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Geography, Weather, and Climate Geographic Features Aside

Geography, Weather, And Climate Geographic features aside from elevation or latitude can influence a city's climate depending on how those features affect the flow of water vapor and hot or cold air. By comparing the cities of San Francisco and Denver, it is possible to see how the combination of the ocean and an extensive mountain range can give two cities at nearly the same latitude vastly different climates. San Francisco remains relatively moderate, climate-wise, whereas Denver is dramatically colder during much of the year, and sees much more precipitation. San Francisco is at latitude 37.4 north, and its elevation is 7 feet. The maximum temperature for the years 1961-1990 was 106 degrees Fahrenheit, and the minimum low temperature for the same period was 24 degrees Fahrenheit. Rain was more common than snow during this time, with a yearly average of 19.7 inches of rain compared to .1 inches of average yearly snowfall. In contrast, Denver is at nearly the same latitude, 39.5, but its elevation is 5333 feet. Denver's maximum temperature for 1961-1990 was 103 degrees Fahrenheit, with a minimum of -25 degree Fahrenheit. Snow was far more common than rain in Denver, with only 15.4 inches of yearly average rainfall compared to an average of 60.4 inches of yearly snowfall. Although San Francisco and Denver are at nearly the same latitude, they have dramatic differences when it comes to low temperatures and yearly snowfall. Denver has a minimum temperature nearly fifty degrees lower that San Francisco's, even though their maximum temperatures are only 3 degrees apart. In addition, Denver sees an average of roughly 60 inches of snowfall a year, compared to San Francisco's average of .1 inches per year (although San Francisco does get slightly more rain than……

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Weather and Climate

Weather and Climate Comparison of Two Publications on Climate change In his unique New York Times article, "On the Climate Change Beat, Doubt Gives Way to Certainty," retired Times reporter William K. Stevens recalls his work in climate change reporting, documenting how scientific knowledge on the topic has changed from his first days in the newsroom until today. Published on February 6, 2007, this article draws primarily on the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change's 2007 report for its information regarding the science behind climate change today in contrast to the science behind climate change years ago. Stevens begins his article with an anecdote of life in the Times newsroom. He recalls that whenever a cold front would hit, other reporters would spend some humor on the climate change reporter, saying something to the tune of "so much for global warming." Stevens comments that a joke like that would probably not be heard today. He worked for the paper until 2000, when a minority of people were convinced that global warming was a result of humans' actions. Today, he argues, little doubt exists that humans have a serious impact on global warming. One of the primary arguments that Stevens uses to support this claim is the vast amount of political attention that the issue receives. For instance, Stevens notes the attention paid to global warming in the 2008 election, especially recalling the importance that conservative Republican John McCain assigned to the issue. A similar scene "back in the day" would have been "unimaginable," according to Stevens. In addition to the politics and widespread attention paid to the issue, Stevens cites the most recent publication of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, in addition to its progression of reports. According to Stevens, this panel commented that human involvement in the climate change crisis could occur "easily" in the 1990s. More recently, the panel noted that human involvement in climate change is "likely." Finally, Stevens mentions the 2007 report's long list of ways in which climate change is having an affect on the globe. Included in this list is an increase in temperature and drought paired with a decrease in precipitation, as well as an increase in hurricanes like Katrina. His final statement is a wish of luck to those who will be around to see climate change and its affects on population and planet. In contrast to Stevens' article, which is just…

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Global Warming's Effect on the Weather and Climate

Global Warming: An Overview of Theoretical Causes and Effects It has been almost impossible in the past decade to avoid media mention of the issue of global warming. It seems as though it is impossible to watch an hour of the evening new or open a newspaper without at least a brief mention of some aspects of the global warming…

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Global Warming's Effect on the Weather and Climate

Warming Research CO2: Global Carbon Dioxide Levels Linked to Human Activity (http://zfacts.com/p/194.html): Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere can be linked directly to the release of the gas by human beings since the rise of industrialization (zfacts 2007). This conclusion is based on indirect measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide until the 1940s, when direct measurements were taken, and takes into…

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Earth Science - Global Warming Science Article

Earth Science - Global Warming SCIENCE ARTICLE SUMMARY: GLOBAL WARMING The Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Purdue University recently announced some troubling findings published by its Climate and Extreme Weather Initiative. Specifically, the organization studied future weather conditions conducive to the formation of severe conditions such as powerful thunderstorms featuring flooding, high winds, and tornadoes. The research combined the analyses of experts in the fields of climate modeling with those of experts who study the formation of severe storm conditions. Climate modeling is a mechanism for studying the combined effects of hundreds of individual components such as ocean currents, atmospheric conditions, regional ography, and greenhouse gases, all of which contribute to changes in global weather formation. Climate modeling enables researchers to use sophisticated computer programs to synthesize data about previous weather conditions to predict future changes based on analyzing the interrelationships between those factors. By combining the data from past instances of severe weather conditions with the ability of experts on storm formation, the researchers were able to draw certain troubling conclusions about the relative likelihood of potentially damaging severe weather events in the future as well as the relationship between current rates of global warming and their particular effects on specific regions such as those parts of the U.S. most affected by powerful thunderstorms, flooding, and tornadoes. According to the study, global warming will increase the incidence of factors known to be associated with the development of severe weather events. More importantly, those changes will have much greater effect in specific regions of the country where their proximity to the Atlantic coastline and the Gulf of Mexico makes them more susceptible to changes in humidity along the……

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Global Warming and Climate Change, Including the

¶ … global warming and climate change, including the likely consequences of climate change. Global warming is a situation that could affect the entire planet in a few decades. According to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Web site, global warming can be defined as "an average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the…

