rarely took into account the discomforts and negative effects of…

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Affordable Housing and the Use of Exclusionary and Inclusionary Zoning

AFFORDABLE HOUSING & THE USE OF EXCLUSIONARY AND INCLUSIONARY ZONING In the past few decades, the lack of affordable housing in the United States has emerged as a crisis effecting low-income residents, government agencies and municipalities, and real estate developers alike. The lack of available affordable housing has increased in the past few years, as a result of zoning ordinances…

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Role of Regional Planning in Disasters Management in Squatter Areas

Role of Regional Planning in Disaster Management in Squatter Areas The role of Regional planning in disasters management in squatter areas Abridged Literature Review The significance of Regional planning in disasters management in areas occupied by squatters The research paper that will follow shall look at the contemporary concern of the role of regional planning in managing disasters in squatter…

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