Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...


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Crime and Gender

Sampson ***** Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those ***** involve a high degree of personal investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees and family life would possess strong ties that preclude committing crimes. Moreover, Sampson and Laub's theory acknowledges the ways social bonds evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain times in a person's life. Sampson ***** Laub posit turning points as markers of changing social bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a new friend can each be turning points that alter social bonding. If bonding streng*****ns, criminal behavior may be deterred. ***** the bonding weakens then the individual may ***** more prone ***** ***** crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in ***** ***** patterns. A pers***** growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial ***** may be more likely to commit crimes th***** a ********** from a financially and socially stable environment. The Sampson ***** Laub Life-course theory can ***** the gender gap in crime. Males and females may experience different ***** points ***** trajectories. The same turning point ***** be construed differently for males versus females. ***** example, joining a g*****ng would ***** a powerful turning point but one ***** might result in greater male versus female criminality. Males may ***** be more pressured by peers to join gangs and commit gang-related crime in order to susta***** ***** deviant social network. Males and females might also experience different ***** due to their differential parental and peer ***** bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a ***** num*****r of opportunities to commit *****. One potential reason ***** boys ***** exposed ***** a greater number ***** opportunities to commit crime is their different methods of social *****. Family ties and nurturing ********** are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as ***** expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for *****. Another reason why boys may be exposed to more ***** ***** commit crime is related to *****style habits and routine *****haviors. Boys may be more ***** to ***** crimes because ***** daily *****s and habits involve high-risk behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.

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