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Women and Feminism in Sir

Domestically speaking, this creates for women in More's Utopia the quintessential situation of being "stuck between a rock and a hard place" where one's actions are both exalted and damned at the same time. Thus, in this fabricated Utopian ideal, the metaphor of communal living that supposedly transforms both the public and private arenas does nothing but wreck havoc on…

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Feminism Is for Everybody Describe

They were also expected to wear girdles, bras and other uncomfortable clothing in order to maintain a certain shape, until standards became more relaxed and they could dress in slacks. When women were expected to look 'sexy' at work, they were also subjected to sexual harassment, and in the past there was no legal redress against this. 13. Describe two examples of gender differences in verbal and nonverbal communication that create and maintain woman's subordination through social interactions. There are many demeaning and insulting ways that men speak about women, just as there have always been racist terms for blacks and Hispanics. These words are very well know, of course, and women also use them about each other, but they are intended to make women feel inferior in many ways, such as not having an appearance, attitude or personality that is pleasing to men. Males can also convey these messages through looks and gestures, such as when they see a woman they regard as particularly attractive -- or unattractive, for that matter. They can also use looks and size differences to threaten and intimidate women or 'put them in their place'. 14. Using Hook's chapter "Women and Work" (Ch.9) in Feminism is for Everybody, describe how women's work is devalued. Discuss how the devaluation of women's work benefits men. Many women believe that feminism forced them to work outside the home, although as Hooks points out, the capitalist system itself was responsible for that change. Wages and incomes were often too low in America, so that families had to have two incomes to maintain a standard of living as middle class consumers. For most of history, of course, women's work was always devalued and unpaid since it consisted of cooking, cleaning, child care and other domestic duties. In other words, at least half of the productive labor in society and all of the reproductive labor was done by women who earned nothing. They did this because culture, religion and society insisted that this was their 'natural' function in the world. Even when women began to work outside the home, in textile mills or as domestics, their labor was often paid only half of what men earned. In short, women were a fast force of cheap labor, denied meaningful opportunities for advancement or education. Hooks also notes that housewives often felt "isolated, lonely, and depressed," while the home was only a…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


Feminism in Early American Literature

¶ … Feminism" of Bradstreet and Wheatley Anne Bradstreet and Phillis Wheatley have the unique distinction of being two firsts in American feminism. Bradstreet was the first American female poet to have her work published, and Phillis Wheatley was the first black female poet to have her work become known and published. Because of their bravery and fame for breaking…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Liberalism Feminism

Liberalism V, Feminism Liberalism vs. Feminism: Comparative analysis between Liberalism and Feminism Perhaps the most fundamental similarity between liberalism and feminism is that liberalism and feminism are both wide ranging, inclusive ideologies that are often difficult to define, although the personas of both liberals and feminists have stirred up the ire as well as the affection in the public discourse.…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Italy Is a Cultural Hub

As society becomes more secular in nature however, one would assume that the traditional religious associations with masculinity and femininity would fall away, leaving room for growth and expansion. This has not necessarily however, been the case in Italy and its European counterparts, where religion perhaps still has more of an influence on society. Interestingly, concupiscence was often coded as…

Pages: 30  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Adrienne Rich of Woman Born

Adrienne Rich is one of the quintessential feminist writers of our time. This discussion is to examine Rich's book Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution. The investigation found that Rich is shunning many of the traditionally held notions about motherhood using a postmodern approach. The view she presents is a direct contradiction to the manner in which society…

Pages: 15  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


What Is Distinctive About Black Feminist Thought?

Black Fem. Thought A History of Alienation: Distinctions in Black Feminist Thought Several distinctions abound in Black feminist thought that differentiate it from virtually any other type of other feminist theory, as well as from traditional patriarchal notions of social concepts. The historical accounting of such women plays a large role in determining their ideologies. Whether originally from Africa, the…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 6


Wollstonecraft & J.J. Rousseau the

In her discussion of moral development as an essential factor in developing intellectual growth, she argued that women's lack of opportunity to achieve formal education also resulted to their lack of moral growth. This means that because they were not exposed to ideas that would encourage the development of a moral character, women were left to act and behave attitudes and character that they deemed as 'right' and 'pleasing' to the society. She expressed dismay over women's lack of privilege in education, both moral and intellectual, relegated her to the low and weak status in the society: No, it is indolence and vanity -- the love of pleasure and the love of sway, that will rain paramount in an empty mind. I say empty emphatically, because the education which women now receive scarcely deserves the name. For the little knowledge that they are led to acquire, during the important years of youth, is merely relative to accomplishments; and accomplishments without a bottom, for unless the understanding be cultivated, superficial and monotonous is every grace. This passage reflected the fact that the perpetuation of a patriarchal society in the 18th century was due to many factors, which included the tolerance of women's lack of privilege to develop themselves intellectually and morally. If women will not understand the repercussions that education can have in their lives, they will remain as "indolent" individuals possessing an "empty mind" -- individuals who remain unchallenged and unknowing because they lack the knowledge to survive in a world where survival not only depended on physically, but intellectually and morally as well. Rousseau offered an opposing opinion to Wollstonecraft's feminist ideals. In "Emile" (Book Five), he made it clear that "[t]o cultivate the masculine virtues in women and to neglect their own is obviously to do them an injury. Women are too clear-sighted to be thus deceived. When they try to usurp our privileges they do not abandon them. But the result is that being unable to manage the two, because they are incompatible, they fall below their own potential without reaching our's and loose half their worth." This assertion reflected how women, in their desire to be equal in skills and knowledge as men, weaken themselves in the process, for they were not able to cultivate their own skills and knowledge. Attaining equality with men by aspiring for their characteristics is abandoning one's self and acquiring the…

