Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiv*****g some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) def*****es bullying as "a form of aggressive behavior with an imbal*****ce ***** power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes d*****tress by tormenting or harassing another less dominant person." In her search of the literature, Pepler found definitions f***** both direct (open attacks on ***** victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, and threatening and intimidating) ***** indirect (social isolati*****, social ostracism, exclusion, and nasty gossip) *****. Further, she defined indirect bullying as having the effect of negatively affecting the target victim's social status ***** changing the way others perceived responded to the individual. In ***** bullying, ***** noted that ***** bully often was not identified and typically was not retaliated against.

***** need for more re***** on bullying was evident because of the frequency range reported by Pickett (2001): from 7% to 30% of students have been ***** involved in ***** either as bully or as victim. ***** further defined *****ing as a *****m of aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, ***** that the bully gained incre*****ed power over the victim (Pickett, 2001). ***** also included sexual harassment as a form of bullying.

Fin*****lly, Hirasing refined ***** definition ***** bullying, noting that it should be repeated and sustained and ***** it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Fin*****lly, Hirasing ***** that typically the victim of the ***** cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations because ***** results on both the bullies and the victims can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common results of being bullied. Although aggressive bullying has been researched *****, Hirasing found ***** *****se outcomes ***** stronger for indirect *****, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful for the aggressor; physical bullying was a warning sign for later delinquency in Hirasing's research. Pickett's research showed that obese children are ***** targeted, suggesting that there may be other subgroups likely ***** ***** targeted also.

Because bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depressi*****, ***** thoughts ***** future delinquency, it is important to learn more about the ***** pattern. In add*****ion, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students ***** ********** better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with peers (*****, 2003). Peplar (1998) suggested that bullying ***** be part of the larger problem of violence in general. These studies suggest a need ***** clarify which ***** are likely to participate, ***** as bully, ***** victim, or as both; under what circumstances ***** is most likely to occur; ***** what effects bully*****g may ***** both on perpetrat***** and on victim.

***** STUDY

***** is *****thing that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study conducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Germany. He used a cross-sectional and cross-national comparison for his design. 2,377 students from the two


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