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Concepts of Meteorology

Meterology Weather in Gaithersburg, MD There are many different factors that influence the weather anywhere in the world, and Gaithersburg, Maryland is no exception. At an elevation of approximately four-hundred-and-fifty feet, located in the proximity of the Potomac River and not incredibly distant form the Atlantic Ocean, a confluence of land and water weather patterns impact the city and alter is climate and temperature patterns. Analyzing this locality's weather requires and understanding of the global, regional, and local forces and patterns at work, and such an assessment will be provided below. A discussion of recent weather events and potential human impacts on climate and weather patterns in the area will also be provided at the end of this report, providing a comprehensive view of known and potential weather influences. Gaithersburg, Maryland is located at a latitude of thirty-nine-point-fifteen (39.15) degrees North and a longitude of seventy-seven-point-twenty-one degrees West (National Weather Service, 2011). This places the city in the Northern Hemisphere, which is currently in the process of becoming tilted as far away from the Sun as it can get and is thus experiencing winter. Less direct sunlight and shorter days are the primary weather impacts of this global situation, causing lower temperatures and, in Gaithersburg as well as many other parts of the world, less precipitation and less overall "weather" due to less energy being existent in the system. With the average daily temperature range for this time of year stretching from twenty-seven degrees to forty-degrees Fahrenheit yet with precipitation extremely low (approaching zero), these expected global effects are definitely being seem (Weather Underground, 2011). At the regional level, Gaithersburg, Maryland is best considered part of North America's Atlantic seaboard, which receives a continual (or near continual) influx of cold as the waters of the Atlantic complete a counter-clockwise path traveling West across the Arctic Circle, then South along the North American landmass (starting in Canada), and growing increasingly warmer as it sweeps past Florida before submerging and continuing the loop by heading East and then North again (Rowe et al., 2011). This influx of cold masses along with other more complex regional forces can create hurricanes and other less sever though still quite noticeable weather disturbances for Gaithersburg and other areas located on or near the Atlantic coast (Weather Underground, 2011). Wind patterns that move East across the continent, carrying dryer air from the Midwest, also seems to be…

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Weather Evidence Supporting & Opposing

The human perspective is likely too limited to see our weather patterns clearly enough to firmly argue that now we have global climate change. The scientific and political communities agree that a change is happening. There is evidence that substantiates and has been interpreted by authorities showing that the Earth is experiencing a climate change and that has been happening for at least a century. There is additional evidence that some human activities confound this global climate change. There is a lack of evidence in favor of or directly purporting that humans are the only reason for the change. The Earth's lifespan far exceeds the lifespan of any and every species that has lived upon it. The strength and resiliency of the Earth is a concept that the human imagination cannot adequately quantify, qualify, or even understand. Throughout the Earth's history, it has experienced and undergone massive environmental changes, many of which occurred long before the human race and proved far more severe than the effects of greenhouses gases thus far. There is a substantial amount of highly credible scientific evidence that illustrates that the Earth is undergoing another kind of global change. By 2005 a widespread scientific consensus had emerged that serious, large -- scale disruption could occur around 2050, once average global temperature increase exceeds about 2 "C, leading to abrupt and irreversible changes…This new theory of "abrupt climate change" has overturned earlier predictions of gradual change and has prompted some scientists to warn that unmitigated climate change could lead to the complete collapse of civilisation…This "global dimming" effect is diminishing as we clean up air pollution. As a result global average temperature could rise by as much as 10 degrees Celsius [approximately 18 "F] by the close of the century -- a catastrophic increase. (Bensel & Turk, 2011) The effects of this change range from melting ice caps, raised temperatures, expansion of deserts, rising sea levels, and increased frequency & intensity of extreme weather such as hurricanes, tsunamis, droughts, and heat waves. Overall, the paper has argued not so much about the existence of evidence for or against the existence of global climate change. More so, the paper has demonstrated how there is evidence and data about the global climate patterns of modern times. This information exists and the greater argument is not about the existence, but rather, it is about who and how is interpreting this…

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Johannes Kepler Made Important Contributions to Astronomy

Johannes Kepler made important contributions to astronomy in the decades after Copernicus. His primary contribution was a modification or correction that he made to Copernicus's assumption that planets revolved around the sun in circular orbits: Kepler correctly argued that the revolutions are elliptical in nature. Galileo must be counted among the most important of all astronomers because of his insistence on the use of rigorous observation. The first person ever to use a telescope to make detailed observations of the galaxy, he discovered the rings of Saturn and the moons of Jupiter. The British astronomer John Hadley (b. 1682) invented the first reflecting telescope, which allowed for all of the modern observations. His compatriot William Herschel brought about substantial improvements in telescope technology and with his reflecting telescope discovered Uranus and then the moons of Uranus and Saturn. He also discovered a number of deep-sky objects. He worked with his sister, Caroline Herschel -- one of the women who is often left out of the history of astronomy (Brock, 2007). Finally, I believe that it is so hard for people to let go of the geocentric view of the galaxy because humans like to believe that we are supremely important. Because so many people lack a firm grounding in science they can hold to such beliefs because they do not understand the flaws in them. This is analogous to the ways in which people can doubt that global warming is both real and caused by human activities. Question Two Geoscience is a general term that comprises a number of related scientific disciplines, including geology, geochemistry, and geophysics and usually also oceanography and meteorology. Each of these sciences in different ways attend to the origins of our planet, the physical composition and form of Earth, the topological features of our planet, and the ways in which is has changed over time and continues to change. Geography blends the study of the Earth and its physical features with a study of the way in which these features affect humans and the ways in which humans in turn affect the Earth. I believe that the greatest strength and weakness of geography are actually the same. It is both more holistic and more interdisciplinary than are sciences such as physics -- or geology. I think that this holistic focus -- which bridges the hard sciences and the social sciences -- causes other scientists to…

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Human Activities on Global Climate and How

¶ … human activities on global climate and how these activities result in the global climate change. The first portion of this paper basically concentrates on the debates that have risen with regards to the influence of human activities on global climate and the response to the climate change from various sectors. In this analysis, the paper discusses how proponents…

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Climate Change and General Crises in the Little ICE Age a Geographic Perspective

Climate change and general crisis in the Little Ice Age: a geographic perspective The Little Ice Age (LIA) is considered by some researchers to extend over several generations of time. Estimates show that the period began around the 13th and 14th centuries; another period in consideration is between the mid-16th and the mid-19th century (Grove, 1988). The significance of doing…

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Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall in the

