Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...

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Learning and Memory

***** the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, theories developed by Ivan Pavlov ***** BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by classical conditioning is posited ***** be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes event B) (Santrock, 2000:188). This definition also operates in operant conditioning, ***** an ***** wherein "consequences of behavior produce changes in ***** probability of the behavior's occurrence" (195). Another school of thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a major role. In cognitive *****, learning occurs because of the presence and operation of "***** maps" within an individual. These 'cognitive *****' are defined ***** ***** "organism's mental representation of ***** structure of physical space" (208). This concept represents learning as a rel*****tionship between the mind of the individual ***** his or her ***** environment. Learning takes place in his or her interaction with the environment, and through the cognitive maps, s/he was able to retain these ***** and recall them as ***** of ***** or her learning.

This, in effect, l*****ks learning to mem*****y. Memory is likened ***** the idea ***** cognitive maps, or at le*****t ***** way cognitive ***** operate in the ***** of the individual. Memory is described as processing information ***** encoding (getting information and memory), storage (*****ing ***** over time), and retrieval (taking information out ***** storage) (219). ***** processes that the individual goes through to create ***** retain ***** ***** highly ***** to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the *****; ***** conditioning described learning as ***** consequences in behavior of the person, linked also ***** the memory of an event and its consequences; and l*****tly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns ***** memories mapped out and retain in his/her mind.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.


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