Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiving some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) defines bullying as "a form of *****ggressive behavior with an imbalance of power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes d*****tress by tormenting or harassing ano*****r less dominant person." In her search ***** the literature, Pepler found definitions for both direct (open attacks on ***** victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, ***** threatening and intimidating) and indirect (social isolati*****, social ostracism, exclusion, and nasty gossip) *****. Further, she defined indirect bullying as having the effect of negatively affecting the target victim's ***** status by changing the way o*****rs perceived responded to the individual. In indirect bullying, ***** noted that the bully often was not identified and typically was not retaliated against.

***** need for more re***** on bullying was evident because of the frequency range reported ***** Pickett (2001): from 7% to 30% ***** students have been reported involved in ***** either as bully or as victim. Pickett further def*****ed *****ing as a ********** of aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, and that the bully gained incre*****ed power over the victim (Pickett, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a form of bullying.

Fin*****lly, Hirasing refined ***** definition ***** bullying, noting that it should be repeated ***** sustained and ***** it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Finally, Hirasing noted that typically the victim of the bully cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations because the results on ***** the bullies and the *****s can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common ***** ***** being bullied. Although ***** bullying has been researched *****, Hirasing found that these outcomes ***** stronger for indirect *****, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful for the aggressor; physical bullying was a w*****rning sign for later delinquency in Hiras*****g's research. Pickett's research showed that obese children are ***** *****ed, suggesting that there may be other subgroups likely ***** be targeted also.

Because bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depression, suicidal thoughts and future delinquency, it ***** important to learn more about the behavior pattern. ***** addition, Young points out that using force in *****teractions may prevent students ***** learning better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with *****s (Young, 2003). Peplar (1998) suggested that bullying ***** be part of the larger problem of violence in general. These studies suggest a need ***** clarify which children are likely to participate, ***** as bully, as victim, or ***** both; under what circumstances ***** is most likely to occur; and ***** effects bully*****g may ***** both on perpetrat***** ***** on victim.

***** STUDY

***** is ********** that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study conducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Ger*****. He used a cross-section*****l and cross-national comparison for his de*****. 2,377 students from the two


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