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Mother" by Sue Miller. The

Had the tables been turned the other way and Brian had custody of a son who was exposed to Brian's girlfriend the same way Molly was exposed to Leo, Anna would have most likely been just as outraged and concerned. Anna was not living and behaving as a feminist as much as she was a naive star-crossed, smitten young woman who is away from her parents for the first time and declares her independence from them by moving in with her lover. Leo is Anna's rebellion, a rebellion that should have occurred when she was a young coed, choosing a guy whom her parents would most certainly disapprove. Miller's character could be seen as a feminist victimized by a double-standard society, however, Anna appears more as a warning against sexual promiscuity and traditional social mores. Anna was not an innocent victim, framed by a judging society. Nor was she truly a feminist, for although Leo awakened her spirit, she gave herself to him so wholly that she forgot who she really was, forgot reality, forgot that indiscriminate actions has its consequences. Whether Miller intended her work to be a feminist or anti-feminist novel, Anna emerges as a caution to feminism. It is a warning that a woman must never lose sight of her responsibilities to herself and her role as a mother who must always guard and protect against potential dangers. Anna is a victim of her own folly and naivete and an example of the pitfalls of unbridled feminist behavior. Works Cited Miller, Sue. The Good……

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Feminist Point

¶ … Feminist Point Critique of feminism and domesticity The central rationale and raison d' tre of feminism has been an interrogation and attack on the women at home involved in domestic activities as a virtual slave in a male dominated and paternalistic society. Domesticity is seen as the first aspect that should be critiqued in order to free the…

Pages: 8  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 20


Agree With Much of What Catharine Mackinnon

¶ … agree with much of what Catharine MacKinnon says about how women are abused in hard core pornography Web sites, in magazines and elsewhere. She is right to protest that crimes are committed by men who are deeply involved daily in viewing pornography, because some of those men have the idea that it is okay to use women's bodies to relieve their carnal cravings. Violence against women should never be protected by the Constitution. Rape and child pornography are unconscionable acts of felony violence, and should be punished accordingly. But I do not accept that all pornography should lose its protected status under the First Amendment to the Bill of Rights. Soft core pornography photos and videos and adult films with soft core pornography, using women who are willing to be portrayed in those media and are paid fairly and not harmed or degraded, should be protected. It is a woman's right to earn a living in any way she chooses, providing it is a legal position. If she wants to take off some of her clothing so that a pornographic Web site can draw men who are willing to pay money to view those photos, who has the right to tell her she can't do that? Also, there are thousands of popular books, movies, TV shows and other forms of media where "soft core" pornography plays a role. Whether it is Joyce Carol Oates, Ernest Hemingway, a TV show on cable or the Book of Solomon (which is very racy and sexy), one could define certain acts in those media as "soft core" pornography. So, I differ from MacKinnon on some of her contentions, as mentioned above, but overall she raises good points and her brilliant style of scholarly writing is very impressive. What Catharine MacKinnon Has to Say Catharine MacKinnon starts out her essay by building her contention that there is no equality between men and women; she relates specifically to the feminist movement. MacKinnon says she believes that, first of all (and this has to be a cryptic remark), "feminism is the discovery that women do not live in this world, that the person occupying this realm is a man..." especially if the man is white and has money. The privilege of being a part of this universe, she continues, is based on "gender," and the feminism movement has discovered that the "social content of humanism"…

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Gender Roles: Patriarchy and the

This definitely goes against the overall motherhood myth and what much of society would like to present to the world at large, particularly women. However, one could also argue that for men, there is also a great deal of pressure: pressure to succeed and to support the family and to protect the family and that such pressures can be debilitating as well. Thus, if this paper has attempted to prove anything, it has taken the firm stance that when it comes to patriarchy, or society is still a paragon of a patriarchal attitudes, often supported by misogyny. This is not to discount the tremendous strides that women and feminism have made in the last five or so decades, but it does intend to suggest that the idea that there is an equal playing-field between the sexes is absolutely absurd. The world is still very much controlled by the whims, opinions and control of white males. While both genders have certain amounts of pressure and judgment placed upon them, the judgment placed upon women regarding their biological necessity to have children is generally far more intense and invasive, as this is a judgment which decrees that they are expected to create new human beings and spend much of their lives caring for them. References Bari, F. (2013, March 18). Are men and women really equal in the West? Retrieved from tribune.com: http://tribune.com.pk/story/522701/are-men-and-women-really-equal-in-the-west/ Cohen, P. (2012, November 19). America Is Still a Patriarchy. Retrieved from The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/sexes/archive/2012/11/america-is-still-a-patriarchy/265428/ Gay, R. (2013, September 13). Sorry, the patriarchy isn't dead. Retrieved from Salon.com: http://www.salon.com/2013/09/13/sorry_the_patriarchy_isnt_dead/ Rollin, B. (1970). Motherhood: Who Needs It? Look. Wilcher, R. (2013). Are men and women really equal? . Retrieved from psychologies.co.uk: http://www.psychologies.co.uk/work/are-men-and-women-really-equal.html…

