Essay - Disparities in the Court System: Sentencing of African Americans and...


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DISPARITIES IN THE COURT SYSTEM: SENTENC*****G OF AFRICAN AMERICANS AND HISPANICS

RESEARCH DESIGN

***** WHERE RESEARCH IS TO BE CONDUCTED

The research proposed in this document is to take place ***** several selected jurisdictions on calls for "service, arrests, and failure to arrest, prosecutions and failures ***** prosecute and other data relevant to determining disparity prior to sentencing toward the objective of a statistical determination of factors that affect the decision to incarcerate, including ***** charges levied against the defendant and the length ***** ***** sentence imposed upon the defendant. The primary data systems in most states for collection of in*****mation on offenders are Department of Corrections *****fender-tracking information systems and the court ***** case management systems database.

INDEPENDENT ***** DEPENDENT VARIABLES

1. Dependent variable

The dependent variable in this study will be ***** race/ethnicity of the offender that has been ********** for a crime.

2. Independent Variables

Independent ********** in ***** study include those as follows:

Sentence Length;

***** crime committed;

The race of the victim (if any)

***** gender of the *****

The gender ***** the victim (***** any)

The age of ***** *****fender

The age of the victim

***** injury to ***** victim

Prior convictions

Seriousness of disposition

Total current *****

On probation

Rele*****ed on b*****d

Private attorney

***** plea

State/County/City of conviction

Offense type

Homicide

*****

Robbery

Assault

Classification of Habitual Offender Assigned

***** COLLECTION METHOD

1. Analysis of Data

The work of Mueller, Connelly, and Pingel entitled: "Starting Points: The State ***** National Landscape" states: "In theory there ***** two types of factors that contribute to racial disparity: (1) differential participation (or involvement) in criminal activity; and (2) differential treatment by the ***** justice systems and processes." (2004) According to Mueller, Connelly and Pingel (2004) Differential ***** "describes whether, and how different demographic groups differ in terms of the percentage f *****ir members who commit crimes." On the other hand, *****ential treatment describes "bias-whether intentional or overt, or circumstantial - re*****lected in the ways ***** actors in the crim*****al justice system (police, prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges) treat subjects of different ***** groups." (*****, Connelley, and Pingel, 2004) Some researchers have attempted to quantify the difference between differential involvement and differential treatment. Blumstein (**********) states calculations "that 80 percent of ***** disproportionality in imprisonment is explained ***** differential participation by minority groups in criminal activity." (Mueller, Connelley, ***** Pingel, 2004) Yet Crutchfield, Bridges and Pitchford report that ***** researchers "have since refined the data ***** methods employed to yield estimates of 66%." (*****, Connelley, and Pingel, *****) However, it is held by Mueller, Connelley and Pingel that in order for research to be valid, that both of these ***** must be taken into account. The ***** of Oliver (2004) ***** related in which comparisons of incarceration rates and sentence lengths were used and subdivided ***** race and type of crime to describe how observed racial disparity stems from 'factors' that include a combin*****tion of bias, real *****s in serious *****, social and political conditions.' Whether attributed

. . . . [END OF RESEARCH PAPER PREVIEW]

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