Essay - Eastern Religion Part One Summary of the History of Hinduism...


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Eastern Religion

Part One

Summary of the History of Hinduism and Buddhism

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The history of Hinduism, according to Kinsley (45), dates back to the Indus Valley in India, with the Indo-Aryan people, or Vedas, around 1500 B.C.E. (bef*****e the Christian era). This period was known as "The Formative Period" - and the Vedas created four key volumes ***** literature (Sambitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas ***** Upanishads) which is believed to contain the moral roots of what is today ***** as Hindu*****m. Interestingly, in one of the early Sambitas texts, a "heroic visionary figure and poet" (***** 45) named "rishi" experienced "directly" the "gods and powers" ***** the Vedic world, *****cluding ***** Vedic god Agni (representing fire and heat). The rishi also reportedly drank "soma" - probably a hallucinogenic mushroom ***** ***** thus were "transported" to the "realm of the gods."

***** ***** Speculative Period (800 - 400 B.C.E.), the Upanishads writings dominated Vedic literature. The Upanishads were the first call in Hinduism for a "quest for liberation" (Kinsley 46) from the world, and ***** the first form of Yoga emerged from those writings.

In the Epic ***** Classical Periods (***** B.C.E. - 600 C.E.) ***** two great Hindu epics (the Mahabharata and the Ramayana) ***** written. ***** writings reflected ***** "tension" between the desire ***** "uphold" world order on *****e hand, and on ***** other *****, the desire to isolate a person from society to "achieve individual *****," ***** to Kinsley. During this *****, ***** *****s settled into communities, abandoning their nomadic ways.

In the Medieval Period (***** - 1800 C.E.) there were a number of temples built, in conjunction with the rise of the devotional movement. Deities ***** part of the *****, and they represented Puranas, or "stories of old" (Kinsley 48). And in the Modern ***** of Hinduism (1800 to present), Islam moved into India, as did the Europeans (Britain), and the original purity of Hinduism was somewhat under attack and watered down. So, as a result ***** that, there ***** a movement to revive some of the ancient customs. Then, some years later, G*****hi interpreted the Gita teachings ***** a nonviolent p*****thway to the expression ***** truth. Also, Transcendental Meditation and Krishna Consciousness became important tools for ***** Hindus to return to ***** ***** traditions, and ***** interest the Western ***** in the Hindu spiritual search for truth and personal identity.

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The Indian prince who was to become known as a Buddh***** was *****ly called Siddhartha Gautama. He lived 2500 years ago (roughly 566 - 486 B.C.E.), although scholars differ on exactly when he lived, and ***** d*****'t agree on many of the historical data of his life and times. But, according to Lopez (101), the original Buddha achieved "enlightenment" in an ********** - or, at least in a single night of meditation - and afterward began putting forth ***** "four noble truths" (Lopez 102). Buddha reportedly died at the age of 80, passing in***** nirvana. When he passed away, he left relics ***** his followers, called

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