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Piaf, Pam Gems Provides a

There is no indication that Edith is particularly gifted in the art of making love. She just makes her self available as a willing sexual partner. Except with Marcel Cedran, the married boxer, Edith manages to dissociate physical pleasure from any emotional foundations. With Marcel, Edith is truly in love. But this union is not to be. Anecdotes abound, that…

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Feminism as Framed by the World

¶ … Cheese with that Whine? Nowadays, it is commonly perceived that young women may find themselves disembodied from a society in which gender roles, no longer fixed, are in flux. As the traditional social class structures wanes, losing their hold in the second- or late-modernity context, individuals are urged ever more to create their own social structures. However, at…

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Wisdom of Bell Hooks

Bell Hooks Wisdom Bell Hooks, Born Gloria Watkins on September 25th 1952, is a prolific black activist, writer and scholar. Her works have sent shockwaves through the feminist and black activism arenas. She demonstrates a keen awareness of the contradictions of life and discrimination. Probably, her most famous written work is Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism (1981),…

Pages: 15  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Zimbabwe: A Cultural Analysis the

Women are poorly educated and are under the control of their husbands whom their very survival is dependent upon. It is easy to differentiate between the roles of men and women in the Zimbabwe culture as men hold the control over everything including the woman's sexuality, economic condition, as well as holding control in the business world, the religious leadership capacity, and every other aspect of the lives of the females in the culture of Zimbabwe. Women are seen as weaker not only of body, but of intellect and personal strength of character although women are held to higher principles of purity in their sexuality and men are allowed and even encouraged to be unfaithful to their wife or to take multiple wives. Summary and Conclusion This work has conducted a critical analysis of the culture of Zimbabwe and specifically of the development of the culture and how this has characterized the male-dominated and high inequality in regards to gender in this society which is one formed and based very little in science and very much in terms of control, by the male gender in every aspect of the individual's life in that culture. References Kambarami, Maureen (2006) Femininity, Sexuality and Culture: Patriarchy and Female Subordination in Zimbabwe. ARSRC. 2006. Chirimuuta, C. (2006) Gender and the Zimbabwe Education Policy: Empowerment for Perpetuation of Gender Imbalances? Quiet Mountain essays 2006. Chirimuuta, C. (2006) Gender and the Zimbabwe Education Policy: Empowerment or Perpetuation of Gender Imbalances? Quiet Mountain Essays. Okome, O. (2003) What Women, Whose Development in Oyewumi, O. African Women……

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Farm He Had a Wife

Home economics movements began much before the First World War and gave women a formal chance to come together and express themselves. Since farmwomen had always been active in home-related activities, home economics movement wasn't something alarmingly unfamiliar to them and they readily embraced it. For the first time in their lives, they got an opportunity to highlight the significance of their household responsibilities. Home economics movement played a crucial role in the feminist movement that emerged later. It was the first movement of its kind and focused on empowerment of women. Their feelings, their problems and their issues received validation in the home economics movement. It was basically a women-centered and women-oriented movement that paid close attention to women issues including the ones that most political and social activists would ignore. Prior to home economics movement, there was no platform available to women where they could voice their opinions on the largely neglected issues like household duties, unpaid labor, lack of educational facilities etc. But Halpern vaguely suggests that home economics movement could be categorized as feminist movement. However this is not a valid argument because HE movement focused on providing women with female-centered employment so they wouldn't have to compete with men in male-dominated fields. Feminist movement is essentially connected with re-creation of social structures, something that home economics movement didn't endorse. The author goes on to make a case about Women's Institutes and farmwomen being feminist but fails to focus on the nature of feminism that these institutes advocated and Ontario farmwomen supported. This kind of feminism was grounded in the theory of women being nurturers. However this was essentially an anti-feminist theory in disguise. Halpern fails to notice the distinction between feminism of WI's and real feminism of modern world. By failing to address and explore the true nature of the form of feminism endorsed by farmwomen, Halpern risks her credibility as an expert on the issue. She has focused largely on explaining social feminism and how Ontario farmwomen upheld its values. But this approach to the issue fails to bring forth some other related problems that plagued the lives of farm women. The author should have focused more on political beliefs of farm women as this would have helped in measuring the extent of their role in feminist movement. Louise Carbert of Department of Political Science at Dalhousie University praises the book in these words:…

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Vital Work Feminism and Women's Studies Calls