¶ … Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall in the Amazon For studying the Earth's atmosphere, satellites have become indispensable even though it has only been 30 years since the first meteorological satellites were launched. Meteorological satellites view the Earth together with their land- and ocean-sensing cousins, on a global perspective which is unmatched and unmatchable by any other observational system.…

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Understanding Interdisciplinary Studies

Interdisciplinary Studies How should the theory of global warming be managed from an interdisciplinary approach? Reasoning: The global warming theory takes into account a number of scientific and sociological/anthropological disciplines: chemistry, physics, ecology, meteorology, vulcanology, biology, oceanography; as well as history, anthropology (medical, cultural, etc.), medicine, resource management, geography, political science, international relations, and more. Step Questions: Begin with an interdisciplinary question How should the theory of global warming be managed from an interdisciplinary approach? Identify key and subsidiary phenomena First, is global warming a fact or theoretical phenomena; Do we have enough data to actually make determinations about climate, since climate trends move at a geologic pace? Ascertain what theories and methods are particularly relevant to the question at hand. Human industrialization theory, natural climatic occurrences over time; volcanism. 4. Perform a detailed literature survey. See Appendix A 5. Identify relevant disciplines and disciplinary perspectives. Each discipline focuses on a particular aspect of the issue; if we think of meteorology or ecology as the central hub, we would find that each additional discipline was a spoke in the wheel of interdisciplinary study. 6. If some relevant phenomena (or links among these), theories, or methods in 2 or 3 have received little or no attention; encourage the performance of such research. History of Pollution examines human impact on climate change; ecology examines interactions between aspects of the biological and chemical environment and consequences. 7. Evaluate the results of previous research. Global warming is the gradual increase of the earth's median temperature for surface air and oceans. Although controversial, global warming consistently measured since the mid-20th century has resulted in environmental impacts that may be disastrous to the environment. While scientists agree that solar variation and volcanic activity have had an……

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Environment the 11th Hour (Film):

We are "all related" in the sense that all people come from the same "mother," which is earth (72) The Indian way of life was in harmony with nature, built on respect for the earth and for people as well as for individual freedom (72). Christian and European cultural hegemony has destroyed many Native American cultures (73) However, it is not too late to return to more constructive Indian vision, which is more constructive and productive than the European model of consumerism and war (74). People or Penguins When discussing issues related to pollution, it is important to be specific instead of general (476). It is possible to have a people-oriented version of pollution control and environmental activism, rather than preserving penguins "for their own sake" (477). It is important to propose a people-centric vision because people are inherently selfish (477). Generally, though, what is good for humans is also good for the environment and vice-versa because everything is connected (477). When defining the objectives of environmentalism, it is important to define actual measures or levels of pollution that are acceptable: in other words, quantify it……

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Statistical Research a Study Performed

Null Hypothesis: The shifts in precipitation patters will not continue to change. Method Type of Research Design The identified problem and questions will be resolved via a quantitative methodology in the form of an ex post facto design, looking at data for rainfall and the advancement of the ozone layer hole available from NOAA (Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic) Stratospheric Ozone and Temperature Data) and NASA (Ozone Hole Watch). Data Collection and Variables This statistical project will collect data from NOAA.GOV and NASA.GOV websites, particularly concerning the following variables: 1. Ozone Layer Depletion 2. Precipitation Data Analysis The mean for the ozone hole in 1979 was 225.0 compared to 106.2 in 2011, indicating a decrease in the ozone hole. Temperatures are showing shifts to warmer temperatures with record highs in recent years. Precipitation results are showing less precipitation. Conclusion The results of analysis are showing a change in precipitation patterns. The earth is getting warmer as it has increased temperatures. Precipitation patterns are shifting for different regions. Where they are warmer with more drought-like conditions in the Northern Hemisphere, some areas are showing flooding with increased precipitation. Bibliography Significant Ozone Hole Remains Over Antarctica. (2011, Oct 21). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111020145106.htm Kang, S. & . (2011, Apr 22). Study Links Ozone Hole to Weather Shifts. Retrieved from The Earth Institute Columbia University: http://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/2802 Karoly, D. (2012, Sep 14). The Antarctic ozone hole and climaste change: an anniversary worth celebrating. Retrieved from The Conversation: http://theconversation.edu.au/the-antarctic-ozone-hole-and-climate-change-an-anniversary-worth-celebrating-9404 Ozone Hole Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved from NASA: http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/meteorology/annual_data.html Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic) Stratospheric Ozone and Temperature Data. (n.d.). Retrieved from NOAA: http://www.ozonelayer.noaa.gov/data/antarctic.htm…

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Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

¶ … greenhouse effect and global warming, and the scientific concepts behind these issues affecting the world today. The greenhouse effect and global warming are two of the most important scientific issues facing the planet today, and for the future generations, they will be one of the biggest issues to be addressed and managed. The greenhouse effect, contrary to popular belief, is actually what keeps this planet habitable and comfortable for all living things. It is a natural process that keeps the Earth warm by keeping certain gases in the atmosphere, where they reduce some of the radiation from the sun's rays, and keep the planet a comfortable temperature. One scientist notes, "The amount of heat energy added to the atmosphere by the greenhouse effect is controlled by the concentration of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere" (Pidwirny). Without the greenhouse effect, the planet would be too cold for life; the average temperature would be about -18 degrees Celsius, while the current comfortable temperature is 15 degrees Celsius (Pidwirny). The greenhouse effect gets its name from the fact that it resembles what happens in a greenhouse - the sun's rays warm the greenhouse and keep it warmer than the surrounding area because it holds the heat inside, just as the greenhouse gases and atmosphere hold the heat around the Earth. That is one of the things us environmental lobbyists have to face many times. People think the greenhouse effect is something to do with global warming, and of course, it has to do with the atmosphere and gases in the atmosphere, but as you can see, the greenhouse effect is a necessary part of life, while global warming is not. Global warming is related to the greenhouse effect, however, because the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing in the last decade, and that means the heat from the sun, radiating back to Earth as the greenhouse effect, is becoming warmer, leading to climate change and disruption of many areas here on Earth. Much of the evidence that global warming is occurring comes from ice core samples from the Arctic and Antarctic, which indicate a drastic increase in carbon dioxide emissions in the last century, which have helped create more greenhouse gases, which leads to global warming. Another scientists notes, "Over the past 260,000 years, the period for which a detailed record now exists from ice cores, temperature and…

