Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

*****. Executive Summary

The development of Organic Light Emitting *****s (OLEDs) is a m*****jor technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in provid*****g digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, and costs less to manufacture. ***** are now being used in ********** electronics such as cellular phones, personal digital organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these ***** be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), ***** in military applications. The technology looks very promising, and may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in displaying bright and crisp digital images.

II. Introduction ***** topic

OLEDs differ from traditional LCDs and LEDs mainly beca*****e they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (the part that emits light). The ***** of organic materials instead ***** liquid crystals is much cheaper. The fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because of this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used ***** a wide range ***** products. O***** operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. This involves the use ***** electric current on a material in order to stimulate electr*****s and produce *****. Like *****, The emissive material is still semiconductor but an organic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over LCDs ***** the absence of a b*****cklight. LCDs require a const*****nt light source that is selectively blocked in order to produce images. OLEDs, on the other h*****, do not ***** a backlight but instead selectively activates light ***** the ***** layer. This allows OLEDs ***** use less power (about 20% less ***** *****) and last longer on battery-powered devices such as cellular ph*****s and ***** cameras. Also, OLEDs do not require diffusers and polarizers that are ***** ***** LCDs.

*****. History / Background

***** were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented in 1987. Through a *****nership with S*****nyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is m*****ufactured through the condensation of organic ***** on a sheet inside a vacuum. Th***** process is expensive ***** inflexible.

An***** company called Cambridge D*****play Technologies (CDT) used a*****her approach in 1996 and ***** their product LEP (Light Emitt*****g Polymer). Instead of creating sheets by c*****densation of molecules inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers ***** the same technology used ***** commercial inkjet *****. This process proved to be cheap and flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as compared ***** "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (***** Light-Emitting Diode, 2005). Because of the patents held by ***** companies, the commercial ***** and improvement ***** OLEDs is still slow ***** restricted due to licensing issues.

OLED technology is very promising, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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