Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...


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Crime and Gender

Sampson and Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those bonds involve a high degree of personal investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees and family life would possess strong ties that preclude committ*****g *****s. Moreover, Sampson and ***** theory acknowledges the ways social bonds evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain *****s in a person's life. S*****mpson ***** Laub posit turning points as markers of changing ***** bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a ***** friend can each be turning points ***** alter social bonding. If bonding streng*****ns, criminal behavior ***** be deterred. ***** the bonding weakens then the individual may ***** more prone ***** committing crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in ***** bonding p*****terns. A person growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial bonds may be more likely to commit crimes th***** a ***** from a financially and socially stable environment. The Sampson ***** Laub Life-course ***** can ***** ********** gender gap in crime. Males and females may experience different turning points ***** trajectories. ***** same turning point can be construed *****ly for males versus females. For example, joining a g*****ng ***** ***** a powerful turning point but one th*****t might result in greater male versus female criminality. Males ***** also be more pressured by peers to join gangs and ***** gang-related ***** in order to susta***** the deviant social network. Males and females might also experience different ***** due to *****ir differential parental and peer social bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a greater num*****r of opportunities to commit *****. One potential reason why boys ***** exposed to a ***** number of opportunities to commit crime is their different methods of social *****. Family ties and nurturing ********** are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as ***** expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for *****. Another reason ***** boys may be exposed ***** more opportunities to commit crime is related to *****style habits ***** routine *****. Boys may be more ***** to ***** crimes ********** ***** daily routines and habits involve high-r*****k behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.

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