Essay - Criminal Corrections Retribution, Deterrence, Incapacitation & Rehabilitation Since the Beginning...


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Criminal corrections

RETRIBUTION, DETERRENCE, INCAPACITATION & REHABILITATION

Since the beginning of recorded history, civilized society has attempted to design and create various methods aimed at decreasing the amount of criminal activity. So far, a number of these methods have proven to be effective under certain circumstances, yet they have also *****en shown to be ineffective, some more than others. In modern times, society's response to ***** behavior has included many specialized methods developed by criminologists, psychologists, law ***** legal *****ficials and by those involved in penal *****.

***** paper will examine four of the most common ***** used today for criminal corrections, also known as ***** goals of criminal law—retribution, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation. At the conclusion, one of these methods will be chosen as a represent*****tive of the best way to fight criminal behavior, ***** that will yield the highest benefits for society as a whole.

***** of **********, retribution, also known as ***** theory of retributive justice, "assumes that criminals deserve to be punished, mostly by long prison terms, as legal revenge for their harm to society." The modern approach ***** this type of punishment "considers it proper to punish because (criminals) deserve it and the state has gone to the trouble of prescribing a punishment for them" ("Fundamentals of Criminal Law," *****ternet).

***** is undoubtedly one ***** the oldest forms of criminal punishment, for ***** *****ten entails long ***** sentences based on the severity of the crime committed ***** the individual. In Western society, ***** against ***** ***** long been a custom, especially in relation to crimes like first-degree murder, kidnapping, rape or felonious assault. Also, retribution guarantees that the criminal ***** be kept *****f the streets for a prolonged period of time *****nd ***** his/her punishment is in l*****e with the will of society as far as ***** is concerned.

Second, deterrence "assumes that fearful **********, mostly involving swift restraint, harsh conditions and certain guilt, ***** prevent people from choosing to engage in crime. Specific deterrence focuses on ***** criminals, (while) general deterrence focuses on potential criminals" ("Fundamentals of Criminal *****," Internet). It has long ********** argued whether or not such a thing as deterrence truly exists and ***** such actions actually deter crime. Logically, if a person decides to commit murder in a st*****te ***** h***** the death penalty, he/she may think twice about committing the crime, unless it happens ***** be a "spur of the moment" event or due to "the p*****ssion ***** the moment" (Clear, 126).

Many criminologists agree ***** ***** assessment that deterrence does not exist, f***** they declare that "criminals... do not calculate the risk of being caught ***** *****. They are impulsive or opportunists or driven to crime by circumstances" ("Incapac*****ation and Deterrence," *****). Certainly, as compared to *****, deterrence is a very slippery be*****t, for it has not been adequately ***** by any state or federal agency that ***** ***** works unless, of course, the death ***** is carried out, ***** ***** ultimate deterrent.

*****, ***** is the legal

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