Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a laboratory experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experimental design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically manipulated and a per*****nal difference ***** controlled for, since individual difference variables, as a rule, c*****nnot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a loc*****l college or university. While this may seem ***** introduce a degree ***** range restriction into the study, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differing in age; that is, there ***** a possibility that the behavior ***** be more likely in older subjects, less likely ***** younger ones or vice versa. That being the case, the kind of ***** restriction suffered by the ***** serves as a ***** of control on the age variable. Results ***** ***** ***** could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same phenomen***** among septuagenarians, ***** instance.

Further, the subject pool is divided according to gender ***** 60 ***** from each group r*****omly assigned to either ***** the two treatments.

To help in designing a study to understand ***** phenomenon of apparently altruistic behavior ***** *****s, the following two variables are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that ********** a victim to a crisis.

*****: an independent *****. It consists ***** a ***** *****al response to the absence or presence of other bystanders.

The second ***** variable is an individual difference ***** - *****.

The manipulation consists of two *****, and manipulates xeno*****referencing across ***** personal difference *****, male ***** female.

In the basic experimental treatment, a rese*****rch subject is taken to a room set up to resemble ***** street corner, with a riser representing ***** curb *****nd taped lines on the floor ***** street markings. During the experiment, two volunteer actors cross the "street" from opposite directions. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the ***** and must stoop to retrieve them. The ***** ***** assistant pretends not to notice and exits the room. Across all treatments, this aspect of the manipulati***** is consistent.

The ***** in treatments for the two *****s arises when ***** situational variable is introduced; the presence ***** o*****r bystanders. In treatment one, apart from the actors in the drama, the bystander is alone. In ***** two, the bystander is the first person stand*****g on the *****, but o*****rs are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on the curb ***** two females and two males, who do not intervene or comment in any way on the *****.

With such a manipulati*****, the study shows three things. First, it assesses the ***** to which the presence of others influences subjects' intervention in the situation ***** a gener*****l way. Second, it shows whether ***** are ***** or less likely than ***** females to intervene in a general *****. F*****ally, ***** shows whether the


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