¶ … vital work feminism and Women's Studies calls for and performs? Perhaps the most important thing to remember is that feminism and Women's Studies performs real and vital 'work' in the world, and is not merely an abstract exercise in philosophy or literary analysis. Fighting for greater understanding of the role -- positive and negative -- that gender plays in our society and culture is the goal of feminism. It demands intense intellectual scrutiny and self-scrutiny. Without a formal political movement like feminism, or a formal academic discipline like Women's Studies, people will often be unwilling to perform such intense cognitive work. They are apt take gender assumptions and stereotypes for granted. We must not forget that part of the purpose of the feminist movement and the academic study of the construction of gender is to make people uncomfortable. Feminism must question cliches about gender, race, religion and the assumptions that people assume are natural, even though they may be socially constructed. Given the strides women have made in recent decades, it has become tempting to assume that there is no real need for feminism in today's day and age. But feminism is still required intellectually, in a rigorous and systematic fashion, to examine how sexism exists, often in covert ways. Also, even if women are studied within the context of other academic disciplines like history and literature, gender is often treated as an incidental aspect of how the human character is conceived. Women's Studies brings gender as a category to the forefront of people's attention, although it has been helpful to many other academic disciplines not specifically devoted to the study of women. Feminism also has a great deal of work to do, politically speaking. Less than a hundred years ago, many people were seriously questioning if women……

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Wife Bath: Feminism Chaucer Appears

She exhibits no feelings towards her spouses other than harsh and also vicious ones, for example embarrassment as well as ridicule. Her spouses had been all aged and also wealthy and she together with her youth and sweetness has total control over all of them. As she describes: As help me God, I laughe whan I thynke How pitously a-nyght…

Pages: 11  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 7


Claiming Feminism Matrilineal History or Girls and Women's Empowerment and the Music Industry

¶ … feminism, Matrilineal History, or Girls' and Women's Empowerment and the Music Industry Gaga over Gaga? Girls' and women's empowerment in the music industry Feminism in America today is often justified by the word 'choice,' in the sense that women should have a 'choice' in terms of what feminine conventions they embrace or reject. For example, some young feminists…

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Feminism: Participation of Women in Politics Democracy

Feminism: Participation of Women in Politics Democracy is when the political thinkers and leaders think as one collective unit instead of individuals. Democracy is to discuss, analyze and find solutions for the nation's problems from a majority consensus without ignoring the rights and answers for the minorities of the nation. It helps the government form and cultivate a way to…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Feminist Reading Two Models of Feminism: Wollstonecraft

Feminist Reading Two Models of Feminism: Wollstonecraft and Chopin on the Social Dynamics of Female Emancipation One of the most fundamental and profound developments in literature and literary criticism in the past century or two is the emergence of the feminist perspective, or more correctly an abundance of feminine perspectives. The plural is the proper form because there is no…

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Has Feminism Enhanced or Destroyed Marriage and Family?

Feminism Has Not Destroyed Marriage Notwithstanding viewpoints to the contrary, the feminist movement (past and present) has not ruined the institution of marriage in America. Indeed, some feminists have challenged marriage as a valid tradition, and those challenges should be viewed as healthy to the ongoing dialogue. This paper delves into that topic and presents a variety of scholarly narratives…

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Women and Feminist Studies

¶ … women studies at a time when the interdisciplinary willpower and its concepts were getting institutional identification. Women's studies provided me with an exclusive place to take up the positions of the student, the instructor, the practitioner, and the subject researcher. Nowadays, questioning the mettle of women's studies is far from over (Darraj, 2010). One of the things that…

Pages: 6  |  A-Level Coursework  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Women and Violence Feminism

Violence Women Violence Against Women: Its Portrayal in Newspaper Media The problem of violence against women is both pervasive and historically omnipresent. Though its definition has often been subject to extreme variation, sociological exploitation of women, domestic abuse and sexual assault have nonetheless shown themselves be a real and self-perpetuating conditions in the Canadian family and community. Domestic violence is…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 2


Woman's Rights

Women's Rights In her personal "Letters" Abigail Adams begged her husband John Adams to remember the contribution women had made to the founding of the new Republic when constructing the laws of the land. However, President Adams, although he placed a great deal of credence in his wife's opinion on a personal level, did not listen to his wife in this instance. He believed women's influence was best channeled through their male relations, and women were not suited to direct participation in political affairs. It was many years before equality for women was acknowledged within the legal framework of the nation. Today, no one would seriously consider taking away any woman's right to vote and to be an articulate participant in the American political process. A woman has made a legitimate effort at securing the White House herself, and a woman is running for the office of Vice President of America. The institutional concerns and the 19th century advocate of women's rights, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, are no longer a preoccupation of the nation. Stanton desired that women be able to vote, to inherit property, and not to disappear as a legal person upon marriage. These technical questions of equal rights under the law no longer seem to impact women's lives, but that hardly means that women have no more legal wars to fight. Women still bear the burden of caring for children and the elderly. This means that a lack of affordable childcare and eldercare hampers their ability to earn money in the workforce. Women may not be able to be formally discriminated against in the workplace, but they often face informal legal types of discrimination, which may be as indefinite as simply 'not fitting in' to a particular corporate culture. Even on the public stage, commentators on the left and right seem to have trouble talking about women as political leaders. What is seen as strong in a man is seen as irritating and aggressive when encapsulated in the persona of a woman like Hillary Clinton. Women are afraid to show emotion and humor, the qualities that contribute to electability, but seem to make a female candidate appear less serious. An attractive woman who has children like Sarah Palin may provoke sexual innuendos when her policies are criticized. These types of attitudes can be discouraging for young women contemplating entering the political discourse. The idea of how a woman…

