Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...


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Hinduism

Manusmriti

In the Vedic conception of ***** world, the attributions of men and women inside the family and in the society differ to the greatest extent. According ***** the Laws ***** Manu, men have to respect the gods and various religious regulations. The women's main role however is ***** obey the male world: *****ir fathers in the young age, their husbands once they are given into marri***** and even their sons when they have reached an old age.

Thus, the basic principle that guides the division between the male and the female ***** is independence: in ***** Vedic world, the woman is not allowed to act independently. The text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated that any woman of any age must obey her husb***** and ***** other men around her. She ***** forbidden thus to act independently, not only in ***** but ***** ***** own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an *****d one, nothing must be done independently, ***** in her own *****."

148. In childhood a fem*****le must be subject to her fat*****, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead ***** her *****; a ***** must never be **********." The woman ***** made to obey only, as long ***** she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him to whom her father may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall ***** as long as he *****, and when he is dead, she must not insult (his memory)." It ***** be noted ***** that the Laws ***** Manu were ***** as a guide on proper c*****duct *****nd the duties of every individual according ***** ***** social class that they be*****ed to. The ***** of ***** hierarchy is therefore a central concept of Hinduism, and it pervades all the ***** teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise th*****t ***** women as well are inscribed in a certain social category that is considered to be inferior to that of men. The condition ***** the ***** is obviously degrading in the ancient Indian society. Thus, she is never honored in any way for her own qualities or virtues, ***** only if she knows how ***** obey ***** please ***** husband ***** all his wi*****s. Moreover, the wife must ***** her husband even when the latter is nei*****r virtuous, nor faithful to her and ***** children: "154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good *****, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by ***** ***** wife." ***** justification that the laws offer for this unjust position attributed to ***** is ***** the women are natur*****y inclined to ***** heartless and unfaithful to their *****: "15. Through ***** passion ***** men, through their mutable temper, through their natural *****ness, they be***** disloyal towards their *****s, however carefully they may be guarded in this (*****)." The *****feriority

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