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Transportation and Global Warming: A Contributor to

Transportation and Global Warming: A Contributor to Controversy In today's political and scientific realms no issue has been so publicized as global warming. From the dramatic the Day After Tomorrow to Al Gore's informational an Inconvenient Truth, even Hollywood has offered its opinion on the environmental issue that threatens to significantly impact the earth's atmosphere, and therefore the lives of animals and humans, in the near future. Although most scientific and political officials agree that global warming is an issue of importance, some controversy exists over the degree to which human activity worsens the issue. In one form, however, human activity has been undoubtedly linked with an increase in global warming -- transportation. In both urban and rural areas, people have become increasingly reliant on personal vehicles to get from place to place, a lifestyle choice that has adverse implications for global warming and the planet. For their morning commutes, vacations and day trips, billions of people all over the planet turn the key in the ignition and drive their personal vehicles each day. Similarly, commercial transporters driving trucks, piloting airplanes, and……

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Global Warming - Fact or Fiction? Alongside

Global warming - Fact or Fiction? Alongside with globalization, global warming has been the most popular concept discussed in news broadcasts, specialized and unspecialized articles as well as special international conferences. There are those who strongly believe that global warming has negatively impacted the earth and if the human actions continue as they are now, the planet will be lost…

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Global Warming Is Inherently a Natural Process

Global Warming is inherently a natural process caused by the trapping of gases in the Earth's atmosphere: a process known as the greenhouse effect. However, global warming has been hastened by factory and automobile emissions and other factors related to human activity since the Industrial Revolution. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "there is no scientific debate on this point. Pre-industrial levels of carbon dioxide (prior to the start of the Industrial Revolution) were about 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv), and current levels are greater than 380 ppmv and increasing at a rate of 1.9 ppm yr-1 since 2000." Global surface temperatures have risen considerably as a result, but temperatures do not rise uniformly across the globe. In fact, global warming is a misleading term in that it ignores the fact that some regions of the globe might experienced more intensely cold winters due to shifting weather patterns. The phrase climate change is more appropriate than global warming to refer to the collection of weather and climate effects associated with increased concentrations of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere. Global warming affects a wide range of climactic events ranging from the Gulf Stream to evaporation. Another main effect of climate change is the……

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Temperature and Answer Questions About

The other is surface properties-surfaces with high albedo absorb less incident radiation, meaning land absorbs less insulation than water because of its lighter color (www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/7m.html)." Isotherms are "lines drawn on a map of a particular region of the earth's surface connecting points of equal temperature; each point reflects one temperature reading or an average of several readings over a period of time. The relative spacing of the isothermal lines indicates a temperature gradient, i.e., the amount of temperature change over a given distance (unknown)." Conclusion Temperature has a major effect on the earth and its inhabitants. By answering questions concerning this factor, one can gain a better understanding of its effects. Works Cited (Average Weather Conditions for New York City. (accessed 15 February 2005). ). (Climate in Los Angeles. (accessed 15 February 2005). ). Unknown. Isotherm. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.…

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Global Warming Effects on the

When the environment becomes unbreakable, the species try to move out and look for places elsewhere. However, there are some unique kinds of animals and species of plants and marine life that are not suitable for adaptation elsewhere rather than their source of origination. When they are deprived of all kinds of places to settle in at, they start dying out and their reproduction is severely affected to the point where they become absolutely rare and eventually extinct. The level and threat of this extinction is multiplying by many times as the implications of global warming keeps going up. Some cold water fish, seals and bears are examples of the species that require cold regions for their survival and their habitats have been severely affected in the past years which have led them to the point of extinction. Conclusion Judging from the above evidences, it is pretty clear that the human activities are increasing the extent of vulnerability of the environment and the well being of the world itself. It is not just bringing implications on a particular region but this is now spreading further and increasing the severity of issues. Unless this is controlled and brought under sustainable measures, things will keep getting out of hand and worsening the conditions for humans, animals, insects, marine life, forests and will threaten our survival through different elements. Our source of shelter will be questioned by the increasing water levels and occurrence of natural disasters, food availability will be threatened much more than it is right now and we shall soon be deprived of clean, fresh drinking water as well with the pace of current things (Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, 2004). References Allen, C. (2009). Thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems . Washington D.C. . (2008). Ecological Impacts of Climate Change. Washington D.C. (2004). Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. United Kingdom. J.T. Price, R.L. (2005). Ecosystems, their Properties, Goods, and Services. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability . Washington: University of Cambridge Press. Karl, M.P. (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Kimball, M.H. (2008). The Effects of Climate Change……

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Greenhouse Effect and Global

Today the world over there is a conscious effort to reverse the effect of Global Warming, and for the first time it has been realized that the efforts needs to take into consideration the fact that more than individual efforts, it is on the Governmental Levels that things need to be changed. Only when the pressure is put on the Governmental level, will a change come that can have a true mark on the carbon footprint, or on the emissions caused by industries, which are a major contributor to Greenhouse gases. On an international, laws and regulations are now in place to tackle the crisis and the most major breakthrough in this regard has been the signing, implementation and putting in effect the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol has been signed by 34 countries, with the realization that it is the industrialized nations that are the major producer of carbon or greenhouse gases, and therefore through a systematic process of reducing their carbon footprint. Besides this a lot of creative and over the edge ideas are also being developed or are already underway to reverse the effects of Global Warming. Some of these concepts include the Storage of CO2 gases deep into the earth through old oilrigs into the Earth's core, in place of the oil that has been drilled out over the years. Another innovative idea is the covering of the Glaciers with a special cover that would prevent them from melting, by reflecting off the sun's ray. The process if already under way on a small scale in Greenland and observations are being noted about how successful a solution this might prove to be. Creation of Artificial trees are also a much raved about idea, where artificial trees would be designed that would work on the same principals as a real tree. The trees, when the design is finished, can be placed anywhere, and would suck the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Top Ten mega projects to reverse Global Warming). But until then it is important that we take the simple steps that we can and contribute in any way possible. The simple steps that one can take in an individual capacity include the use of efficient lighting and energy saving, less carbon emission by preferring walking or public transport over private transportation mode, switching to greener modes of energy production and a serious reconsideration of our addiction…

