Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...


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CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

***** beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration of child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition of children as developmentally unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of ***** and little attention w***** paid to the many advances ***** cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth." (Van Wagner)

Intense interest in the field of child development really began ***** the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency in earlier psychological theory, especially ***** regard ***** the theories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on child development from the perspective of abnormal developmental issues. This stance has s*****ce been adjusted and ameliorated by ***** contemporary *****orists, such as Piaget ***** Eriksson.

While previous assessments ***** the infant or young child tended to emp*****ize the qualities of dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the infant have impressed psychologists with his alertness to the environment ***** ***** ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, ***** realized that the child is not a "... passive recipient of environmental influences" but that development ***** in fact an active and inter***** process" (McKeachie and ***** 460).

2. Stages of development

***** concerns with regard to child and adolescent development have ***** ***** emphasize the various stages of growth ***** ***** - which includes both cognitive, ***** and physical aspects. One ***** the most famous of the experts in this ***** is Jean *****. Piaget focused on ***** development and stated that there are a number ***** central developmental cognitive stages. The four developmental stages ***** Piaget identified ***** firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth ***** two years of age. This stage is characterized ***** the recognition ***** self as an agent of actions, ***** as shaking a rattle to make a no*****e. (Piaget)

***** Preoperational stage between the ages of ***** *****d seven is the ***** at ***** the child learns to use language and ***** represent objects by images and *****. At th***** stage thinking and thought processing is still very egocentric and the child is less aw***** of the perspective ***** viewpoints of others. (Piaget) This is a stage when the ***** is, "... not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by ***** takes place between seven and eleven years of age and is characterized ***** conceptualization and logical analys***** ***** categorization of the world around him or her. The F*****mal Operations st***** is when ***** individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically."

Piaget)

While these stages represent cogent insights in***** child development they have also ***** criticized for being too rigid and not allowing for a more flexible view of the way that children develop cognition, as well as the way that *****y develop concrete operations, often at a much earlier age than Pi*****t suggests.

***** view of child *****, which *****

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