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Feminism and the Representation of Gender in the American Avant-Garde Film

Feminism and the Representation of Gender in the American Avant-Garde Film Feminism and gender roles in Avant-garde film The American Avant Garde Cinema is particularly important when considering abstract tendencies and subliminal messages, as most directors engaged in producing motion pictures for the genre intended to depict certain issues regarding society as seen from their perspective. Some of the most renowned directors who created films concerning the field, such as Maya Deren, Carolee Schneeman, Martha Rosler, and Dara Birnbaum focused on the feminism movement and on gender as a whole in some of their works. They were influenced by a series of factors in doing this, ranging from their personal convictions to society's views on the matter that they related to. In spite of the fact that the films that this paper discusses are all connected by the fact that they deal with gender roles, some of the directors preferred to take on a more abstract or grave position while others expressed a somewhat jokey character. Although an amateur film enthusiast is likely to feel confused as a result of watching Maya Deren's Meshes of the Afternoon (1944), a more experienced individual would identify a series of concepts meant to tackle feminism. In wanting her audiences to understand the protagonist's feelings, Deren chose to have viewers see things and events exactly as she saw them. While the film initially seems to present a rather ordinary event, the action gradually progresses and it is revealed that there is much more emotionality to it. The woman in the motion picture appears to be consumed by society's trends and by the fact that she wants people to see things from her own perspective. Her condition in more severe than one might believe at first, given that she eventually wants to commit suicide and that she apparently informs the audience regarding her motives. The male individual in the film is essential in understanding gender representation as Deren did, as he appears to be responsible for the fact that the woman wants to die. Moreover, he apparently encourages her to accept her fate and to proceed with committing suicide. Meditation on Violence seems to be concerned with controlled aggressiveness, as the character in the film puts across serenity in performing the Wu Tang ritual. It appears that Deren wanted to demonstrate that violence does not necessarily have to be violent and incontrollable, as it can…

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Feminism Both Bell Hooks and

Both Hooks and Moraga propose that all women of color examine the means by which they have been oppressed and discover new means of empowerment. However, Hooks' piece is longer and even harsher than Moraga's: Hooks, for instance, notes that Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, however influential the book was, is written primarily from a white leisure class perspective. She states that Friedan had a "one-dimensional perspective," and women like Friedan were unaware "of the extent to which their perspectives reflect race and class biases." Moraga, on the other hand, offers a broader social commentary about the exclusion of oppressed groups of women. Her attack on racism and classism in relation to feminism is more general. For example, she states on page 29, "Without an emotional, heartfelt grappling with the source of our own oppression, without naming the enemy within ourselves and outside us, no authentic, hierarchical connection among oppressed groups can take place." Moraga's tone is more constructive in general than Hook's is: "It is essential that radical feminists confront their fear of and resistance to one another," (34). Moraga also acknowledges her own complicity: "By virtue of the very fact that I am white-looking, I identified with and aspired toward white values ... I rode the wave of that Southern California privilege as far as conscience would let me," (34). While Hooks' piece is harsher and angrier in tone, she concludes by stating, "Though I criticize aspects of feminist movement as we have known it so far, a critique which is sometimes harsh and unrelenting, I do so not in an attempt to diminish feminist struggle but to enrich, to share in the work of making a liberatory ideology." Hooks and Moraga have had different experiences of oppression and therefore write from unique perspectives, but both……

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Wave of Feminism Took Place Beginning in

¶ … wave of feminism took place beginning in 1848 with the ratification of the 19th amendment which afforded women the right to vote (Frederick, 2004). The social and theoretical concerns were largely scattered, and the emphasis was working on a variety of issues including child labor protection, peace and care for women in general (Frederick, 2004). The movement was more geared toward generalities. In the second wave however, during the 1960s, was a revival of the first wave, further defining some of the issues that were critical to feminist thinking. The third wave was more responsible for defining the new issues that were important for women to fight for, as many accomplishments had been realized during the first two waves (Bailey, 1997; Frederick, 2004). Kate Millet is a well-known feminist of the second wave who claimed that "the first wave of feminism in the early twentieth century was reborn as a second wave in the early 1960s" (Frederick, 2004). Cathryn Bailey is well-known for supporting the third wave of feminism describing it as "a means of distancing itself from earlier feminism" and further describes it as a mechanism for emphasizing what might be described as the discontinuities that existed within the first and second waves (Bailey, 1997: 18). Betty Friedan is well-known for her work "The Feminist Mystique" which characterizes the second wave of feminism as well, known as a time when women fought for equality and questioned among other things gender assignment and roles (Rosen, 2001). The idea of democracy for women was expanded during the second wave and equality was seen with regard to all of American culture (Frederick, 2004). Third wave feminism is characterized by many well-known individuals including Krista Jacobs, editor of Sexing the Political who believed that during the third wave women "Are celebrating their pluralities, embracing their personal and political contradictions" (Frederick, 2004). The third wave of feminism is characterized as "a movement of young feminists who no only confront but embrace contradiction and ambiguity" (Frederick, 2004). The primary ideology of this movement is the notion that inevitably in society there "exist contradictions and compromises" that must be made in the movement toward feminism, and that feminism in and of itself is filled with complexity and fighting within a still predominately patriarchichal society (Frederick, 2004). Third wave feminism is often considered very similar to postmodern feminism but also very different. Postmodern feminists generally…

