Essay - Changing Concepts of Nature and Individual Differences in the Late...


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Changing Concepts of Nature and individual Differences in the late Middle Ages

Explore the ways in which ***** humanities reflect changing concepts of nature and ***** differences during the Late Middle Ages. Select specific works to illustrate your view of the changes that have occurred and present explanation ***** how ***** why the concepts characterize the period. Make a connection to Ancient Egypt, ***** Greece and Ancient Rome and discuss ***** changes that are evident.

***** would be too easy to generalize that the ancient Greeks and Romans saw nature as 'good' and that early Christian medieval society did not. ***** such as Hippocrates celebrated ***** need to care of the body, while Pla*****nists disdained the value of ***** material, bodily world in contrast to the heavenly sphere of the 'forms.' Roman Stoics stressed mastery of ***** body as a way of *****coming more harmonious with the natural world and strove ***** to counteract humanity's innate sense ***** balance ***** ***** but the Roman army mastered nature by constructing mighty aqueducts. **********, while ***** ascetics mortified their physical bodies, the natural world could not be rejected entirely by Christians as God had created the *****, thus the world must be good, even if humanity was fallen. In fact, the stress upon ***** relics ***** signified the miracles ***** presence of ***** saints in the ***** ***** were ***** unlike the religious significance given to the corporal ***** in Ancient Egypt. Of course, the body itself did not ascend ***** heaven in Christian belief, as it ***** according to the pagan, Egyptian belief system. However, the stress upon creating beautiful tombs to enclose the physical remains of the dead is analogous to Egyptian attitudes.

Thus, the divide in human thought regarding the individual and nature is not ***** clear as one might be tempted to assume. Particularly during the *****, as opposed ***** ***** early Middle Ages, there was a revivification in the interest shown towards ***** classical world, and learning which was part ***** a new respect for the individual and an accept*****ce of the natural sciences. For example, the early Christian philosopher Augustine wrote that although God ***** created the universe "as nebulous matter, within which lay 'primal seeds'" that "grew and developed into the ***** and its life *****ms, guided by the natural laws that ***** had laid down...investigation ***** debate about such matters was not encouraged in ***** early Middle Ages; ***** himself wrote, 'Seek not to understand that you may *****lieve, ***** believe ***** you may understand'" (Wagg*****r, 1997). But later, Aqu*****as joined the two approaches of philosophy and *****ology ***** present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as ***** nemesis of Faith...Aquinas [claimed] that both were paths to a single truth: 'God exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy and reason in general were no longer seen as hostile to faith.

***** Late Middle Ages w***** characterized by *****terest in anatomy, as is reflected ***** the ***** individuated representations of the human form in

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