Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...


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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some f*****m, so ***** Civil Rights act had an immediate effect on admissions policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with the law (Spr*****ger, 2003).

Most universities ***** actu*****y stopped practicing overt ***** discrimination prior to p*****sage of ***** CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board of Education case (1954) outlawed racial discrimination in public educational institutions, and by the time of the passage of ***** CRA all southern uni*****ersities were *****ficially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, ***** end of desegregation was far less significant (Gro*****an, 2000).

***** main effect of the ***** for all American universities ***** the emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative ***** was initially proposed ***** President Johnson in an executive order immediately following passage ***** ***** CRA. Calling on federal contractors to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, ***** initiated a policy of inclusion that has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense ***** criticism is *****ccurate, because ***** ***** positive steps to include minorities as opposed to merely refraining from discriminating against them. However ***** minorities often face systemic and economic obstacles to achievement in areas such as higher education, affirmative ***** is *****tended ***** redress the imbalance and ***** minority participation.

***** action has been the main result of ***** ***** for the world of higher education. It appears that at first universities instituted ***** action in order to avoid prosecution by the *****, but now affirmative action ***** generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates in the ***** population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding the University of Michigan's affirmative ***** policy notes ***** universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause ***** discriminating in favor of ***** students if that discrimination is designed to promote student *****. The ***** *****ed that institutions of ***** learning have an interest in achieving diversity because ***** the educational *****d intellectual benefits of having d*****ferent perspectives represented (Springer, *****).

Therefore although conservatives have criticized affirmative action as hypocritical because it discriminates with a view toward ending discrimination, it is clear that colleges and universities these days want the benefits of a more diverse student ***** and will pursue adm*****sions ***** commensurate with that diversity. Colleges often relax standards for other admissions categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when they feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began ***** a w*****y ***** prevent discrimination, now is used as a tool to promote diversity (Gurin, *****).

***** rights leg*****lation in America w***** ***** intended to protect the legal rights of African *****s ***** ***** abolition of slavery in 1865, and at ***** the ***** of affirmative ***** ***** limited to black students (Grofman, 2000). However President Johnson

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