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Marxism and Feminism Marxism Is

The one important piece of writing in this connection is Heidi Hartmann's article "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism" where she wrote the famous lines that marked the beginning of the end of this union: "The marriage of marxism and feminism has been like the marriage of husband and wife depicted in English common law: marxism and feminism are one, and that one is marxism." (Hartman 1981, p. 2). Slowly and gradually, feminism turned away from Marxism to find a niche within capitalist society and this resulted in the development of new concepts in feminism. As Raya Dunayevskaya (1996) asserted: 'We can and will witness the development of women themselves not only as force but as reason. We can and will be a catalyst not only for our development as all-round human beings, but also for that of men" (p. 28). Feminism may no longer need the support of Marxism to grow and prosper since it has found a place for itself within capitalist system, still it must acknowledge the role played by men like Marx and Engels in raising women issues. References 1. Cliff, Tony 1984. Class Struggle and Women's Liberation. London: Blackwell. 2. Dunayevskaya, R. Women's liberation and the dialectics of revolution: Reaching for the future. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 1996 3. Hartmann, Heidi. 1981. "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Toward a More Progressive Union." In Lydia Sargent, ed. op. cit., 1981:1-42. 4. Terrell Carver, Department of Politics, University of Bristol, Marxism……

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Feminism Arising Out of the

As a result, women of color have become increasingly included in the public discourse and have risen to positions of political power. Moreover, the feminist support of civil rights affected men of color as well as women, and an increasing acceptance of diversity within the society cannot but affect the lives of all women of whatever race. Therefore, even though many people of color still live in poverty and discrimination is still a problem, the Second Wave of Feminism has made great strides in achieving overall racial equity, and has at least promoted a more equitable public discourse regarding race. Homosexual rights were also kin to the Second Wave of Feminism. Lesbian feminism promoted the voices of lesbians and helped achieve awareness and tolerance of homosexuality. Although homosexual rights do not directly affect all women, since not all women are lesbians, greater social equity impacts all women. Although homosexual rights have proven to be one of the slowest-moving causes supported by the Second Wave of Feminism, clearly this issue affects the lives of both straights and gays in creating a more equitable society in general. Finally, the Second Wave of Feminism concerned itself as much as possible with labor relations and economic parity. A multitude of issues are included under this rubric, the two most notable of which are income parity and workers' rights. Women in the United States still earn less than their male counterparts and a considerable income disparity continues to plague most women, but the struggle continues. Labor unions also continue to struggle under increasing political conservatism, but the Second Wave of Feminism continues to raise awareness of these issues, and draw attention to how labor and economics affect all women, rich, poor, or in between.…

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Transnational Feminism

Transnational Feminism Women's Culture- This work will use the quote: "Culture...consists in the way analogies are drawn between things, in the way certain thoughts are used to think others" as a focal point or a beginning in making a connection between Shohat's argument that globalization...just be seen as part of the much longer history of colonialism in which Europe attempted…

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Feminism in Politics

Feminism in Politics Without a doubt, one of most influential and complex political issues of the last several decades is that of the feminist movement, or more precisely, the effect that feminism has had on various areas of politics and political science. In an effort to fully comprehend the various facets of this relationship, this paper will focus on two primary areas: the major feminist critiques of mainstream political science, and the contributions feminism has made to the study of political participation. Upon conclusion of this paper, the reader will have gained a greater understanding and appreciation of the sphere of influence of feminism itself. Feminist Critiques of Mainstream Political Science Feminism, by its very nature, takes on political nuances; much like racial minority groups have embraced political activism over the years to advance their various causes, so too have gender-based minorities. In fact, most sources agree that the conversion of a female person into a feminist is largely due to strong political beliefs backed up by specific actions to bring attention and recognition to the cause of women's rights (Zivi, 2004). This being the case, the question is asked as to exactly how feminists feel about mainstream political science. Feminist critiques of mainstream political science, as research indicates, begin at the very core of political science itself, as based on the traditional view. Traditionally, the conventional wisdom behind political science held that politics was a man's area of endeavor because of the often brutal nature of political pursuits, and minority groups such as women, ethnic and racial groups were simply dismissed from the inner workings of political science because of their detachment from the mainstream (Phillips, 1998). Considering this, the absurdity of that argument is clear. Feminists have long made a valid argument that political science has excluded them by categorizing women and politics within political science rather than women in politics, or more precisely, the question as to why women are so often kept out of the political arena. The feminist critique of political science as exclusionary and prejudiced is not merely based on their own perceptions; one of the earliest political thinkers, Aristotle, put forth the theory, thousands of years ago, that true democracy could not exist without the voices of all people being heard, rather than just the voice of the dominators of the system, much like males have dominated females historically (Phillips, 1998). After viewing…

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Interdisciplinary Studies Disciplines Women's Studies and Communication

