Essay - Breastfeeding Introduction Child Malnutrition is One of the Most Widespread...


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Breastfeeding

Introduction

Child malnutrition is one of the most widespread problems ***** world faces until now. It has been associated to high rates of morbidity and mortality among children in the developing countries. Child ***** has been associated with a number of factors that can be addressed by the society. Some ***** these are poverty ***** the family's socio-economic status, availability of food and poor diet, immunization, and breastfeeding practice (Brenna, McDonald, Shlomowitz, 2003). In fact, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could decrease mortality ***** children younger than 5 years old to 13% (UNICEF, 2007). South Asia ***** ***** highest morbidity ***** ***** rates among ***** younger ***** 5 ***** old: 70 million children younger than 5 years are from ***** Asia, and are unlikely to achieve their full growth and development (South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum, 2007).

Breastmilk may potentially contribute to the infant's physical, cognitive, and emotional *****. Breastfeeding protects ***** infant ***** contracting many common childhood diseases such as chronic diarrhea, pneumonia; ***** autoimmune *****, tooth decay, ***** growth retardation (Bhandari, Bahl, Mazumdar, Martines, Black, and Bhan, *****; Brennan et al., 2003). It also facilitates development ***** the g*****trointestinal tract while facilitating the absorption and digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates found in foodstuffs (Gab*****, Nie*****l, and Simpson, 2007; Rakel ***** Bope, 2007). It also lowers the risk ***** cardiovascular diseases and obesity as these ***** become older. It strengthens maternal-infant bonding, an activity which is profoundly import*****t to a child's emotional development. ***** is also economically beneficial because it ***** free. Breastmilk contains sufficient nutrients and provides immunologic comp*****nts such as antibodies ***** are passively transferred from the mo*****r. The mother also benefits from ***** as it provides a natural contraceptive effect. ***** mother is ***** protected ***** rapid involution of the uterus, breast ***** endometrial cancers, and diabetes (Gabbe et al., 2007).

***** its well-founded benefits, ********** rates remain low in *****l parts of the world. The *****troduction of breastmilk within 1 hour *****s low among South Asian countries. In Afghanistan, breastfeeding is not introduced during ***** first hour ***** feeding; in fact, Afghan babies ***** given breastmilk only as early as 4 months old (World Health Organization [WHO], 2001; South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum, 2007). It has been found that *****5% of mothers and infants breastfeed their children during the first 6 months (UNICEF, 2007). There have also ***** inconsistencies with regards to ***** right time supplementary solid foods should be *****. In Bangladesh, it was found ***** the median duration ***** exclusive breastfeeding ***** 3.7 months with nearly 70% of the mothers introducing milk supplements prior to ***** months. Most mothers also exclusively breastfeed their babies for over 30 ***** (Ramach*****ran, 2004). In *****dia, ***** practices were found ***** be almost similar to practices in ***** and West Bengal, except that the median duration of exclusive breastfeed*****g was 5.3 months ***** lasted ***** the ***** duration ***** 25.4 months. Other studies have shown ***** breastfeeding rate decreased from 72% in the

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