Essay - Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Warning Signs of Adolescent...


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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent ***** abuse (from 78497)

CHAPTER 3: WARNING SIGNS AND RISK FACTORS

Warning Signs

***** that the breath ***** prevalence of teenage substance abuse has been discussed, the warning ***** ***** adolescent substance abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol and tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is *****cause these *****s are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America and other countries, ***** is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol ***** *****sociated with at least one-half of all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school per*****mance, ***** other trauma among youth. Alcohol and ***** kill more people annu*****y than all other drugs combined, and alcohol alone is associ*****ed with at least one-fourth ***** ***** hospital visits in the United States. Nicotine is also one of ***** most addictive ***** harmful substances, and in 1995 the U.S. Food and Drug Admin*****tration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug and should be regulated as a controlled substance. Indeed, the authors posit that if alcohol ***** ***** were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely be rejected ***** hazardous and addictive (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate that children of alcoholics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symp*****matic use. According to Henry, Robinson and Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown that 92 percent of high school seniors report having *****d *****, while between 72 and 77 percent of eighth graders reported experimentation. While overall adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s ***** declined in the 1980s, substance use *****creased significantly ***** the 6th ***** 9th grades during ***** same period of time. After alcohol and tobacco, marijuana is the next most commonly *****d substance and has been tried by almost 50 percent of all ***** school seniors (Henry et al., 1996).

A recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found that youth who drank ***** were 50 ********** ***** likely to use cocaine, and those who smoked cigarettes were 19 times more ***** to use cocaine. The study, based on *****0,000 American households, ***** that 90 percent of ***** users had smoked tobacco, drank *****cohol, or used marijuana first. The study established a clear progression that began with the use ***** the gateway drugs of alcohol, tobacco, or ***** and led to use of other illicit substances.

The warning signs ***** be presented here as often times parents ***** other guardians may attribute the *****'s ********** changes to typical hormonal mood swings. *****, it is not always "just a phase," as is ***** ***** parental m*****conception. His*****ric*****y, parents ***** found discussing the risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can be perilous, and leave ***** child unprepared

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