Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...

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***** beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration ***** child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition of children as developmentally unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of ***** ***** little attention w***** paid to the many advances ***** cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth." (Van Wagner)

Intense interest in the field of child development really began ***** the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency in earlier psychological *****ory, especially with regard to the *****ories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on ***** development from the perspective of abnormal developmental issues. This stance has s*****ce been adjusted and ameliorated by ***** contemporary *****orists, such as Piaget and Eriksson.

While previous assessments ***** the infant or young child tended to emp*****ize the qualities of dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the ***** have impressed psychologists with his alertness to the environment ***** ***** ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, ***** realized that the child is not a "... passive recipient of *****al influences" but that development ***** in fact an active and interactive process" (McKeachie and Doyle 460).

2. Stages ***** development

***** concerns with ***** to child and adolescent development have tended ***** emphasize ***** various stages of growth ***** ***** - which includes both cognitive, ***** and ***** aspects. One of the most famous ***** the experts in this field is Jean Piaget. ***** focused on cognitive development and stated that there are a number of central ***** ***** stages. The four developmental stages that Piaget identified ***** firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth ***** two years of age. ***** stage is characterized ***** the ***** of self as an agent of actions, such as shaking a rattle to make a no*****e. (Piaget)

The Preoperational stage between the ages ***** ***** and seven is the ***** at ***** the child learns to use language and to represent objects by images and *****. At th***** stage thinking and thought processing is still very egocentric and the child is less aware of the perspective and viewpoints ***** others. (Piaget) This is a stage when the child is, "... not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by ***** takes ***** between seven and eleven years of age ***** is characterized by conceptualization and logical analys***** and categorization of the world around him or her. The F*****mal Operations st***** is ***** ***** individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically."


While these stages represent cogent insights in***** ***** development they have also been criticized for be*****g too rigid and not allowing for a more flexible view of the way that ***** develop cognition, as well as the way that *****y develop concrete operations, *****ten at a much earlier age than Pi*****t suggests.

Another view of child *****ment, which is


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