Women Studies and Communications Women's Studies Key Concepts There is a number of evolving key concepts which continue to help Women's Studies develop as an academic doctrine. First, there is a general consensus that American society, as well as many others throughout the globe, is dominated by male driven power. This has created a patriarchal hegemony, where men dominate the society, and then turn to oppress women in a number of differing ways. A double standard is a concept where there is a different set of standards held by society in terms of the behavior for men and women. Here, the research suggests that "in feminist analysis, men's power to define the content of formal and informal behavioral cultures means that the criteria or standards used to evaluate and regulate women often differ to those used for men" (Pilcher & Whelehan, 2004, 51). Because our society is dominated by a male driven hegemony, double standards are normally restricting the behaviors of women in comparison to men. There is a negative stigma and a sense of marginalization associated to the gender role of females. Gender itself is a term which is thought to actually be a culturally constructed concept, in comparison to sex which denotes the physical sexual attributes of an individual. Gender is a societal term, and thus gender roles are generated by the cultural norms of that particular society in question. This reinforces stereotypes in that women are socialized to embody particular roles that are feminized. Feminization is another major key term, especially in regards to the discussion the feminization poverty. Here, the research suggests that "Since the 1960s in the United States the poor have been more likely to be single females, members of female-headed households, and elderly females" than their male counterparts (Tierney, 1999, p 489). This has contributed to the growth in what is known as the feminization of poverty, where the male dominated society has begun to associate a limited financial capability with women being stereotyped accordingly. Thus, the make dominance has subjugated women based on these restricted gender roles. Current Theories Most of the current theories within Women's Studies are broken mainly into three general categories, "psychodynamic theories that consider early attachment problems, conflict, and/or sexual repression as primary, learning theories that favor a conditioning model, and social/cultural feminist" theory which tends to show a general cultural praise for certain feminine traits (Tierney, 1999,…

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Gender and Sexuality Define Sex.

8. What does gender at the intersections mean? Give an example to explain. Gender at the intersections mean that identity of a person cannot and is not solely the gender but gender forms a significant part of a greater whole composed of influences of race, religion, age, ethnicity, etc. Therefor gender in itself is an incomplete expression of one identity. In one or more instances, gender can be a source of identity such as when attending 'ladies night' at the club. 9. Describe Fennels use of gendered division of labor. Labor means work and Fennels explains that the work is assigned and divided among society based on their gender. Based on genders, men are assigned the labor of breadwinning whereas women are assigned the labor of child care, birthing, and nursing (Fennell, 496-97). 10. Adriaens and DeBrock argue Homosexuality as we know it is definitely a social construction (p. 572). Explain their argument. By the above mentioned argument, authors mean that male homosexuality is not a natural phenomenon but one that was socially constructed in early 18th century. The sociocultural and historical factors may have demanded men of lower status to strengthen their hierarchy by having sex with other males. The author actually synthesizes evolutionary and social construction theories of homosexuality in men (Adriaens, and Adriaens 570-585). Works Cited Adriaens, Andreas, and de Block Adriaens. "The evolution of a social construction: the case of male homosexuality." Perspectives in biology and medicine. 49.4 (2006): 570-585. Web. 1 Mar. 2013. Allan, Elizabeth J. "Hazing and gender: Analyzing the obvious." The hazing reader (2004): 275-294. Fennell, Julie Lynn. "Men Bring Condoms, Women Take Pills: Men's and Women's Roles in Contraceptive Decision Making" Gender & Society 25(4):496-521. 2011. Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for everybody: Passionate politics. Cambridge: South End Press, 2000. Vii-ix. Print. Kimmel, Michael. "Global masculinities: Restoration and resistance." Policy Review. (2004): 1-5. Print. Lindsey, Linda L. Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. 5. California: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. 5-16. eBook. WHO,. United Nations . World Health Organization.……

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Portrayal of Women in Music,

Moreover, the result is having devastating effects on young girls as well as women (Timson 1995). "It is clear that a very large percentage of American women are unhappy with their bodies," says Joan Jacobs Brumberg, author of "The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls" (http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html)."That kind of unhappiness begins very, very early in life," she says. Moreover, the problem doesn't disappear with maturity. Brumberg contends that the rise of plastic surgery, the prevalence of dieting, and the high number of women in therapy are examples of that prove women still suffer from self-esteem problems. She says, "People expect their bodies to be perfect these days. Women are judged too often by their appearance and young girls get the idea that appearance is the source of female power" (http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html). A recent study revealed that over 80% of 4th grade girls have been on a diet. Anorexia and bulimia are on the rise. Although the 'heroin chic' look of the last few years is supposedly out of vogue today, the average weight of a model is 23% lower than that of an average woman. Twenty years ago, the differential was only 8% (http://www.albany.edu/~cc4176/). When females see these images day in and day out throughout every visual means of media, the message they get is that with enough effort and self-sacrifice they too can look like this. These images are unattainable. However, we have young girls starving themselves and damaging their health for perhaps the rest of their life. And women as well as teenaged girls are having breast implants in higher numbers than before the big implant scare ten years ago. Moreover, they're having liposuction on their thighs, buttocks, stomachs and every other part of their bodies. They are subjecting themselves to bovine treatments on their face wrinkles and collagen treatments on their lips. They're having fanny lifts, arm lifts, thigh lifts and face-lifts. It seems all young girls want to look like Britney Spears and all women want to have a body like Cher. Douglas states in her book, "The war that has been raging in the media is not a simplistic war against women but a complex struggle between feminism and anti-feminism that has reflected, reinforced and exaggerated our culture's ambivalence about women's roles for over 35 years" (Douglas 1995). This ambivalence will most likely continue for another 35 years, as there appears to be no stop…

