# Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?

MANIPULATIVES

WHAT? WHY? HOW?

OBJECTIVE

***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This ***** will explore the historical perspective, the effects on education, the supporting theories, and ***** research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits of using algebra tiles.

INTRODUCTION

One of ***** hottest topics among mathematics educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas ***** instruction of ***** ***** are so helpful with the special needs ***** students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even ***** are gaining new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.

***** ARE MATH MANIPULATIVES?

***** manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects ***** one ***** able to manipulative that assists the individual in completion of math operations such as add*****g, subtracting, multiplying, division, ***** *****n on ***** more complicated operations such ***** Algebra. One ***** the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and *****ly were used by merchants for calculation purposes. The ***** preceded the inventions of numbers used for counting ***** continually evolved in its appearance s*****ce ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in ***** figure below labeled Figure 1 and is the copy of a cover of ***** manual ***** Lee Kai-chen published in *****958 and has 4 decks *****in its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both division and multiplication ***** ***** modified version ***** the abacus ***** ***** squ***** roots of numbers and cubic ***** of numbers are much easier determined using this board.

Modified Version of Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** also include objects ***** as calculators, the slide-rule and compasses ***** in the Geometrical mathematics.

*****. 'WHY' USE ***** MANIPULATIVE?

The work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...two-thirds of Ameri*****s loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through the twelfth grade in school they ***** "...do*****g po*****er in mathematics as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner and Quinn, 2001) For this reason, it is critical ***** the mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in ***** **********. This is most particularly so in ***** highly technological society for practical ***** and to develop more positive d*****positions toward mathematics learning. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb and Alsina, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (*****)***** and Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior is profoundly or subtly affected by teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and *****, 1998)

Thompson (1984) states findings ***** the opinions and belief of the teacher impact their instructional practice and may be because of ***** teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and again emphasizes the need for *****s to reform education in promoting mathematics instruction

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