Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a labora*****ry experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experiment*****l design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically manipulated and a personal difference ***** controlled for, s*****ce individual difference variables, as a rule, c*****nnot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a loc*****l college or university. While this may seem ***** introduce a degree of range restriction into the study, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differing in age; that is, there ***** a possibility that the behavior may be more likely in older subjects, less likely in younger ones or vice versa. That being the case, the kind of ***** restriction suffered by the sample serves as a ***** of control on the *****ge variable. Results ***** ***** ***** could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same ***** among septuagenarians, for instance.

Further, the subject pool is divided according to gender ***** 60 volunteers from each group r*****omly assigned to either ***** the two treatments.

***** help in designing a study to understand ***** phenomenon of apparently altruistic behavior among bystanders, the following two variables are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that subjects a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referenc*****g: an independent variable. It consists of a ***** *****al response to ***** absence or presence of other *****.

The second independent variable is an individual difference variable - *****.

The m*****ipulation consists of two treatments, and manipulates xeno-referencing across ***** ***** difference *****, male or female.

In the basic experimental treatment, a research subject is taken to a room set up to resemble a street corner, with a riser representing the curb ***** t*****ped lines on the floor ***** street markings. During the experiment, two volunteer ac*****rs cross the "street" ***** opposite directions. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the ***** ***** must stoop to retrieve them. The ***** volunteer assistant pretends not ***** notice and exits the room. A***** all treatments, this aspect of the manipulation is consistent.

The ***** in treatments for the two groups arises when ***** situational variable is introduced; the presence of other bystanders. In treatment one, apart from the actors in the drama, the bystander is alone. In ***** two, the bystander is the first person stand*****g on the corner, but others are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on ***** ***** ***** two *****s and ***** males, who do not intervene or comment in any way ***** the *****.

With such a *****, the study shows three things. First, it assesses the degree to which the presence of others influences ********** intervention in the situation in a general way. Second, it shows whether males are ***** or less likely than are females to intervene in a general way. Finally, ***** shows whether the


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