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Victorian New Woman: Shaw's Views

It's Mrs. Warren's continued involvement in the dirty business of the oldest profession that sets the pair at odds. But Vivie's struggle for independence proves she's her mother's daughter through and through (Blethyn, About The Play) 5. When the play starts (Olveczky)6, Vivie Warren self-confident, high-spirited, and oblivious of her mother's profession -- has just returned home from Cambridge with…

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Woman: An Epistemological Programme of

Only 'absolute in loveliness,' the portion of rationality granted to woman, is indeed very scanty; for, denying her genius and judgment, it is scarcely possible to divine what remains to characterize intellect." Wollstonecraft, M. Vindication Chapter IV. The quarrel will go on as long as men and women fail to recognize each other as equals; that is to say, as long as femininity is perpetuated as such. Which sex is the more eager to maintain it? Woman, who is being emancipated from it, wishes none the less to retain its privileges; and man, in that case, wants her to assume its limitations. 'It is easier to accuse one sex than to excuse the other,' says Montaigne. It is vain to apportion praise and blame. The truth is that if the vicious circle is so hard to break, it is because the two sexes are each the victim at once of the other and of itself. Between two adversaries confronting each other in their pure liberty, an agreement could be easily reached: the more so as the war profits neither. But the complexity of the -,Whole affair derives from the fact that each camp is giving aid and comfort to the enemy; woman is pursuing a dream of submission, man a dream of identification. Want of authenticity does not pay: each blames the other for the unhappiness he or she has incurred in yielding to the temptations of the easy way; what man and woman loathe in each other is the shattering frustration of each one's own bad faith and baseness." de Beauvoir in conclusion to The Second Sex. Works Cited Woolstonecraft M, Vindication of the Rights of Women De Beauvouir, S. The Second Sex. Saul, J. Feminism: Issues and Arguments. Hornsby, J. & M. Fricker, Cambridge Companion to Feminism in Philosophy. Rousseau, J.and A.Bloom. Emile: Or, on Education. New York: Basic Books, 1979.…

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Women and Nonwhites Facing

Hall discusses that there was extreme malice, war, and that there were huge issues with the racial movements (Hall, 2001). In the south, during this period of time, war was still an option at any time and these racial policies were part of the reason that this war could break out at any time. The white leaders did not want to make any sort of movements. Hall talks about the late 19th century, the movement for the Jim Crowe laws was created and this at least gave blacks some rights in the south, just not everything that they wanted and that the deserved. These laws were put into place to make sure that they provided admittance for blacks to certain places, however they still created segregation (Hall, 2001). References Cebulla, B. (2010). How Frontier Experience Had an Impact on Women's Role. New York: GRIN Verlag. Fowler, W. (2005). Woman on the American Frontier. New York: Cosimo, Inc. Hall, R. (2001). Performing the American frontier, 1870-1906. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Keyes, B. (2010). The American Frontier: Our Unique Heritage.……

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Feminism Summary of Story Cristina

Connections to Other Readings Tzintzun's story reflects the broad experiences of women of color as they reflect on issues of identity, difference, and intersectionality. For example, Gray points out that her listening to rock and roll was viewed as a symbol of her submission to a white dominant culture and society. It was socially subversive to listen to rock and roll because it was "akin to treason in the black community," (p. 258) At first, listening to rock and roll was something she did because she liked the music. After a while, Gray realized that rock and roll reeked of white male privilege" (p. 259). Rock stars, who are always white, pranced around on stage and "flaunted their entitlement," (p. 259). They were often middle-class white boys like Jon Bon Jovi, but they were born with a sense of entitlement. Yet like Tzintzun, Gray is able to embrace the contradictions of her dual identity. Gray is proud to be black, and Tzintzun is proud to be Mexican; and both are proud to be female. In "My Tattoos are Not an Invitation," Lundahl (2013) describes the unwanted attention she receives from men, who feel entitled to touch her arm. The act is like a rape, as Lundahl describes it. She states, "I'm not surprised that some men feel that my visible display of body art is an invitation to yell about, touch, and seemingly compliment my tattoos," (p. 1). Although Lundahl is white, her experience reflects a global experience of gendered identity. Men, especially white men, feel entitled to take whatever is theirs, including women. Because men dominate the worlds of politics and business, many of the products and services available in the world are laden with gender issues. Even seemingly innocent toys like Lego are marketed to girls in insipid ways, reinforcing male hegemony ("Lego Friends" movie). Personal Connection Patriarchy remains a particularly poignant problem for women of color. Women of color struggle with a double oppression, in that both their gender and their race renders them perceived as inferior by the dominant culture. It is a constant struggle to assert power and identity in the face of patriarchy. When encountering these readings, I felt personally empowered. I felt encouraged and motivated to share my own stories of forging an identity as an ethnic "mutt," while remaining true to myself as both Tzintzun and Gray have managed to do, and…

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