Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...

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Learning and Memory

In the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical conditioning or operant conditioning, the*****ies developed by Ivan Pavlov and BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** ***** is posited ***** be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes event B) (Santrock, 2000:188). Th***** definition also operates in operant conditioning, wherein an individual wherein "consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurrence" (195). Another school ***** thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a major role. In cognitive *****, learning occurs because of the presence ***** operation of "***** maps" within an *****. These 'cognitive *****' are defined as ***** "organism's mental representation of ***** structure ***** physical space" (208). This concept represents learning as a relationship between the mind of the individual and his or her ***** environment. Learning takes place in his or her interaction with the environment, and through the cognitive maps, s/he was able to retain these ***** and recall them as ***** of his or her *****.

This, in effect, l*****ks learning to mem*****y. Memory is likened to the idea ***** cognitive maps, or at least the way cognitive maps operate in ***** mind of the individual. Memory is described as processing information through encoding (getting information and memory), storage (********** information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). These processes ***** the ***** goes through to create ***** retain memory ***** highly related to the *****ories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; ***** conditioning described learning as ***** consequences in behavior of the person, ***** also to the ***** of an event ********** its consequences; and lastly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped out and retain in his/her m*****d.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.


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