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First Peoples of the Americas

However, there is one important piece of evidence that have been found in numerous parts of America that supports the theory that PaleoIndians had inhabited America during the Ice Age. The Clovis point is the most important piece of tool that was first found in Siberia, and several pieces of the same kind of tool was found in U.S. states such as New Mexico, Montana, and Colorado (Rose 1997). The tool was discovered after geologists had studied the layering of soil, a part of a study that might help lead to the discovery of an important artifact or preserved fossil resulting to evidence about the first inhabitants of America. The Clovis point was a crudely shaped hunting tool made of stone, and I often referred to as a 'spearpoint.' This tool became the key to the discovery of various information about the culture of the PaleoIndians. One of the conclusions reached upon by the scholars is that the PaleoIndians depended greatly on hunting as their primary source of food and clothing. During this time, it was said that the now extinct wooly mammoth existed during the PaleoIndian Era (under the Ice Age), and constant hunting of the inhabitants to these mammoths for food resulted to its extinction. PaleoIndians did not only use these mammoths for food (which can give them a "rich supply of protein and fat" needed during that time period because of the cold weather of Ice Age) and as a source of clothing (the wooly mammoth's skin can be good protectors against the cold climate). Aside from wooly mammoths, they also thrived on various wild animals that are existent during that time period. The physical traits of the PaleoIndians closely resembles those of the Asians, and this is evidenced through a fossil found that helped determine from where and what time period they came from (determined through the development o the human being's bone structure) and with the help of radiocarbon dating (Microsoft Encarta 2002). In conclusion, this paper had proven through various evidence (from secondary sources) that the PaleoIndians had inhabited the Americas during the near end of Ice Age, and that the Bering land bridge made it possible for thee inhabitants to be transported from Asia to the North American continent. Further, the discovery of fossils and artifacts dating to the time periods supporting the existence of PaleoIndians proved that they existed and lived in…

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Climate Change Regulation Climate Change

These transportation units are responsible for producing 20% of the world total carbon dioxide and other emission that harms the Earth hemisphere. Farming and Deforestation: As the population is increasing, it needs more and more area to do farming and to settle down. More wood and wood products are required which has resulted in significant amount of deforestation. Trees and plantations play a vital role in recycling carbon dioxide oxygen, which is not harmful for atmosphere, but with the trees missing this recycling process has stopped and thus adversely affected the atmosphere. On the other hand, animal wastes used for farming also produce carbon dioxide, which is again harmful for the atmosphere (Archer, 2011). Natural Activities: Natural activities like change in Earths orbit and volcanic eruption has led to increase emission of carbon dioxide, which has harmed the Earths atmosphere. Following were the natural and human factor responsible for altering the factors that are directly responsible for change in climate. Methods to control Earth Environment: There are two ways to control factors that are aversely affects Earths climate. First being the Regulatory-based policy and second being the Incentive-based policy. Regulatory-based policy: These policies have been used for long time in United States, which is responsible for regulating every institution to abide by these policies on reducing the risk of factors that can adversely effect the change in climate, and failure to do so will result in imposition of heavy fines. However, there are pros and cons to this policy. Pros: This policy has a clear outcome and thus helps in regulating and monitoring the compliance process as failure to do so will result in heavy fines. Cons: This policy is very costly in terms of monitoring and ensuring compliance and despite this it, still light fail to reach its objectives, as it requires information from its sources and the information provided may be incorrect or false. This policy is not cost effective. In addition, it offers no help or creativity of ideas to help reduce emission rate. Incentive-based policy: This policy enables the people to choose and move towards better production techniques and better low cost equipments that not only reduces emission but also are also quite effective in fulfilling their needs. Government can encourage by offering incentives and subsidies on these machines and increase taxes on less environment friendly products and machines thus discouraging its use. This system also…

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Local Climate Investigation

Local Climate Investigation Climate Investigation of Houston, Texas Houston: temperature profile The average low temperature in Houston is 72°F (22°C) in the summer and 40°F (4°C) in the winter. The average high temperature is 93°F (34°C) in the summer and 61°F (16°C) in the winter ("Houston," 2008, EPA). The highest recorded temperature in Houston was 106°F in 1962 and the lowest recorded temperature was 9°F in 1989 ("Monthly weather for Houston," 2008, the Weather Channel). The temperature rarely sinks below the freezing mark. The climate is classified as subtropical and humid, and is influenced by the winds that come from the Gulf of Mexico. Houston: precipitation Houston receives an annual average rainfall of about 50 inches ("Houston," 2008, EPA). The most precipitation on average occurs in June ("Monthly weather for Houston," 2008, the Weather Channel). It almost never snows in Houston, and on average snowfalls occur only ever few years, rather than on a regular basis. Exceptions do occur, of course, and in 2004 there was a legendary Christmas Eve snowstorm, which resulted in approximately 1-3 inches coating the city ("The Great Christmas Eve Snow Storm," 2004, NWS). Closest NWS office Houston is located in the Southwest region of the United States, and the nearest National Weather Service serves the Houston/Galveston area. The NWS office has its origins in the region as early as 1870, and in 1960, one of the first WSR-57, Weather Surveillance Radars was installed. "After the installation of the radar, the Galveston office was the site of the first live television broadcast of a hurricane (by Dan Rather at CBS) in September of 1961 when Hurricane Carla struck the Texas coast" ("About our office," 2008, NWS). Is there any special phenomenon either in the weather or related to the weather that affects your town? Houston, because of its unstable climate and Gulf Coast location, is uniquely prone to damage from hurricanes. Its normally hot, humid weather makes flooding a frequent problem during storms as the ground may have trouble absorbing the moisture. The humid, volatile air mass also means that extreme weather may result when a strong cold front collides with the hot air mass, making the area prone to tornados. For example, in 2002, Tropical Storm Allison caused 36 inches of rain to fall during a short span of time, killed 22 people and caused more than $5 billion in damage, (Turner 2004).……

