Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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***** Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

***** Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that ***** is a biological or inborn quality that people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea ***** people ***** born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting ***** theories is that men and woman are different anatomically or physically and theref*****e exhibit ***** traits or tendencies that compr*****e gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create *****ir identity based on physiological ***** in the body (*****, 45).

Kimmel points out that biological theorists suggest that biology ***** mankind the "blocks" or foundation *****y need to build create and f*****m their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According ***** biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" ***** man's biology thus inborn or biological differences exist in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

***** *****ories of *****

***** theories suggest that gender differences result from psychological or ********** differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological theorists tend to ***** or argue that it is individual person's interpretations ***** life ***** one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine ***** feminine that ********** gender differences (Kimmel, 2000).

Kimmel c*****es Freud as a leading psychological theorist suggesting that gender is something ***** people shape and form by "interacting" ***** their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). Psychological theor*****ts would also argue that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter ***** *****sociated gender *****.

Cross Cultural Perspective and Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective ***** gender theory suggests ***** the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least that is what Kimmel suggests. Kimmel cites Gilbert Herdt to prove th***** *****eory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how ***** can learn gender ***** such as homosexuality and then revert ***** another gender identity once they are grown adults (*****, 62).

***** further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural ***** in customs ***** sexuality practi***** that can impact gender identity more so than ***** or psychological constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, *****). The biological model is negated as Herdt shows ***** cultural ***** than ***** *****encies can influence ***** gender identity. ***** theories are not capable ***** adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental interpretations differ a***** ***** boundaries, hence ***** theories ***** also negated (Kimmel, 2000).

Socially Constructed Gender Theories and ***** as a Social Institution

Kimmel supports the notion that ***** is a social institution, or something that is socially constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted *****ing cultures in New Guinea *****d tribal members interpretation of ********** role ***** masculine and feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other the*****ists suggest that mankind can influence one ***** to behave in a gender specific m*****nner based on ***** constructed factors rather than biological or psychological imperatives. The socially constructed theory ***** that mankind is capable of creating their own gender identity ***** reality ***** identifying with certain cultural norms, values


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