Essay - Eastern Religion Part One Summary of the History of Hinduism...


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Eastern Religion

Part One

Summary of the History ***** Hinduism and Buddhism

Hinduism

***** history of Hinduism, according to Kinsley (45), dates back to the Indus Valley in India, with the Indo-Aryan people, or Vedas, around 1500 B.C.E. (before the Christian era). This period was known as "The Formative Period" - and the Vedas created four key volumes of literature (Sambitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads) which is believed ***** contain the moral roots of what is today ***** as Hindu*****m. Interestingly, in one ***** the early Sambitas texts, a "heroic visionary figure and poet" (K*****sley 45) named "rishi" experienced "directly" the "gods and powers" of the Vedic world, including ***** Vedic god Agni (representing fire and heat). The ***** also reportedly drank "soma" - probably a h*****llucinogenic mushroom ***** and thus were "transported" to the "realm of the *****s."

***** ***** Speculative Period (800 - 400 B.C.E.), the Upanishads writings dominated Vedic *****. The Upanishads ***** ***** first call in Hinduism for a "quest ***** liberation" (Kinsley 46) from the world, ***** also the first form of Yoga emerged from those writings.

In the Epic and Classical Periods (***** B.C.E. - 600 C.E.) ***** two great Hindu epics (the Mahabharata ***** the Ramayana) were written. The writings reflected ***** "tension" between the desire ***** "uphold" world order on *****e hand, and on ***** other *****, the desire to isolate a person from society ***** "*****chieve individual *****," ***** to Kinsley. During this *****, ***** Indo-Aryans settled into communities, abandoning their nomadic ways.

In the Medieval Period (600 - 1***** C.E.) *****re were a number of temples built, in conjunction with the rise of the devotional movement. Deities ***** part of the temples, and they represented Puranas, or "stories ***** old" (K*****sley 48). And in the Modern Period of Hinduism (1800 to present), Islam moved into India, as did the Europeans (Britain), and the original purity ***** Hinduism was somewhat under attack and watered down. So, as a result of that, there w***** a movement to revive some of the ancient customs. *****n, some years later, G*****hi interpreted the Gita teachings as a nonviolent pathway to the expression of truth. Also, Transcendental Meditation and Krishna Consciousness became important tools for ***** Hindus to return ***** their early traditions, and to interest the Western world in the H*****du spiritual search for truth ***** personal identity.

*****

The ********** prince who was to become known as a Buddha was originally called Siddhartha Gautama. He lived 2500 years ago (roughly 566 ***** *****6 B.C.E.), although scholars differ on exactly when he *****, and they don't agree on many ***** the historical data of his life and times. But, according to Lopez (101), the original Buddha achieved "enlightenment" in an ********** - or, at least in a single night of meditation - ***** afterward began putting forth ***** "***** noble truths" (Lopez 102). Buddha reportedly died at the age of 80, passing in***** nirvana. When he passed away, he left relics with his followers, called

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