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Climate Change in America

¶ … American planning in the next 20 years? More and more each day, there is becoming ample indication of the more ecological impacts of recent climate change, from polar terrestrial to tropical marine environments 20 years from now. The answers of both flora and fauna expand a collection of environments and structural hierarchies, from the species to the community…

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Climate/Meteorology Nitrogen and Oxygen Are

Accordingly, an increase in pressure will cause an increase in density of the gas and a decrease in its volume." 6. The two types of barometers include Torricelli's and the aneroid barometers. The latter is used most commonly in the home and works with a vacuum rather than with the element mercury. 7. "Standard sea level pressure is said to be 76.0 cm or 29.92 inches or 1013.2 millibars. Scientists often use the kilopascal (kPa) as their preferred unit for measuring pressure." 8. The monsoons in Asia are caused by the Asiatic Low pressure systems that occur over that region of the globe. 9. Harmful effects of ozone depletion include increased risk for skin cancer due to exposure to UV light, increase in cataracts and other eye problems, lowered immune systems, and cooling of the Earth's stratosphere. 10. "Ozone is created naturally in the stratosphere by the combining of atomic oxygen (O) with molecular oxygen O2). This process is activated by sunlight. Ozone is destroyed naturally by the absorption of ultraviolet radiation." Works Cited Fundamentals of Physical Geography: Chapter 7: Introduction……

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Climate Change and Disease

Climate Change and Disease Global warming and its effect on climate change has been an environmental issue of much debate as of lately. Due to the severe nature of this problem, research has been conducted in order to establish a connection between the act of climate change and that of the spread of diseases. Because of the dramatic shifting climates in parts of the world that are used to maintaining stable temperatures, the spread of potentially hazardous diseases can essentially increase. In order to establish a solid connection between these two factors, the implications involved with the facilitation of disease spread as a direct result of the change in climate is to be analyzed. For decades, warnings about the potential risks that ignoring environmental issues would bring had been emphasized. However, despite the numerous attempts at making the public more aware of these environmental situations, people have chosen not to pay any attention to the problem. By doing this and choosing this particular attitude toward climate change, the problems that could have been avoided had this issue been taken more seriously earlier, are now coming to light. As a result of global warming, climates have shifted in areas that are only used to receiving a particular type of weather (University of Texas). For some time, these abnormal and previously unseen shifts have been becoming more of a normal occurrence. With the normality in extreme temperature and weather shifts, comes the increased risk of infectious disease (Smith). The spread of disease has been facilitated by the development and growth of global warming. The mechanisms involved in the process of climate change are what have been contributing to the growth in the occurrence of the spread of disease around the world. Climate change entails the sudden shifting of temperatures in areas that are not used to experiencing such a drastic change. In areas where cold and freezing temperatures used to be a normal occurrence, there are now days that freezing points are not even achieved. That means that these areas are now quite warmer than they should be. This is a recipe for the spread of diseases (Hasham). Mosquitos are popular carriers of various illnesses, especially malaria and the West Nile Virus (NRDC). These diseased mosquitos in fact are able to travel for longer periods of time and farther distances if the temperatures allow them to. With an increase in the temperature…

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Arctic Climate Change and Its

The Inuit have also become adaptable to their environment because of the diversity and flexibility in the usage of resources. They take chances in harvesting. They harvest whenever and wherever the conditions allow them. They are now really clever in identifying and taking advantage of particular conditions. The climate change gives them the opportunity of creating new situations. For instance, they get benefitted from the later ice freeze-up during autumn by making the fishing season longer. They wait for the occurrence of freezing and resume their normal activities (Ford, 2005). The Inuit need to organize themselves to raise awareness regarding the magnitude of Arctic climate change. They must come forward to advocate action for the reduction of greenhouse gases. They must stop playing the part of the helpless victims (Nickels, 2004, p. 7). References Arctic, The. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117003688 Fenge, T. (2006, January). Arctic Alarm: In the Arctic, Climate Change Isn't an Abstraction-It's Happening Now. Alternatives Journal,31, 25+. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015434890 Ford, J. (2005, September/October). Living with Climate Change in the Arctic. World Watch, 18, 18+. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938862 Ford, J.D. (2009). Dangerous Climate Change and the Importance of Adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit Population. Environmental Research Letters, 4, Retrieved May 11, 2012 from http://climatehealthconnect.org/sites/climatehealthconnect.org/files/resources/1748-9326_4_2_024006.pdf Melting Arctic Ice Threatens to Speed Up Climate Change. (2010).Perspectives in Public Health, 130(1), 4. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044785568 Nickels, S. (2004, November/December). Climate Change Is a Daily Reality for Inuit. Alternatives Journal, 30, 7. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008235477 Scientific Facts on Arctic Climate Change. (2012, April 14). Retrieved May 10, 2012 from http://www.greenfacts.org/en/arctic-climate-change/index.htm…

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Who Benefits From Extreme Weather?

¶ … Benefits from Extreme Weather? Making Weather a Selling Event Heavy rains, tornados, massive snowfall amounts and the change of seasons can be a marketer's best friend. The use of weather as a means to change consumer behavior has been a practice many consumer products goods manufacturers rely on to increase the sales of their products. The best known is Campbell's Soup Company, which has successfully engrained rainy weather with consuming more soup to stay healthy (Dobson, 2003). Weather Can Be a Marketers' Best Friend Retailers located in the Midwest and Northern U.S. states also rely on the "stock up" metaphor during changes of seasons, as there are often major downpours, tornados, and in the winter, snow storms. This continues to be a very effective strategy during the winter months, when snow and ice can make travel just down a local street treacherous. The use of these metaphors and the appeal to consumers' being prepared for these events can led to up to three months or more of dried food provisions and paper goods being stockpiled in anticipated of a weather emergency (Schwartz, 1992). The use of weather as a marketing strategy has also been seen in the southern U.S., were the temperate climates are conducive to bugs and pests. Sales of bug repellents are greatest in these states as high humidity has been successfully linked with the threat of flying insect outbreaks (Schwartz, 1992). There are entire companies devoted to studying the interrelationship of weather and consumer purchasing patterns. These companies include Automatic Forecasting Systems and Weather Predict, Inc. (Sivillo, Reilly, 2004). The services they provide include assisting food and beverage providers with demand planning based on weather patterns in……

