Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...

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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some form, so ***** Civil Rights act had an immediate effect on admissi*****s policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with the law (Spr*****ger, 2003).

***** universities ***** actually stopped practicing overt ***** discrimination prior to p*****sage ***** ***** CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board of Education case (1954) outlawed racial ***** in public educational institutions, and ***** the time of the passage of ***** CRA all southern universities were officially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, ***** end of desegregation was far less significant (Gr*****man, 2000).

***** main effect of the ***** for all American universities ***** ***** emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative ***** was initially proposed by President Johnson in an executive order immediately following passage ***** the CRA. Calling on ***** contractors to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, Johnson initiated a policy of inclusion th*****t has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense that criticism is accurate, because ***** ***** positive steps to include minorities ***** opposed to merely refraining from d*****criminating against them. However ***** minorities often face systemic ***** economic obstacles to achievement in areas such as higher education, affirmative action is intended ***** redress the imbalance and ensure minority participation.

Affirmative action has been ***** main result of the ***** for the world of higher education. It appears ***** at first universities instituted ***** action in order to avoid prosecution ***** the *****, but now affirmative action ***** generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates ***** the ***** population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding ***** University of Michigan's affirmative action policy notes that universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause by discriminating in favor of ***** students if that discrimination is designed to promote student *****. The Court *****ed that institutions of ***** learning have an interest in achieving diversity because ***** the educational *****d intellectual benefits of having different perspectives represented (Springer, 2003).

Therefore although conservatives have criticized affirmative ***** as hypocritical because it discriminates ***** a view tow*****rd ending discrimination, it is clear that colleges and ***** these days want the benefits ***** a ***** diverse student ***** and will pursue admissions ***** commensurate with ***** *****. Colleges often relax standards for other ***** categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when they feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began ***** a way to prevent *****, ***** is used as a tool to ***** divers*****y (Gurin, *****).

Civil rights legislation in America was initially intended to protect the legal rights of African *****ns ***** the abolition of slavery in 1865, and at first the benefits of affirmative ***** were limited ***** black students (Gr*****man, 2000). However President John*****n


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