Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...


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Four Learning Theories

Introduction

Behavioral ***** Theory

***** processing theory

Social cognitive theory

***** learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist ***** applies best to teaching for the construction trades

*****

Bibliography

Introduction

This paper covers four learning theories and the descriptors which are associated with each. The ***** will discuss behavioral learning *****ory (operant conditioning), in*****mation processing theory, social cognitive *****, and constructivist learning theory. Each section will ***** the theory, identify its strengths and weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building tr*****des t*****ing environment. After a review ***** the above *****, the ***** will advance the case that constructivist ***** theory best fits the class and ***** author's personal teaching style.

Behavioral Learning Theory

Behavioral learning theory originated with the work of BF Skinner and Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate ***** theory ***** operant conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (cognitive behavioral therapy) and phobias, ***** improving learning performance.

The theory advanced by Skinner is that one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due to learning from stimuli ***** occur in the environment. ***** found that reinforcing responses to behavior can result in learning, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of behavioral learning *****ory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear of flying. The first element in behavioral learning is ***** analyze the rational side of the phobia—i.e. why is it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed about the lack ***** control of the ********** fate? When faced ***** the ***** explanation that "planes don't crash," and "you are safer in a plane than ***** an automobile," the ***** realizes on a rati*****al basis ***** the fear of flying is ungrounded in reason.

***** next p*****e is operant *****. In many cases, this takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on the ground) ***** have a pleasant discussi*****. This associates "*****" and "sitting in an airpl*****e," and teaches the ***** that his/her ***** is *****. Once the anxiety has *****en averted in ***** step, ***** client may then be asked ***** take a short ***** *****, during the flight, eng*****ge in a pleasant activity (talking, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the ***** is met by a pleasant *****. This 'operant conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new p*****radigm to the client.

***** advantages of operant conditioning for learning ***** as follows:

*****. It is goal-oriented. That is, the client is able to get to the heart ***** a problem very quickly, and ***** treat it in a focused manner.

*****. It ***** rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist ***** get to the issue with ***** client fairly quickly.

3. It can ***** performed ***** people who may not have good reading or verbal skills, such ***** children. That is because

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