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Problems Caused by Climate Change in the 14th Century

Climate Change Problems Caused by Climate Change in the 14th Century During the 10th through the 14th Century, a warm climate predominated in Earth's weather. Called the Medieval Climate Optimum, it affected politics, religion, labor, finances, science and population changes among humans on the earth, by creating conditions ripe for the spread of disease, which in turn created human problems. This warming period was followed in 1425 through 1850 by what was called the little ice age. Nils Stenseth, who headed up a 3-day conference on the Avian Bird Flu in 2005, said that in the past similar diseases have appeared during periods of warm weather. During the 14th century similar weather conditions seem to have aided the spread of the Bubonic plague, which killed around 34 million in Europe and Russia through birds, fleas and rats who carried the fleas. The disease did not disappear completely and some academics believe in 1665-66 it reappeared as the Great Plague of London. "The link is very important and it is also important to link it back to the Black Death in the 1300s because there were the kind of weather conditions then -- warmer and wetter -- that we predict for the future," Stenseth said. "After 1855, when it……

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Reality of Climate Change: Viewpoint Climate Change

¶ … Reality of Climate Change: Viewpoint Climate change has truly become an increasing concern all over the world as weather seems to be going haywire, and as it becomes more and more unrecognizable in its force. Since weather affects all people, no matter where they live, it is important to recognize the magnitude of these changes and analyze them. For this reason, the paragraphs below will provide a short critique of an article on climate change. The article, written by Justin Gillis for the New York Times, gives the U.N viewpoint on climate change, based on a recent report that the organization published. The article begins by a description of the extreme weather around the world, and an assertion that this is due to human actions. The article quotes the U.N. document published on this issue recently to further state that this situation can only worsen in the coming decades. Then, it goes on to describe the report, noting that greenhouse gases lead to high temperature, as well as flooding, and that human actions overall are contributing to what should be now fully recognized as climate change, beyond a doubt. The findings presented in the article are quoted from the U.N. report presented at the Kampala Panel on Climate Change, and have been presented as part of very clear research, as well as undeniable evidence from all around the world. Despite its seemingly stress on helpless nations that can do nothing in the face of climate change, the article does mention that some leaders have tried to change this situation in Durban, by addressing ways in which nations can begin to address these problems. The major topics covered in this article are a focus upon human caused climate……

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Polar Bears Gone? Climate Change, Global Warming,

¶ … Polar Bears Gone? Climate change, global warming, El Nino, and disaster movies (2012, etc.) are a part of contemporary culture. Children, from a very young age, are exposed to the concept of climate change, but sometimes are not familiar with something to make that issue relevant for them. This is particularly true for younger students, who do not yet have a good concept of seasons, temperature variation, or what consequences the melting of polar ice might have. Using a framework, though, of a Polar Bear family and their home; we can structure a week long lesson plan to help them understand the very basics of the topics. Level -- Adaptable K-2 depending on curriculum, group, and time. Timing - Week long, multidisciplinary lesson that combines various core curriculum areas and ties together an ecological approach that shows students the world is neither static nor individualistic, but a holistic combination of many issues. Lesson Objectives - by the end of the week-long lesson, students will: 1. Have a general understanding of the measurement of temperature in both the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. 2. Understand the term "habitat" and how it relates to the ecology of a region. 3. Understand the basic definition of the greenhouse effect based on class discussion, films, diagrams, and lecture. 4. Participate in group brainstorming sessions and class discussions related to the impact of the greenhouse effect and global warming. 5. Discuss the effect that a rise in temperature might have for the Polar Bear Family, indigenous populations, and then extrapolate to cities on the world's coasts. 6. Conduct research using primary sources to explore the issues of polar bear habitat and why it affects everyone. 7. Take a position about global warming and support this view with reasons, facts and examples. 8. Create a group project that supports a point-of-view; individual writing assignments to buttress the argument, and group presentations. Related National Standards - Based on McREL National Content Knowledge, individual States may have different item numbers (See: http://www.mcrel.org/standards-benchmarks/.) Science: Standard 1. Understands atmospheric processes and the water cycle: Level Pre-K Knows vocabulary (e.g. rainy, windy, sunny) for different types of weather Knows that weather conditions change Knows that the environment changes over seasons and areas Level I -- K-2 Knows that short-term weather conditions change daily, and understands basic weather patterns Knows that water can be a liquid or solid and can be…

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ESL Lesson Plan Weather

Teaching Weather to ESL Students Proficiency: Basic level of English proficiency Grade Level: Ninth -- early high school/late junior high Language arts (English), earth science, social sciences, and information technology Lesson Objective: Students will create a five-day weather forecast based on the local news with comfort, making use of targeted vocabulary, grammatical constructions involving verbs as well as nouns relating to weather, and scientific concepts related to meteorology Students will gain a greater proficiency accessing information, expressing their ideas on a basic conversational topic (weather) and become better able to work collectively in groups and to communicate in English between members of a team to produce a final media-related project Materials: Tape of local news weather segment, newspaper, and recording camera if school has access to audio materials, and 'props' including a large table, a map, or any others depending on student creativity Steps: First, the teacher will show a taped segment of a five-day forecast of the week's upcoming weather from a local news show. The teacher will engage in a short class discussion to prompt the students to express that they understand the weather, as expressed by the newscaster, and write the vocabulary words on the board. With a more advanced class, some more advanced science vocabulary and reasons for the weather can be discussed, such as seasonal averages and the effects of temperatures. Next, the teacher will give the assignment. The teacher will distribute the weather pages of various newspapers to the class. The class must create a weather show. The class must use the weather vocabulary generated from the discussion in the show. The class must select, amongst themselves who will be the weather people -- perhaps two or three. The forecast for every day of the school week will be given. For instance -- Monday: Sunny and breezy. Tuesday: Rainy. Etc. Then, the other students will have to represent the weather. For instance, for a nice day, the students must actively demonstrate what they could do on a warm,……

