Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

I. Executive Summary

The development of Organic ***** Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is a m*****jor technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in providing digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, ***** costs less to manufacture. ***** are now being used in consumer electronics such as cellular phones, personal ***** organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these can be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), and in military applications. The technology looks very promising, ***** may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in displaying bright and crisp digital images.

II. Introduction to topic

OLEDs differ from traditional LCDs ***** LEDs mainly because they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (***** part that emits light). ***** ***** of organic materials instead of liquid crystals is much *****. The fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because of this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used ***** a wide range ***** products. O***** operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. Th***** involves ***** use ***** electric current on a material in order to stimulate electr*****s and produce light. Like *****, ***** emissive material is still semiconductor but an org*****ic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over LCDs is the absence ***** a back*****. LCDs require a constant light source that is selectively blocked in ***** to produce images. OLEDs, on the other h*****, do not ***** a backlight but instead selectively activates light on the emissive *****. This allows OLEDs to use less ***** (about 20% less than LCDs) and last l*****ger on battery-powered devices ***** as cellular phones and digital cameras. Also, OLEDs ***** not require diffusers and polarizers that are used by LCDs.

III. History / Background

***** were first developed ***** Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented ***** 1987. Through a partnership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is manufactured through the condensation of organic materials on a sheet inside a v*****cuum. ***** process is expensive and in*****.

Another company ***** Cambridge ***** Technologies (CDT) ***** another approach in 1996 ***** called their product LEP (Light Emitting Polymer). Instead of creating sheets by condensation of ***** inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers using ***** same technology used ***** commercial inkjet printers. Th***** process proved ***** be cheap and flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as compared to "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (Organic Light-***** Diode, *****05). Because of the patents held by ***** companies, the ***** development and improvement of OLEDs is still slow ***** restricted due to licensing issues.

OLED ***** is very promising, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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