Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...

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***** cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell *****emia). After hemoglobin molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red ***** cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them to squeeze through small blood vessels. As a result, they stack up and cause blockages ***** deprive organs ***** tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

Sickle cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic ***** profile: Sickle cell anemia). It is the most common among people whose ances*****rs come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Med*****erranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and *****aly. In ***** Unites States, it ***** around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come ***** Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births ***** one ***** every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American births. About two million Americans, or one in twelve African Americans, carry the sickle ***** tra*****.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromo***** pairs with one of each pair ********** from the father, and ***** from the mother (How does ***** cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a parent ***** child occurs only rarely. Most likely, sickle ***** ***** depends on *****herited *****s from parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired or o*****rwise *****nsmitted. ***** disease is caused by a ch*****nge in a s*****gle amino acid difference in the beta chain of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, and balancing selection).

*****dividuals with two copies ***** the sickle form of the gene have sickle ***** anemia (Malaria, sickle cell anemia and balancing *****). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one normal and one mutant copy of ***** sickle gene -- appear normal and do not manifest the disease except under very stressful conditions. However, ********** individuals are carriers of the sickle ***** trait. Approximately ten percent of African Americans are carriers. In Africa and India, the frequencies of the disease and carriers are even higher de ***** protection against malaria that occurred for ***** ***** ***** cell trait discussed later in this paper.

Beta glob***** is a major component of adult hemoglobin ***** its gene is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (Ashley-Koch, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of these variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle cell disease. The most influential risk factor for disease severity is ge*****ype (Sickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who are homozygous for the sickle beta globin gene (b S) have sickle cell anemia (SS disease). ***** ***** sickle *****eta thalassemia have a b S gene and a gene ***** beta thalassemia. If no ***** globin is produced by the beta thalassemia gene, the individual has ********** o thalassemia (Sb o thal). If some normal beta globin is produced by the thalassemia *****, ***** individual has Sb + thalassemia (***** + thal). In the case ***** hemo*****


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