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History of the National Weather Service

National Weather Service (NWS) is a government agency that affects every resident of the United States in important ways. Because of its skill in predicting extreme weather such as hurricanes and tornadoes, potentially thousands of lives have been saved. However, most people don't realize that the NWS has a somewhat checkered history. Government leaders have been interested in predicting and…

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Global Climate Change Is One of the

Global climate change is one of the most important environmental challenges facing the world today. The steady yearly average temperature increases measured by scientists worldwide serve to destroy ozone which in turn pokes significant holes in the earth's ozone layer. Although most of the evidence points to only negative effects of this climate change, some effects are positive too. Regardless, more research must be done and a clear policy must be in place in the forthcoming years for industrialized nations to stymie the spread of poor environmental measures that result in the global warming situation. The worldwide scientific community has come to an overwhelmingly powerful agreement with regard to the fundamental of Planet Earth's climate change. The world is - without any question at all - warming, and warming significantly. This warming is primarily caused by the concatenation of carbon dioxide emissions and the release of other greenhouse gases from mankind's deleterious activities including but, of course, not limited to industrial processes, fossil fuel combustion and changes in land use, such as deforestation. No interruption of these disturbing historical trends of greenhouse gas emissions will cause further global warming over the remainder of the 21st century, with current projections of a global increase of 2.5°F to 10.4°F by 2100, with warming in the highly industrialized United States predicted to be much higher. (Pew, 1) "This warming will have real consequences for the United States and the world, for with that warming will also come additional sea-level rise that will gradually inundate coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns, increased risk of droughts and floods, threats to biodiversity, and a number of potential challenges for public health." (Pew, 1) Body There exists immense worry that human activities are adversely impacting the heat/energy-exchange balance between our planet, the atmosphere and space, and inducing significant global climate change, often termed "global warming." Human activities, especially fossil fuels' burning, have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other so-called "trace" greenhouse gases. If these particular gases continue to pervade the atmosphere at current rates, most researchers feel global warming would occur through intensification of Earth's natural heat-trapping "greenhouse effect." Possible impacts, however, might be seen either as positive or negative. A hotter climate would most likely have far reaching effects on agriculture and forestry, managed and un-managed ecosystems, including natural habitats, human health, water resources, and the Earth's sea level depending on the climate's actual responses…

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Climate Change Before the Industrial

Such high levels of methane would not be released naturally. The same is true for other greenhouse gases like nitrous oxide. However, by far the most notorious greenhouse gas that might be causing the earth to become consistently warmer over time is carbon dioxide, which is released into the atmosphere by factories as well as automobiles. The combination of these human factors with the natural factors mentioned above, including variations in the Earth's orbit, could be causing more rapid and more severe climate change. Evidence for human-induced climate change includes El Nino and other new and odd weather patterns as well as the melting of the polar ice stores, and changes to certain ecosystems and lifestyles of animal and plant life around the planet. Human beings are not causing all the changes in climate but we are contributing to global warming and other climate changes.…

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Climate the Best-Known and Most

atl.ec.gc.ca/weather/hurricane/hurricanes9.html). 10. A sub-tropical cyclone is a low pressure system that combines features from tropical and mid-latitude cyclones, and which can evolve into tropical cyclones, or hurricanes (from http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=subtropical-cyclone1). 11. Tropical cyclone winds rotate counter-clockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere because of the patterns of wind flow affected by the Coriolis force. 12. Tropical cyclones are classified according to their wind speed; to be a hurricane a tropical storm must have winds of 118 kilometers an hour or more. 13. Hurricanes form over warm oceans because they are powered by the latent heat energy that is released from condensation and need a "constant supply of warm humid air," which "only exists over oceans with a temperature greater than 26.5° Celsius." (from http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7u.html).…

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Climate Change Projections Expected Impact

gcrio.org/gwcc/booklet2.html Mitigation Strategies Explored The work entitled "Food, Agriculture, and Climate Change: The U.S. And International Outlook (USGCRP, 1997) ask the question in relation to addresses the "projected climate changes" and how they "affect agriculture, food resources and the availability of food in the U.S., and the availability of food in the U.S., and globally, over the next 25, 50, and 100 years?" (Woteki, 2002) It is further stated by Woteki (2002) that the following can be expected to result from the conditions brought about by climate change: Global climate change is projected to have significant regional impacts on agriculture and the production of food and fiber for human use and consumption. Greenhouse warming is one of the complex factors that will shape global food production in the coming century, as the world faces the challenge of feeding a rapidly growing population, which is projected to double from 5.7 billion to over 10 billion by the middle of the next century. Through changes in temperature, water regimes, and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, global climate change will directly affect crops, soils, pests, and livestock. Both producers and consumers, within the United States and abroad, will experience the impacts of these changes. Farmers can respond to many of the direct effects of climate change by adjusting their practices, while food-buyers may find variations in the quantity, quality, and prices of produce in their local markets. The challenge for the world agricultural enterprise is not only to feed the growing population in the face of changing climate conditions, but to do so while preserving the rich resources of land and water on which we and future generations depend." The IPCC or the Intergovernmental Panel in Climate Change, Second Assessment Report concludes that the production of agricultural appears to be globally sustainable in view of climatic shifts as "predicted by the global climate models (GCMs) for doubled-CO2 equilibrium scenarios. Stated is, "Current research suggests that the transient nature of climate change, potential alterations in climate extremes, and differential regional responses may temper positive outcomes." (Woteki, 2002) Approximately one quarter of the nation's agricultural crops and livestock is produced in the Midwest. The marginal changes in climate may produce impacts that are "disproportionately large" which are stated to be possible to, "severely diminish the comparative advantage of farmers and ranchers in the region and further stress irrigation water supplies. Comparative advantages affected are stated as,…

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Risks of Climate Change the

Increases in bushfire frequency and intensity have the potential to increase rates of damage to buildings and structures, especially those in non-urban areas. Drier conditions may lead to increased ground movement and changes in groundwater. Higher temperatures and more solar radiation could amplify degradation of materials. II. KEY IMPACTS ON WATER SUPPLY AND RESOURCES Key impacts stated for case studies…

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